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Questions tagged [pharmacology]

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.

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356 views

Why can't sodium butyrate be delivered orally in humans and other mammals?

I think I know why -- bioavailability problems but since I have no firm evidence to support this theory I thought I would ask the biology stackexchange community for their input. I'd like some firm ...
0 votes
1 answer
66 views

What would happen if somebody was administered caffeine while sleeping?

I know that drinking caffeine before sleep can disrupt your sleep and REM cycle, but I was wondering what would happen if hypothetically someone slept for 8 or so hours before being administered a ...
0 votes
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51 views

Why does the throat close up during an allergic reaction?

I was thinking about anaphylaxis and how strange it is that exposure to an allergen, e.g. a peanut, would cause someone’s throat to close up to the point where they can’t breathe. Why does this happen,...
1 vote
1 answer
29 views

Cell viability assay: Problems with MTT assay in the solubilization step

I am testing two compounds against 3 cell lines to determine cell viability. Two lines grow in Eagle media, one in DMEM (+10 Percent bovine serum) which contain phenyl red indicator. I prepared 3 ...
3 votes
3 answers
407 views

Is reverse senescence/"anti-aging" actually scientifically possible among humans yet?

I have been very interested in this since I myself am interested in reversing my skin's aging/genes/damage/etc. I also am interested in volunteering any future genetic altering of skin quality. ...
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For Cytotox studies of anticancer compounds: What cell line can I use to check if my compounds will also damage healthy cells?

I am about to perform cytotox studies on cells with my synthesized compounds. I want to test my structures against MCF7 cells (breast cancer) as well as a melanoma cell line. MCF7 should be vunerable ...
1 vote
1 answer
52 views

How much effort is it to establish a cytotox assay for cancer cell lines against a small number of possible compounds?

I am currently testing a series (5-10) of small molecule compounds against an enzyme that are intended as inhibitors. This enzyme is meaningful for cell proliferation. Until now, nothing was active ...
18 votes
3 answers
2k views

Are stable isotopes ever used in pharmaceuticals?

Carbon has two stable isotopes, C-12 and C-13. Since they both have the same electronic structure they can both make up the same molecules, but presumably they may perform different functions in ...
3 votes
2 answers
59 views

Can you find the mass of drug X remaining in the body after an oral dose with only bioavailability and half-life?

I'm reviewing this question and think you can't find the answer with the information given. A patient receives 1g of drug X as a single oral dose. Drug X has a half-life of 12 hours and an oral ...
6 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why does menthol clear a stuffy nose?

I've looked all around online for an answer to this. Some sites say menthol causes blood vessels in the nose to constrict, some sites say it causes blood vessels to expand. Many sites simply say it's ...
3 votes
1 answer
41 views

What determines if a compound is primarily taken up by the lymphatic extensions rather than the portal vein blood supply in the intestinal villi?

I am currently studying the intestinal absorption/transport systems, but am confused about one part specifically. There are hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds (to varying degrees), and they get ...
0 votes
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63 views

How does the area under the curve mean the total exposure to the drug?

I was wondering how the area under the curve in the case of a conc against time plot would be equal to the total exposure in the body? I know that this area is integrated using AUC = ∫C dt However ...
5 votes
2 answers
793 views

Why do we not develop tolerance to endogenous factors?

In pharmacology, we studied the development of tolerance to the therapeutic effects of drugs. It is defined as the diminished response of the body to a drug as an adaptation to its continued presence. ...
0 votes
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How do i find and download targets of drugs which are in DrugBank?

Recently, I am focused on drugs and their interactions. But since I am new in this field, using experts experience would help me a lot. I have downloaded DrugBank xml file from DrugBank website and ...
4 votes
0 answers
1k views

Can drugs be administered through penis?

I was reading this paper on routes of drug administration and noticed that it mentioned intravaginal drug administration. It looks like this is a good way to take drugs because there are a lot of ...
5 votes
1 answer
131 views

Are psilocybin/psilocyn the only psychoactive compounds in psychoactive mushrooms?

Psilocybe cubensis is the most common psychedelic mushroom, and its active ingredients are psilocin and psilocybin (which is converted to psilocin in the body). There are other psychedelic mushrooms, ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

What's the difference between veterinary and human snake antivenom?

Recently, out of curiosity, I looked online if snake antivenom for humans were actually sold for individuals. I found out they aren't. Not only that, but bills can get really high on countries that ...
-4 votes
1 answer
11k views

Does one wing of fly contain harmful microbes and the other contain only antibodies? [closed]

There was this study but the conclusion and it's source's relability seemed a bit off. How come a house flies one wing contain all microbe and the other don't.
0 votes
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Hi, could someone explain what use-dependence is? And does it differ from one drug type to another? For instance anaesthetics vs anti-epileptics?

I may have understood it incorrectly but I read that in case of local anaesthetics, the use dependence is such that more the number of open sodium channels, more the number of drug molecules entering, ...
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62 views

What retrospective analysis happens after a clinical trial fails?

After a failed pharmaceutical clinical trial, what retrospective analyses are typically performed to understand why the drug program failed the trial? For example, are further experiments done to ...
1 vote
1 answer
63 views

In drug discovery, what is an undruggable target? [closed]

The term "undruggable" is often use in drug discovery. As far as I understand it, it means "for which no inhibitor has been found so far". It's a fuzzy, non-satisfying, definition. ...
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Is there any bloodstream chemical composition software simulator?

Let's say I'd like to know how certain substance affects bloodstream levels of certain drug during a period of time. Is there any simulation software available publicly to run such kind of simulation?
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why do different pain killers have different effects on people?

I've noticed some pain killers working great for me, while others have no effect. Works for me Aspirin APC † Naproxen Doesn't work for me Paracetamol Diclofenac Tramadol I doubt there is ...
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

drug-dna concentration

I want to understand how you calculate the final concentration of a Drug-DNA complex. I tried to mix equal concentration and volume of drug and DNA to form a complex and tried to see the absorbance ...
10 votes
4 answers
5k views

How do you calculate the time until the steady-state of a drug?

I encountered a mathematically intriguing conundrum, in that it's related to medicine but is centered around mathematics. Suppose drug A has a half-life in the body of 30 hours. The patient takes 40mg ...
3 votes
2 answers
117 views

Why are there so many carbonic anhydrase structures in the Protein Data Bank?

I've been looking through PDB — the Protein Data Bank — and I noticed that the protein with the most structures is human carbonic anhydrase II (UniProt: P00918), with over a thousand X-ray structures. ...
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does Povidone-Iodine that penetrates through the skin stays in the body (cells, liver etc)?

Here it says on povidone-iodine: "Route of Elimination: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical application and is not eliminated" "Clearance: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical ...
3 votes
1 answer
308 views

Bioavailability -- what is the effect of absorption rate?

I learnt about Bioavailability and this is the definition given by many sources: ...the fraction (%) of an administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation. (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
0 votes
0 answers
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Does ellagic acid dissolved in DMSO react with Brain Heart Infusion media?

I dissolved 2mg of Ellagic acid in 500 microliter of DMSO. I used 100 microliters of this solution to test for antimicrobial susceptibility against E.faecalis by adding it to 100 microliters of BHI ...
0 votes
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30 views

PEGylation safety and hybridomas

PEGylation is the covalent attachment of PEG (PolyEthylene Glycol) to molecules (e.g. proteins). It states in wikipedia ("PEGylation"): The covalent attachment of PEG to a drug or ...
32 votes
1 answer
6k views

Are drugs made bitter artificially to prevent being mistaken for candy?

All drugs I remember tasting (with the notable exception of Aspirin) have bitter taste. Is the taste due to the active substance, or is a bittering agent added to them, perhaps to prevent overdose? ...
3 votes
1 answer
126 views

Can we develop a nucleos(t)ide analogue to cure rabies?

Nucleos(t)ide analogues have been successfully used to treat HIV, HBV and HCV. Since rabies virus is also a RNA virus that uses RdRp to replicate. If we develop an nucleos(t)ide against its RdRp, will ...
1 vote
1 answer
938 views

Why is atropine a CNS stimulant, although it blocks the muscarinic receptors in the brain?

I know that atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, so why does atropine have excitatory actions on the brain while it is blocking muscarinic receptors?
6 votes
1 answer
343 views

How does hypokalemia antagonize lidocaine's effect?

I was reading the lidocaine user's manual for dentistry use and according to it and I quote "Lidocaine in concomitant use with acetazolamide, thiazides and loop acting diuretics. The hypokalemia (...
6 votes
1 answer
3k views

What are the psychedelic effects of (star) anise and how many people are affected?

Backstory: My girlfriend reacts heavily to chocolate and drinks containing stellar anise, in a way that seems comparable to psychedelic drugs. After consuming it, it takes approximately five minutes ...
1 vote
1 answer
120 views

What is the physical dimension of international unit (IU)?

I was skimming through a study [mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine boosters induce neutralizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, page 6, figure 3(A)] on vaccine and I came across the ...
25 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why are drug dosages so high in some mice studies?

On reading through some research on the effects of certain drugs I often come across staggeringly high dosages such as in this paper: Römer, B., Pfeiffer, N., Lewicka, S., Ben-Abdallah, N., Vogt, M. ...
17 votes
2 answers
802 views

Intrinsically disordered proteins as potential drug targets

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that do not adopt a stable secondary or tertiary structure under physiological conditions in vitro, but still have biological functions....
6 votes
1 answer
467 views

What Produces the Postive Potenial in the lumen of the thick ascending loop of Henle?

In the Thick Ascending Loop of Henle, Paracellular diffusion of certain Solutes like magnesium and calcium takes place. Such diffusion is a result of the positive lumen potential. Looking at the image ...
19 votes
1 answer
3k views

How does Sodium Valproate cause neural plasticity

I have been reading a fascinating paper: Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch 18 individuals were given Sodium Valproate (VPA) for a fortnight during which they trained on a ...
0 votes
0 answers
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how to perform ligand and DNA alignment in pymol

I need help in inserting ligand to specific base pair in DNA. I have a drug molecule and want to insert in between the base pairs I am interested in (it is dsDNA). Please note that it is a customed ...
2 votes
0 answers
235 views

Difference between IC50 and Michaelis-Menten constant

I am new to biology, and getting to know the term IC50, I found that there is a connection between IC50 and Michaelis-Menten constant by the Cheng-Prusoff equation $K_{i}=\frac{\mathrm{IC}_{50}}{1+\...
2 votes
3 answers
288 views

Is it true that ethanol can have some positive effects?

I recently was reading this inforgrafics about excessive alcohol use. It is written: No one should begin drinking or drink more frequently based on potential health benefits I am surprised. Is ...
3 votes
1 answer
337 views

Why does the Scatchard plot have a negative gradient?

I am very confused as to why the scatchard plot has a negative gradient. If the x axis shows increasing B, specific binding to a receptor, and on the y axis the specific binding (B)/concentration of ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Calculation of drug efficacy- mathematical biology approach

I am participating in a mathematical biology project. I would like to discuss the following problem: Let A be a drug such that $x_{o}$ chemical units of it kills 12% of $y$ cells per 1 day, I would ...
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What specific interaction between methylphenidate and quetiapine causes toxicity concerns?

A number of reputable sources on drug interactions posit a potential interaction between methylphenidate and quetiapine, described on Medscape as follows: quetiapine increases toxicity of ...
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

What constitutes FDA's First in Class designation for New Molecular Entities?

What constitutes a First in Class designation for new molecular entities? I've seen this term on FDA documents, as well as in databases (Chembl for example), but I was curious if there are any set ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Is it advised to calculate QED parameters for salts?

QED (quantitative estimation of drug-likeness) is a score which helps you to predict if a small molecule is desirable as an orally absorbed drug, described in the Quantifying the chemical beauty of ...
4 votes
1 answer
311 views

Can LSD in very small amounts increase mental ability?

Can one take a small amount of LSD(acid) and not trip but still benefit from the intended purpose? It was said the military experimented with it for extra sensory abilities. It has also been said it ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Meaning of "acute LSD"

I am currently reading this research paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/1395848, and I'm confused by this line: "Serotonin Receptor mRNA Levels Are Unchanged by Acute LSD". What is the ...

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