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Questions tagged [pharmacology]

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.

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What mechanism causes the presence of photosensitizers in mitochondria to change membrane ionic currents?

In the original question, the article in question was talking about specifically about this compound, Benzoporphyrin: Characterization of Perturbing Actions by Verteporfin, a Benzoporphyrin ...
C-Consciousness's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
333 views

How does hypokalemia antagonize lidocaine's effect?

I was reading the lidocaine user's manual for dentistry use and according to it and I quote "Lidocaine in concomitant use with acetazolamide, thiazides and loop acting diuretics. The hypokalemia (...
Quique's user avatar
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Can drugs be administered through penis?

I was reading this paper on routes of drug administration and noticed that it mentioned intravaginal drug administration. It looks like this is a good way to take drugs because there are a lot of ...
imrobert's user avatar
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What are necessary parameters for a tissue scaffold to be biodegradable?`

I am a mechanical engineer with little biological experience, but I have recently been looking at tissue scaffoldings. My current understanding is as follows, but may be flawed. I would appreciate ...
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If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
InquilineKea's user avatar
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3 votes
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128 views

How does taking drugs speed up the development of drug resistant or viruses?

First, here is what I know: Some infectious illnesses, such as HIV or Hepatitis B, can be treated with the help of some drugs. The problem is that the virus sometimes undergoes mutations which grant ...
Anthony's user avatar
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3 votes
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326 views

How does glucose delivered intraperitoneal (i.p.) get into the peripheral circulation?

Intraperitoneal delivery of drugs or fluids is something that occurs much more frequently in veterinary medicine than clinical medicine. In veterinary medicine or scientific studies using animals, ...
Vance L Albaugh's user avatar
2 votes
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227 views

Difference between IC50 and Michaelis-Menten constant

I am new to biology, and getting to know the term IC50, I found that there is a connection between IC50 and Michaelis-Menten constant by the Cheng-Prusoff equation $K_{i}=\frac{\mathrm{IC}_{50}}{1+\...
LOVEMATH's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
29 views

A question about dicumarol

I know that dicumarol was discovered in moldy sweet clover as it caused hemorrhage in cattles, but if someone had thromboembolic disorders causing uncontrolled thrombosis,would it be fine to eat moldy ...
mohamed's user avatar
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Why do some texts say that noncompetitive antagonist dose no change in ED50 of agonist in Dose-respond curve?

Competitive antagonists increase the ED50 while the Emax remains the same. Non-competitive antagonists do not change the ED50 while decreases the Emax. I wonder how does this happen as Non-...
Tee's user avatar
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Pharmacokinetics and cell-membrane permeability of Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate

【My Question】 (1) Please tell me the pharmacokinetics of this ATP (or Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate) when it is administered orally or intravenously. In particular, Does this material has ...
Blue Various's user avatar
2 votes
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45 views

What physiological pathways lie behind inhalants hallucinogenic effect?

I searched through the web and surprisingly I found pretty much nothing on the physiology of hallucinogenic effects of inhalants. Any idea how people get high with inhalants (household and industrial ...
lim-lim's user avatar
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Could certain drugs enable one to consistently eat above TDEE or BMR without fat gains?

I heard anabolic steroids and stuff like DNP and ephedrine and etc. can somewhat enable one to eat more and get away with it without much or any fat gain, despite eating more than the body would ...
Goo Betch's user avatar
2 votes
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80 views

Hematuria due to Nitric Oxide

Drug interactions between properly dosed NO and other medications are not expected, but side effects may include noisy breathing, hematuria, or possibly atelectasis. (pg.no:577; Goodman and Gilman ...
JM97's user avatar
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Why do new atypical antipsychotics like Zyprexa cause TD at lower rates?

When the d2 receptors are blocked for long periods of time they tend to up regulate. This is what causes tardive dyskinesia. Why do the newer atypical anti psychotics cause such at a lower rate? ...
William's user avatar
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What happens to the brain during meditation?

I've read several experiments on the internet according to which it is possible to reach a psychedelic state without taking any psychedelic drugs like DMT, LSD and other tryptamine derivatives. It ...
ostal123's user avatar
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Drugs with unknown mechanism of action

I want to get a list of FDA-approved drugs with unknown mechanism of action. I think that there should be a database where for each drug there is a short field "mechanism", but I haven't find one. Do ...
khorms's user avatar
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How do organoarsenics improve digestion efficiency in poultry?

It struck me as very surprising that these organoarsenic compound with structure looking not very compatible with living system is widely used as food additive to increase weight gain and improve food ...
wuschi's user avatar
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0 answers
78 views

Genotype-Phenotype databases?

Beyond the Stanford HIV database, what other databases out there provide a dataset linking virus/bacterial genotype to quantitative phenotype? I'm looking for high quality datasets to test machine ...
ericmjl's user avatar
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Birth control hormones in the water? Or not?

This prior question talks about natural estrogen (TL;DR: Months to years): How quickly do estrogens break down in the environment? Ref: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/485441a A lot of media has said, "...
user3082's user avatar
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Source of journals collecting titles of scientific publications regarding clinical trials with dogs fed medicinal herbs

After some time researching on the web, you can find a lot of websites telling you that some herbs may have or have specific properties(unfortunately most seem to be "advertised" as if they were ...
shooting-squirrel's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
67 views

Why is there only adrenoreceptors and no active adrenergic innervation in bronchus and uterus?

Our bronchus and uterus has beta adrenoreceptors, but they have no active sympathetic nervous system innervation in these organs. Was there a sympathetic innervation in trachea and uterus, earlier, ...
Sharanya Sunderamoorthy's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
4k views

What are potential side effects of myostatin inhibitors?

Myostatin inhibitors, which are being developed to treat muscle wasting diseases like muscular dystrophy, are likely to be abused by athletes. What are the potential long-term side-effects of taking a ...
John Blischak's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
119 views

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD?

What's the Efficacy of Ampakines in the Treatment for ADHD? Ampakines are a class of drugs that serve as potentiators of the AMPA glutamate receptor. By so doing they serve as nootropic, anxiolytics ...
Josh Pinto's user avatar
  • 2,398
1 vote
0 answers
42 views

Calculation of drug efficacy- mathematical biology approach

I am participating in a mathematical biology project. I would like to discuss the following problem: Let A be a drug such that $x_{o}$ chemical units of it kills 12% of $y$ cells per 1 day, I would ...
LOVEMATH's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

If blood vessels mostly aren't supplied by parasympathetic nerves, how effects through M3-ACh receptors are mediated?

Blood vessels throughout the body mostly aren't supplied by any parasympathetic fibres. But the effects of ACh through M3-ACh receptors would infact release NO (which acts on VSM and causes ...
ANA negative's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
59 views

Why does warfarin decrease biological activity of protein C?

Warfarin inhibits VKOR. Hence it disrupts vitamin K dependent $\gamma$-carboxylation of Fc- II, VII, IX, X. But what exactly it does to Protein C and Protein S? How does it also affect anticoagulant ...
ANA negative's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

How exactly does chemotherapy cause anemia?

I’ve been trying to figure this out for the past few hours but I still can’t find something as in depth as I’m looking for. So far all I’ve found is that chemo drugs kill bone marrow cells and some ...
user62783's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
34 views

how does acetic acid induce pain?

how does acetic acid induce pain? I am finding the whole mechanism of it but cannot find any papers or writings. please help. If you have links that would be nice too.
Hugh's user avatar
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Is this trial that reversed aging in humans worth taking seriously?

In September 2019 Fahy et al. published results from the TRIIM (Thymus Regeneration, Immunorestoration, and Insulin Mitigation) trial. Their stated goals were to investigate whether they could restore ...
Theobald Gegenbauer's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
116 views

What disposition means in the context of registering clinical studies?

I was diving into the AACT database, and in the studies table I had noticed some columns containing the term disposition such as: ...
atevm's user avatar
  • 299
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

What is the relevance of the constant in the clearance equation?

I have seen the equation for drug half lives described variously as (0.7xVd)/Cl, (0.693xVd)/Cl, and (ln2xVd)/Cl. What is the origin of this numerical constant in the numerator? What does it signify?
Joe Pusey's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
87 views

Gaba and Magnesium

I read read that magnesium divalent ion binds to gaba receptors and induces the same effects as if gaba has binded. Does anyone know what happens to the gaba that would have been synthesised and ...
Ingram's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
130 views

Do antimuscarinic drugs increase cAMP or cGMP

Activation of muscarinic receptors M2 and M4 inhibits adenylate cyclase which reduces cAMP levels. It would be expected that antimuscarinics such as ipratropium would increase cAMP levels. However, ...
Rome's user avatar
  • 65
1 vote
0 answers
92 views

How does alcohol interact with sympathomimetics to affect the cardiovascular system?

There is a fair amount of information on the cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and of sympathomimetics. How do they work? And how do their mechanisms interact? We know that similar pathologies ...
Roby Vicary's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
H. Khan's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

What are some good examples of open-source articles in which the synergy of two medicines is demonstrated?

I am doing research on Stochastic Cooperative Game Theory (a subfield in mathematics), which I will henceforth call SCGT for convenience. In this theory, entities can work together to receive a bigger ...
Max Muller's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
80 views

Physiological Effect of Mannitol

Which Starling Force is affected by Mannitol? I am either thinking hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid (because it increases interstitial fluid volume) or hydrostatic pressure of capillary (...
user9's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
132 views

Why was the intramuscular route selected for palivizumab administration to infants, instead of the subcutaneous route?

The majority of monoclonal antibodies administered by an extravascular route to adults are administered subcutaneously. Does anyone know or have hypotheses about the reasoning behind why palivizumab ...
Polymania's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as "enzymatic lysates"?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...
CopperKettle's user avatar
  • 1,309
1 vote
0 answers
23 views

Multi-protein drug treatments

Apologies if this an obvious question - I am very new to this. I am, as of now, under the impression that multiple SNP variations interact to create multiple mutated proteins, which ultimately results ...
Evan's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
64 views

Is 7-nitroindazole neuroprotective against meth because it oxidizes peroxynitrate?

So 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) prevents methamphetamine (METH) induced neurotoxicity AND completely prevents meth induced dopamine depletion, but doesn't prevent meth induced hyperthermia. Strangely, a ...
kirill2485's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

Generating all possible conformations of an Intrinsically disordered protein

I want to simulate interaction between the bHLH-LZ domain of c-Myc encoded protein and a test ligand. Since the domain is intrinsically disordered, I want to generate all possible conformations of the ...
Parth Raghav's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
209 views

Why is RAS undruggable?

Why can't mutated RAS get inactivated by GTPase? Why don't we have any inhibitors for RAS-GTP binding? Why is RAS undruggable? How can mutated RAS be inactivated? I had been researching on the topic ...
Parth Raghav's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
181 views

How does having an empty stomach affect absorption of compounds?

From personal experience, compounds such as nicotine, caffeine and alchohol appear to absorb much quicker into the blood on an 'empty' stomach', or after extended periods of fasting. If this is the ...
bigcodeszzer's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Can I explain the kinetics of a ligand looking at the ligand-protein co-structure?

Can I explain the kinetics of a ligand binding to a target protein (association and dissociation rates) by looking at the protein-ligand co-structure? Editing my question after a few comments: I ...
metionina's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
5k views

IC50 and area under the curve

I was hoping to get some clarification on how drug response data (i.e. IC50) are presented. On publicly available datasets like Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer, area under the curve (AUC) ...
tolo9397's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

Imidazoline receptor agonist in clonidine?

I am thinking which pathway is more important in hypertension, ADHD and withdrawal of clonidine: alpha-2 agonist imidazoline receptor agonist (maybe) Alpha-2 is the classical one. Pubchem starts to ...
Léo Léopold Hertz 준영's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
2k views

negatively charged albumin as major carrier of acidic/negative charged drugs in blood

I reading that orsomucoid (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) is the major carrier of positively charged (basic) drugs in the blood, while albumin carries negatively charged (acidic) and drugs with neutral ...
Jasand Pruski's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
356 views

Why can't sodium butyrate be delivered orally in humans and other mammals?

I think I know why -- bioavailability problems but since I have no firm evidence to support this theory I thought I would ask the biology stackexchange community for their input. I'd like some firm ...
Josh Pinto's user avatar
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