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Questions tagged [pharmacology]

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.

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What would happen if somebody was administered caffeine while sleeping?

I know that drinking caffeine before sleep can disrupt your sleep and REM cycle, but I was wondering what would happen if hypothetically someone slept for 8 or so hours before being administered a ...
john papp's user avatar
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Why does the throat close up during an allergic reaction?

I was thinking about anaphylaxis and how strange it is that exposure to an allergen, e.g. a peanut, would cause someone’s throat to close up to the point where they can’t breathe. Why does this happen,...
powerful_bob's user avatar
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1 answer
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Cell viability assay: Problems with MTT assay in the solubilization step

I am testing two compounds against 3 cell lines to determine cell viability. Two lines grow in Eagle media, one in DMEM (+10 Percent bovine serum) which contain phenyl red indicator. I prepared 3 ...
raptorlane's user avatar
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For Cytotox studies of anticancer compounds: What cell line can I use to check if my compounds will also damage healthy cells?

I am about to perform cytotox studies on cells with my synthesized compounds. I want to test my structures against MCF7 cells (breast cancer) as well as a melanoma cell line. MCF7 should be vunerable ...
raptorlane's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
52 views

How much effort is it to establish a cytotox assay for cancer cell lines against a small number of possible compounds?

I am currently testing a series (5-10) of small molecule compounds against an enzyme that are intended as inhibitors. This enzyme is meaningful for cell proliferation. Until now, nothing was active ...
raptorlane's user avatar
18 votes
3 answers
2k views

Are stable isotopes ever used in pharmaceuticals?

Carbon has two stable isotopes, C-12 and C-13. Since they both have the same electronic structure they can both make up the same molecules, but presumably they may perform different functions in ...
imrobert's user avatar
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How does the area under the curve mean the total exposure to the drug?

I was wondering how the area under the curve in the case of a conc against time plot would be equal to the total exposure in the body? I know that this area is integrated using AUC = ∫C dt However ...
Amr Ahmed's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
793 views

Why do we not develop tolerance to endogenous factors?

In pharmacology, we studied the development of tolerance to the therapeutic effects of drugs. It is defined as the diminished response of the body to a drug as an adaptation to its continued presence. ...
A_Sheth's user avatar
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How do i find and download targets of drugs which are in DrugBank?

Recently, I am focused on drugs and their interactions. But since I am new in this field, using experts experience would help me a lot. I have downloaded DrugBank xml file from DrugBank website and ...
Orca's user avatar
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Can drugs be administered through penis?

I was reading this paper on routes of drug administration and noticed that it mentioned intravaginal drug administration. It looks like this is a good way to take drugs because there are a lot of ...
imrobert's user avatar
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5 votes
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Are psilocybin/psilocyn the only psychoactive compounds in psychoactive mushrooms?

Psilocybe cubensis is the most common psychedelic mushroom, and its active ingredients are psilocin and psilocybin (which is converted to psilocin in the body). There are other psychedelic mushrooms, ...
imrobert's user avatar
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Hi, could someone explain what use-dependence is? And does it differ from one drug type to another? For instance anaesthetics vs anti-epileptics?

I may have understood it incorrectly but I read that in case of local anaesthetics, the use dependence is such that more the number of open sodium channels, more the number of drug molecules entering, ...
Pema's user avatar
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What retrospective analysis happens after a clinical trial fails?

After a failed pharmaceutical clinical trial, what retrospective analyses are typically performed to understand why the drug program failed the trial? For example, are further experiments done to ...
Betterthan Kwora's user avatar
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1 answer
63 views

In drug discovery, what is an undruggable target? [closed]

The term "undruggable" is often use in drug discovery. As far as I understand it, it means "for which no inhibitor has been found so far". It's a fuzzy, non-satisfying, definition. ...
max's user avatar
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Is there any bloodstream chemical composition software simulator?

Let's say I'd like to know how certain substance affects bloodstream levels of certain drug during a period of time. Is there any simulation software available publicly to run such kind of simulation?
Ya Y's user avatar
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drug-dna concentration

I want to understand how you calculate the final concentration of a Drug-DNA complex. I tried to mix equal concentration and volume of drug and DNA to form a complex and tried to see the absorbance ...
dojodna's user avatar
10 votes
4 answers
5k views

How do you calculate the time until the steady-state of a drug?

I encountered a mathematically intriguing conundrum, in that it's related to medicine but is centered around mathematics. Suppose drug A has a half-life in the body of 30 hours. The patient takes 40mg ...
askquestions4's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
117 views

Why are there so many carbonic anhydrase structures in the Protein Data Bank?

I've been looking through PDB — the Protein Data Bank — and I noticed that the protein with the most structures is human carbonic anhydrase II (UniProt: P00918), with over a thousand X-ray structures. ...
Alex I's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Bioavailability -- what is the effect of absorption rate?

I learnt about Bioavailability and this is the definition given by many sources: ...the fraction (%) of an administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation. (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
Chemo-Mike's user avatar
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Does ellagic acid dissolved in DMSO react with Brain Heart Infusion media?

I dissolved 2mg of Ellagic acid in 500 microliter of DMSO. I used 100 microliters of this solution to test for antimicrobial susceptibility against E.faecalis by adding it to 100 microliters of BHI ...
Shreesha Padyana's user avatar
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PEGylation safety and hybridomas

PEGylation is the covalent attachment of PEG (PolyEthylene Glycol) to molecules (e.g. proteins). It states in wikipedia ("PEGylation"): The covalent attachment of PEG to a drug or ...
Ynk's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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How does hypokalemia antagonize lidocaine's effect?

I was reading the lidocaine user's manual for dentistry use and according to it and I quote "Lidocaine in concomitant use with acetazolamide, thiazides and loop acting diuretics. The hypokalemia (...
Quique's user avatar
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25 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why are drug dosages so high in some mice studies?

On reading through some research on the effects of certain drugs I often come across staggeringly high dosages such as in this paper: Römer, B., Pfeiffer, N., Lewicka, S., Ben-Abdallah, N., Vogt, M. ...
kcpm's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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What Produces the Postive Potenial in the lumen of the thick ascending loop of Henle?

In the Thick Ascending Loop of Henle, Paracellular diffusion of certain Solutes like magnesium and calcium takes place. Such diffusion is a result of the positive lumen potential. Looking at the image ...
Omar Shahaltough's user avatar
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how to perform ligand and DNA alignment in pymol

I need help in inserting ligand to specific base pair in DNA. I have a drug molecule and want to insert in between the base pairs I am interested in (it is dsDNA). Please note that it is a customed ...
dnalectronics's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
235 views

Difference between IC50 and Michaelis-Menten constant

I am new to biology, and getting to know the term IC50, I found that there is a connection between IC50 and Michaelis-Menten constant by the Cheng-Prusoff equation $K_{i}=\frac{\mathrm{IC}_{50}}{1+\...
LOVEMATH's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
336 views

Why does the Scatchard plot have a negative gradient?

I am very confused as to why the scatchard plot has a negative gradient. If the x axis shows increasing B, specific binding to a receptor, and on the y axis the specific binding (B)/concentration of ...
Ahmed's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
45 views

Calculation of drug efficacy- mathematical biology approach

I am participating in a mathematical biology project. I would like to discuss the following problem: Let A be a drug such that $x_{o}$ chemical units of it kills 12% of $y$ cells per 1 day, I would ...
LOVEMATH's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
120 views

What is the physical dimension of international unit (IU)?

I was skimming through a study [mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine boosters induce neutralizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, page 6, figure 3(A)] on vaccine and I came across the ...
user69081's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Meaning of "acute LSD"

I am currently reading this research paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/1395848, and I'm confused by this line: "Serotonin Receptor mRNA Levels Are Unchanged by Acute LSD". What is the ...
Timotej Leginus's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What specific interaction between methylphenidate and quetiapine causes toxicity concerns?

A number of reputable sources on drug interactions posit a potential interaction between methylphenidate and quetiapine, described on Medscape as follows: quetiapine increases toxicity of ...
Polynomial's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
124 views

What mechanism causes the presence of photosensitizers in mitochondria to change membrane ionic currents?

In the original question, the article in question was talking about specifically about this compound, Benzoporphyrin: Characterization of Perturbing Actions by Verteporfin, a Benzoporphyrin ...
C-Consciousness's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
83 views

Is it advised to calculate QED parameters for salts?

QED (quantitative estimation of drug-likeness) is a score which helps you to predict if a small molecule is desirable as an orally absorbed drug, described in the Quantifying the chemical beauty of ...
atevm's user avatar
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0 answers
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Medical Physiology

I've come across the topic of the influence of inhaled ammonia (caustic ammonia) on breathing rate and some cardiovascular changes. All of this stuff is thought to be mediated through the fifth ...
Alexandr_Kabanets's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
41 views

What determines if a compound is primarily taken up by the lymphatic extensions rather than the portal vein blood supply in the intestinal villi?

I am currently studying the intestinal absorption/transport systems, but am confused about one part specifically. There are hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds (to varying degrees), and they get ...
Furious Gamer's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

If blood vessels mostly aren't supplied by parasympathetic nerves, how effects through M3-ACh receptors are mediated?

Blood vessels throughout the body mostly aren't supplied by any parasympathetic fibres. But the effects of ACh through M3-ACh receptors would infact release NO (which acts on VSM and causes ...
ANA negative's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
76 views

How easy is it for quantum dots to enter the intracellular portions of cells?

As quantum dots have better quantum yield than organic dyes, many are being developed as a substitute for them. Nonetheless, could these substitutes be small enough to enter inside cells as current ...
C-Consciousness's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
786 views

Why do the mRNA vaccines for COVID need special lipids?

I've read that the Pfizer mRNA vaccine is delivered to the cell by encapsulating the fragile mRNA into a lipid nanoparticle. However, the lipid has to be PEGylated in order to avoid immunogenecity. ...
Jake Evans's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
168 views

Concentration of active ingredient

For some time now, I have been wondering why, when a tablet is taken, the concentration of active ingredient undergoes an exponential decrease after the maximum concentration value in the blood is ...
Rico1990's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Why does warfarin decrease biological activity of protein C?

Warfarin inhibits VKOR. Hence it disrupts vitamin K dependent $\gamma$-carboxylation of Fc- II, VII, IX, X. But what exactly it does to Protein C and Protein S? How does it also affect anticoagulant ...
ANA negative's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
59 views

Can you find the mass of drug X remaining in the body after an oral dose with only bioavailability and half-life?

I'm reviewing this question and think you can't find the answer with the information given. A patient receives 1g of drug X as a single oral dose. Drug X has a half-life of 12 hours and an oral ...
Tom's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
11k views

Does one wing of fly contain harmful microbes and the other contain only antibodies? [closed]

There was this study but the conclusion and it's source's relability seemed a bit off. How come a house flies one wing contain all microbe and the other don't.
Pinus's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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What is the purpose of an siRNA screen in drug discovery?

In the paper "A genome-wide siRNA screen identifies a druggable host pathway essential for the Ebola virus life cycle" by Martin et al. the authors try to disrupt the Ebola life-cycle by ...
Seanny123's user avatar
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34 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why do animal cells "mistake" rubidium ions for potassium ions?

So, I was browsing the Wikipedia article for rubidium, and came across this interesting tidbit: Rubidium is not a known nutrient for any living organisms. However, rubidium ions have the same charge ...
prolyx's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
77 views

How do prodrugs exactly work? Are there multiple varieties of prodrugs?

I have been reading about a (new?) prodrug of LSD, 1CP-LSD, which is being synthesized in the body to LSD. However, I don't know how exactly. I read somewhere, that another prodrug of LSD, 1P-LSD was ...
Timotej Leginus's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does LSD "stay" in your fat storage and then "returns" back?

This rumor was told me by a very anti-drug person. A stance I agree with only lightly. The rumor was that when you take LSD, it stores itself in your fat storage, and then returns back in 3-6 months, ...
Timotej Leginus's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
35 views

Could a vaccine injecting B cells theoretically work?

So I was in the car riding to school today when I was struck with genius. Each B cell is attuned to a different pathogen, am I correct? By that logic, would a vaccine injecting a dose of B cells ...
Someone404's user avatar
32 votes
1 answer
6k views

Are drugs made bitter artificially to prevent being mistaken for candy?

All drugs I remember tasting (with the notable exception of Aspirin) have bitter taste. Is the taste due to the active substance, or is a bittering agent added to them, perhaps to prevent overdose? ...
Dmitry Grigoryev's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

How exactly does chemotherapy cause anemia?

I’ve been trying to figure this out for the past few hours but I still can’t find something as in depth as I’m looking for. So far all I’ve found is that chemo drugs kill bone marrow cells and some ...
user62783's user avatar
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0 answers
40 views

What degree of influence do SNPs have on activity of ligands at receptors?

I know that generally, evolution tends to evolve towards having some wiggle room in respect to effect of polymorphisms on binding of endogenous ligands, but with synthetic ligands, especially modern ...
Llamageddon's user avatar

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