Questions tagged [pharmacology]

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2
votes
1answer
70 views

How are drugs distributed in regards to bone marrow?

I know that as volumes of distribution increase they correspond to the blood, then the vascular rich group (heart, kidneys, liver, brain if BBB permeable), then muscle then adipose. But things like ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

What constitutes FDA's First in Class designation for New Molecular Entities?

What constitutes a First in Class designation for new molecular entities? I've seen this term on FDA documents, as well as in databases (Chembl for example), but I was curious if there are any set ...
-1
votes
1answer
25 views

Could a vaccine injecting B cells theoretically work?

So I was in the car riding to school today when I was struck with genius. Each B cell is attuned to a different pathogen, am I correct? By that logic, would a vaccine injecting a dose of B cells ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

Do biologists use the word “solubilize” to mean “dissolve”?

I work with biologists who often use the word "solubilize" to mean "dissolve". Is this correct usage? I keep correcting them (I'm not a biologist, but I help with writing), and we'...
1
vote
1answer
142 views

Is it true that ethanol can have some positive effects?

I recently was reading this inforgrafics about excessive alcohol use. It is written: No one should begin drinking or drink more frequently based on potential health benefits I am surprised. Is ...
4
votes
1answer
52 views

Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

How to evaluate long-term safety of biological interventions? [migrated]

I'm wondering how to go about evaluating the long term effects of a biological intervention, like a new therapeutic. There is emergent evidence that common medications like NSAIDs or anticholinergics ...
35
votes
1answer
5k views

Are drugs made bitter artificially to prevent being mistaken for candy?

All drugs I remember tasting (with the notable exception of Aspirin) have bitter taste. Is the taste due to the active substance, or is a bittering agent added to them, perhaps to prevent overdose? ...
3
votes
1answer
137 views

Why is Ibuprofen contraindicated in asthma patients?

So yesterday a patient showed up at the clinic with a massive swelling in his left face region. Upon examination it was found to be due to infected first premolar. Dentist recommended him to get the ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

How does noradrenaline result in rise of systolic blood pressure even when the cardiac output is decreasing?

Systolic blood pressure[SBP] depends on the cardiac output. When Nor adrenaline is given there is vasoconstriction due to alpha-1 action on blood vessel, vasoconstriction results in increased total ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Does GABA enhance or inhibit negative effects of glutamate? [closed]

A study on NCBI studied the correlation between a depressive mood and chronic pain. I researched this because today I noticed unusual emotional volatility as a result of 2 days of acute back pain ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Scatchard Plots and Total Receptor Concentration

Im having trouble understanding Scatchard plots. Y Axis = Bound/Free Ligand X Axis = Bound Ligand The graph has a negative slope. Why when there is almost no Bound (Y axis = 0) do we get a high ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

How exactly does chemotherapy cause anemia?

I’ve been trying to figure this out for the past few hours but I still can’t find something as in depth as I’m looking for. So far all I’ve found is that chemo drugs kill bone marrow cells and some ...
3
votes
2answers
134 views

How does steroid dependence occur?

I have seen on the internet that prolonged steriod treatment can result in the development of steroid drug tolerance leading to decreased hormone secretion. In turn this may lead to drug dependence, ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

What degree of influence do SNPs have on activity of ligands at receptors?

I know that generally, evolution tends to evolve towards having some wiggle room in respect to effect of polymorphisms on binding of endogenous ligands, but with synthetic ligands, especially modern ...
5
votes
3answers
468 views

Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

I know the answer is no. But what then explains the name of these receptors being specific to Cannabinoid found in cannabis? Aren't Cannabinoid receptors exclusive to Cannabinoid? Why are they named ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Area under the curve in a drug concentration curve

I am not from a background on pharamacokinetics and trying to learn some concepts. I noticed that the definition for AUC involve the first 24 hours. For example in here AUC is defined as "the area ...
2
votes
1answer
229 views

Is there a Pharmacology Textbook that Satisfies the Conditions listed in the Body of this Question? [closed]

The conditions are: As extensive and explanatory as Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Twelfth Edition With additional extensive and thoroughly explanatory information on ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Can severe vasoconstriction increase systolic blood pressure?

I know that, vasoconstriction results in increased total peripheral resistance which is responsible for the rise in diastolic blood pressure. Also, cardiac output is responsible for the systolic blood ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Why is prothrombin time used to monitor warfarin and not activated partial thromboplastin time?

Warfarin is said to change prothrombin time (PT) but not activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (for practical purposes at least anyways, not really sure). But looking at the mechanism of action ...
8
votes
1answer
6k views

How does lactulose cause the removal of ammonia from the colon?

Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body. [Source]...
3
votes
1answer
119 views

How did sulfasalazine become a disease-modifying treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?

Sulfasalazine has been around for about fifty years, starting as an antibiotic. More recently it is used as a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD, see also arthritis.org). While biologics (...
1
vote
1answer
143 views

How did the “serendipitous rediscovery” of Sulfasalazine as an antirheumatic agent after 30 years happen?

This excellent answer describes the history of the ~50 year old drug Sulfasalazine, and it's worthwhile to take a moment and read through the answer now. Roughly speaking the drug is an antibiotic ...
5
votes
2answers
222 views

Why is chemotherapy-related hair loss temporary?

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells by targeting rapidly growing cells. That is why patients lose hair as well. Why is chemotherapy-related hair loss temporary? The doctors say it is because healthy cells ...
31
votes
2answers
32k views

If a human takes antibiotics are all bacteria in the body killed?

From my basic understanding, antibiotics kill living things, bacteria for example. Do the antibiotics consumed by a human-being distinguish between what they kill? Or do they just kill every bacteria ...
10
votes
3answers
10k views

Is it better to take a half dose of paracetamol and a half dose of ibuprofen together rather than a full dose of either?

Recently, I heard on this health-related radio programme that it was better to take a half dose of paracetamol and a half dose of ibuprofen together, rather than the full dose of either one, for acute ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Is there an antidote for caffeine, e.g. as a supplicant for caffeine-intolerant persons?

First, let me state I'm not talking about a medical emergency. No one is in a serious condition. My girlfriend is, we think, caffeine-intolerant. She loves the smell of coffee and the habit of coffee ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

What is “irrational” drug/molecule design?

Both the papers "Directed evolution: the 'rational' basis for 'irrational' design" by Tobin et al. and "Rational and 'Irrational' Design of Proteins and Their Use in Biotechnology" ...
4
votes
2answers
141 views

Compatibility drugs info

Let's suppose that I take a DrugA for ProblemA and then I got this ProblemB and started to take DrugB. Are there general rules I can look up to figure out whether I can take DrugA & DrugB ...
4
votes
1answer
199 views

Can LSD in very small amounts increase mental ability?

Can one take a small amount of LSD(acid) and not trip but still benefit from the intended purpose? It was said the military invented it for extra sensory abilities. It has also been said it could ...
4
votes
1answer
54 views

Why do the calicheamicins bind to DNA at the minor, rather than the major, groove?

I am trying to understand why some drugs bind only to the minor groove and not to the major groove. More specifically, I am interested in calicheamicins. They target DNA and cause strand scission. ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Same target receptor different mechanism of action?

If different drugs have the same receptor as a target, does that imply that they have the same mechanism of action?
0
votes
1answer
119 views

Why is ACE2 not used as drug against covid? [closed]

Can ACE2 be produced and used as drug against covid? I read it is the receptor molecule. If it is in the organism the virus should bind to it and could not attack cells anymore? Is that right?
1
vote
0answers
16 views

how does acetic acid induce pain?

how does acetic acid induce pain? I am finding the whole mechanism of it but cannot find any papers or writings. please help. If you have links that would be nice too.
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Is this trial that reversed aging in humans worth taking seriously?

In September 2019 Fahy et al. published results from the TRIIM (Thymus Regeneration, Immunorestoration, and Insulin Mitigation) trial. Their stated goals were to investigate whether they could restore ...
1
vote
1answer
516 views

Why don't anti-viral drugs like “Acyclovir” work against coronaviruses?

I've always used Acyclovir to treat cold sores, why doesn't it work on other viruses? How do coronaviruses differ from herpesviruses?
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Why does plasma protein saturation of a drug increase its volume of distribution and clearance rate?

I need help understanding this statement from Goodman and Gilman's "The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics:" For a drug that is metabolized by the liver with a low intrinsic clearance-...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Difference between rate of elimination and clearance? [closed]

I honesty don't get the difference. I need a simple explanation so that I can grasp it. Rate of elimination is
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Does the zeta potential of a nanoparticle generally take into account ligand charge?

For example, if I had a quantum dot nanoparticle with conjugated linker peptides capped with polyarginine tracts. Would the localization of negative charge from arginine change the zeta potential ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Is ampicillin a good choice of drug to treat a urinary tract infection caused by E.coli

Is ampicillin a good choice of drug to treat a urinary tract infection (cystitis) caused by E.coli? How does the environment of the urinary tract effect its ability to treat the bacteria. When ...
3
votes
1answer
94 views

Are omeprazole and other members estrogenic and/or antiandrenergic?

As of 2020, omeprazole is a widely used OTC medicine for various types of acute heartburn and some other gastrointestinal disorders. Almost every time I read about it I read that one of the possible ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

What disposition means in the context of registering clinical studies?

I was diving into the AACT database, and in the studies table I had noticed some columns containing the term disposition such as: ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Does the composition of a meal play a big, or small, role in food's thermogenic effect on the body?

Reading in: "Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk / Calories: Total Macronutrient Intake, Energy Expenditure, and Net Energy Stores" [NCBI Resources]: "The thermogenic ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Combining MAOIs with Stimulants [closed]

Is it dangerous to combine MAOIs with stimulants? According to wikpedia, Parnate, for example, "leads to an increase in the availability of monoamines, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, ...
3
votes
3answers
4k views

Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

For this reason "insulin insensitivity", or a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 – the cells are unable to take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (an ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

How exactly can a drug affecting squalene epoxidase affect the methylation cycle, necessitating the use of 5-MTHF?

I found a case report in which the authors say that Terbinafine might have possibly affected the methylation cycle in a patient, necessitating the prescription of 5-methylfolate to correct the ...
15
votes
1answer
3k views

How does paracetamol work?

Hinz et al. 2008 found that COX-2 may be inhibited by paracetamol, and this is attributed to it's analgesic and antipyretic properties. However, there are other more recent claims from Andersson et al....
2
votes
0answers
26 views

A question about dicumarol

I know that dicumarol was discovered in moldy sweet clover as it caused hemorrhage in cattles, but if someone had thromboembolic disorders causing uncontrolled thrombosis,would it be fine to eat moldy ...
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Why is therapeutic index a ratio instead of an interval?

The therapeutic index of a drug is defined as its toxic dose ($TD_{50}$) divided by its effective dose ($ED_{50}$). Why is it defined as a ratio rather than the difference $TD_{50} - ED_{50}$? For ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Is PrEP used for anything other than HIV?

In the field of HIV prevention, PrEP is an abbreviation of pre-exposure prophylaxis. This is a very generic term. Are any diseases other than HIV prevented using a similar approach? Do they use the ...

1
2 3 4 5
8