Questions tagged [pharmacology]

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
4
votes
1answer
846 views

Does Povidone-Iodine that penetrates through the skin stays in the body (cells, liver etc)?

Here it says on povidone-iodine: "Route of Elimination: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical application and is not eliminated" "Clearance: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

Does body fat percentage effect storage of fat soluble compounds?

Would a person with a higher body fat percentage store more of a fat soluble compound, or store for a longer time, than a person with a lower body fat percentage if they both consumed the same amount ...
0
votes
3answers
379 views

Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
5
votes
1answer
375 views

Compare affinity to potency h1 receptor

This quote from Miller (2004) makes it clear that the affinity of drugs for the H1 receptor does not correlate to sedation: Although both dosage and affinity for histamine H1 receptors play a part ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

How do drugs tests check so many substances?

There are about 170 drugs banned for sports and many other drugs that can be used in crimes. How can blood tests practically detect so many different substances? Do they divide the sample into 170 ...
1
vote
1answer
215 views

Why warfarin is given as racemic mixture?

Warfarin is administered as a racemic mixture of S- and R- warfarin. S- warfarin is 3 to 5 times more potent than R- warfarin. So, what's the logic behind giving a mixture of it? Isn't administration ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

Why DMSO is used as a control?

Coming from a non-biology background, I've realised many academic papers on experiments use DMSO as like a control. This is an example: KN-93, a specific inhibitor of CaMKII inhibits human hepatic ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Can polystyrene sulfonate bind calcium or sodium in the gut? How?

Polystyrene sulfonate is used as a potassium binder to treat hyperkalemia in traumatic rhabdomyolysis, acute and chronic kidney disease. It is listed as an ion-exchange resin that can also remove ...
0
votes
2answers
129 views

Why is full cell/high antigen dose pertussis vaccine dangerous for adults?

I do remember that I have read (or heard) somewhere that as a human is older, the whole cell vaccine (and high antigen dose one) has more and more adverse effects. As it is consistent with the target ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

What happens to the brain during meditation?

I've read several experiments on the internet according to which it is possible to reach a psychedelic state without taking any psychedelic drugs like DMT, LSD and other tryptamine derivatives. It ...
1
vote
1answer
341 views

Check on 23andme what type of CYP2D6 substrate metabolizer I am

CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs. Which SNPs do I need to check on 23andme in order to determine if I'm a poor or ultrarapid ...
0
votes
0answers
79 views

Modern Classification of Introspective Psychopharmacological Drug Profiles?

In the effort to better relate neuronal mechanisms to states of mind, it makes sense to have - in addition to pharmacological classifications of drugs and imaging/physiology classifications of their ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

What are some good examples of open-source articles in which the synergy of two medicines is demonstrated?

I am doing research on Stochastic Cooperative Game Theory (a subfield in mathematics), which I will henceforth call SCGT for convenience. In this theory, entities can work together to receive a bigger ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

How to make GABA pass the blood brain barrier?

I thought of methylating GABA at the gamma amino group in order to make it pass the blood brain barrier, but would it work? The goal is to make a sedative. Like GHB or benzodiazepines (I know that ...
3
votes
1answer
339 views

Why have certain plants evolved to contain psychoactive compounds?

Plants such as marijuana (Cannabis) and kratom (Mitragena speciosa) contain compounds that affect the human brain. Why have these plants evolved to incorporate substances like THC and mitragynine into ...
1
vote
2answers
171 views

How can ionized amino acid form be important for the catalytic activity?

I can imagine that protonated amino acid form, particularly at the active site, is important for the catalytic activity so hydrogen bonds can be created between the substrate and the enzyme. However, ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Physiological Effect of Mannitol

Which Starling Force is affected by Mannitol? I am either thinking hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid (because it increases interstitial fluid volume) or hydrostatic pressure of capillary (...
-2
votes
2answers
3k views

How to calculate relative organ weight for a lab animal?

I am trying to calculate relative organ weight for a rat. Anyone knows of a proper formula. It needs to be expressed in g/kg BW.
-2
votes
1answer
201 views

Is burnt THC still psychoactive?

Asking from a more practical angle. If one smokes a joint - does the THC in the embers contribute to getting high - or is it only the THC released by the heat of the smoke in the not-burning section ...
1
vote
1answer
659 views

How can some residues in the active site of enzymes be protonated with a pKa < 7?

It is reported in many papers, that some residues in the active site of enzymes need to be protonated to get functional enzyme, where these residues have a low pKa (for let us say 5). How can that ...
2
votes
1answer
214 views

How did Shulgin take cognizance of the dosage of a new substance?

We know that Alexander Shulgin synthesized MDMA, 2C compounds and several other tryptamine derivatives and phenethylamines. But how did he find out that the average dosage of an unknown compound is X ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

How could this molecule affect the body? (Lysergic acid derivative)

First of all, could you please help me name this molecule? I think the name of it is something like this: N,N-pentamethylene lysergic acid. Secondly, my main question is what could be the pharmacology ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Are drug-gene interactions predictable? [closed]

I have been reading about drug-gene interactions and pharmacogenetic tests. I haven't been able to find many resources that define the process of testing for possible drug-gene interactions without ...
1
vote
1answer
401 views

Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%?

Below is a table of atmospheric composition. Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%? Table 7a-1: Current Average composition of the atmosphere up to ...
1
vote
1answer
119 views

Can someone please explain the following jargon to a layman

I was reading an article on a substance called apigenin: Apigenin can inhibit both aromatase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) with the inhibition of 17β-HSD being unique to apigenin ...
0
votes
1answer
132 views

What factors may lead to a difference in whole-cell potency compared to cell-free potency?

For studies of protein-ligand binding, the reported whole-cell potency may be higher or lower compared to measured cell-free potencies. For decreased potency, this may represent an increase in non-...
1
vote
0answers
131 views

Why was the intramuscular route selected for palivizumab administration to infants, instead of the subcutaneous route?

The majority of monoclonal antibodies administered by an extravascular route to adults are administered subcutaneously. Does anyone know or have hypotheses about the reasoning behind why palivizumab ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as "enzymatic lysates"?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Multi-protein drug treatments

Apologies if this an obvious question - I am very new to this. I am, as of now, under the impression that multiple SNP variations interact to create multiple mutated proteins, which ultimately results ...
-2
votes
2answers
8k views

Why aren't drugs delivered directly into arteries, rather than veins?

Normally when drugs are administered to the blood of a mammalian subject, it is done intravenously--the needle being inserting into a vein. One potential problem with this is that the veins contain ...
1
vote
1answer
148 views

How did the "serendipitous rediscovery" of Sulfasalazine as an antirheumatic agent after 30 years happen?

This excellent answer describes the history of the ~50 year old drug Sulfasalazine, and it's worthwhile to take a moment and read through the answer now. Roughly speaking the drug is an antibiotic ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

How did sulfasalazine become a disease-modifying treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?

Sulfasalazine has been around for about fifty years, starting as an antibiotic. More recently it is used as a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD, see also arthritis.org). While biologics (...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the definition of an opioid, beyond that it's something that stimulates opioid receptors?

At first glance, this looks like a circular definition. Is there some way to definitively determine if a given molecule is or is not an opioid? (Medically or scientifically, not legally). I'm ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Is Hydrogen rich water safe and beneficial for health [closed]

Is Hydrogen rich water safe and beneficial for health ? I just bought a Hydrogen water machine to try and relieve muscle inflammation.
1
vote
1answer
27 views

How much smaller is the diffusivity of a molecule in the retina as opposed to the vitreous of the eye?

I'm interested in the diffusivity of macromolecules inside the mammalian retina, relative to the vitreous. For example is the diffusion coefficient for a macromolecule (protein, 50-150 kDa for ...
3
votes
1answer
423 views

Can controlled dose of Codeine improve brain's functionality?

What I know so far about drugs (codeine, heroin, etc) is, the first time you take them you will feel better, think sharper, and act better, just like a supercharged engine. But as this goes on a ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

A compound was proposed by error but then showed very good inhibitory properties. How to argue this in a manuscript?

In a project, we performed some virtual screening calculations in order to predict inhibitors, and then purchased the compounds and tested them in the lab. One of them was a very good TK inhibitor (...
2
votes
1answer
369 views

If bortezomib, a cancer drug, inhibits cell proteasomes, wouldn't resulting protein aggregate in normal cells further increase the risk of cancer?

Bortezomib is an anti-cancer drug that inhibits the proteasomes of cancer cells, allowing proteins that stop cell growth to fold and perform their function. However, wouldn't bortezomib also affect ...
3
votes
1answer
554 views

Why should we preceed neostigmine by atropine in tubocurarine toxicity?

Why should we precede neostigmine by atropine in tubocurarine toxicity ? I know that neostigmine act as anticholinesterase thus increasing the number of Ach molecules rendering them able to displace ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Is 7-nitroindazole neuroprotective against meth because it oxidizes peroxynitrate?

So 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) prevents methamphetamine (METH) induced neurotoxicity AND completely prevents meth induced dopamine depletion, but doesn't prevent meth induced hyperthermia. Strangely, a ...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

Why has malaria only now started to develop resistance against artemisinin?

Why has malaria only now started to develop resistance against artemisinin, considering the compound has been in use for about two millennia in its herbal form in China? The WHO has reported: In ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

How does methamphetamine (meth) damage neurons?

Meth is considered to be neurotoxic by forming reactive oxygen species and oxidizing the neurons. But unlike dopamine, which, by the way, is neurotoxic due to ROS induced dopaminergic stress, meth ...
56
votes
2answers
11k views

What is the benefit of fever during infections?

When people get sick, they often develop a fever. What is the effect of an increased body temperature on viruses and bacteria in the body? Is it beneficial to the infected body? Importantly, often ...
5
votes
1answer
215 views

Can LSD in very small amounts increase mental ability?

Can one take a small amount of LSD(acid) and not trip but still benefit from the intended purpose? It was said the military invented it for extra sensory abilities. It has also been said it could ...
4
votes
1answer
587 views

Database for drug-target relation

I'm writing a thesis on bioinformatics and looking for drug-target databases. I'm implementing a open-source application for a tool called Cytoscape and so far I've used a open-source database called ...
3
votes
3answers
4k views

Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

For this reason "insulin insensitivity", or a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 – the cells are unable to take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (an ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

Why are there not effective pharmaceutical treatments to prevent weight gain?

Hunger is caused by signals from the brain, so is there a way to suppress the signal of hunger in the same way we suppress the signal of pain with painkillers? If people felt less hungry, they would ...
3
votes
0answers
112 views

How does taking drugs speed up the development of drug resistant or viruses?

First, here is what I know: Some infectious illnesses, such as HIV or Hepatitis B, can be treated with the help of some drugs. The problem is that the virus sometimes undergoes mutations which grant ...
13
votes
3answers
10k views

Is cancer caused by vitamin B17 deficiency?

I have read in an article on the internet that cancer is caused due to deficiency of vitamin B17 which has been removed from our diets long ago in the western food. But some people say that vitamin ...

1 2
3
4 5
8