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The study of the form and internal structures of plants.

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What are some plants or plant forms with only one cell wall?

I was reading about lignin as material for the secondary cell wall. However, not all plants have this. What are some plants that don't have secondary cell walls? Is it all non-trees such as algae?
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115 views

What is this Las Vegas area weed?

This is a picture I took of my mystery weed out by Pittman wash in Henderson NV earlier this year. From my experience this last year, I assume that the plant turns red later in the year and loses the ...
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1answer
50 views

Is this 12+ foot plant a sunflower or hogweed?

I'm trying to determine what this is. The plant is well over 12-feet tall, had huge leaves, and a very thick stalk. People near me say it's a giant sunflower plant, but it hasn't bloomed or shown sign ...
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1answer
47 views

What's going on when roots turn green and grow into the air?

You're looking at a hibiscus and an orchid growing in the same pot. I'm curious why the hibiscus started growing green roots into the air. Or am I looking at a third plant that somehow made its way ...
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1answer
35 views

What are the roundish objects in this figure of a tracheid?

I got this picture from Wikipedia. What are the roundish stuffs that I'm seeing? The link is given below. Also are tracheids sclerenchyma cells? https://i.stack.imgur.com/UEatS.jpg
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1answer
32 views

Why do plant leaves turn yellow?

Why do plant leaves turn yellow if they don't get enough water or get too much water? I want to know the process. I've been searching in Google for an explanation, but none of the sites did. Please ...
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2answers
46 views

Distribution of the number of clover leaves

Being no expert at all in this field I am just interested in emprical studies of the frequency $f(n)$ of clover plants with a given number $n$ of leaves. I would suspect naively from general ...
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0answers
37 views

Mint twisted like a spiral

My friend has a mint plant with a spiral-shaped stem, and the leaves are positioned like this: Why could such deformation happen? Other mint plants, growing in the same pot, are normal.
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Fruit-producing water plant

Are there any water plants that grow fruit that is meant to be eaten? I’m specifically interested in plants that are not rooted permanently to the earth but are mobile for at least part of their life ...
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0answers
50 views

Why roots have radial vascular bundles while stems have conjoint?

Why not the whole plant has the same arrangement of vascular bundle, why there is a difference of arrangement in roots and stems (radial in root and conjoint in stem) , what is the purpose of this ...
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3answers
82 views

Why is it that guttation is most commonly observed in the morning?

Knowing that guttation occurs through a plant's hydathodes due to root pressure forcing liquid water out of the leaves, I am curious as to why so many small drops of water are observable on plants in ...
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1answer
66 views

Xylem in the centre of the root

I want to ask a question about xylem in the centre of the root. I am reading a book about transport in plants, and it reads this regarding the root structure: Roots are subjected to vertical ...
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1answer
27 views

How exactly is the wood fossil process?

I would like to know in deep how exactly is the wood fossilisation process. I am fascinated how after millions of years the fossil wood preserves its microscopic characteristics. Look at this cross ...
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1answer
58 views

How do plants grow year after year even though they die?

How do plants grow, die, and then grow again? For instance, when my plants die during the winter, how do they grow again next year? Does it have something to do with the root system? Or do they even ...
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1answer
64 views

Strange Exoskeleton Found in Maine: What is It?

There is a gall like object or exoskeleton attached to a plant stem I have found. At first I thought it was a cicada but it is not. The object cannot be identified by me. Attached are some pictures of ...
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0answers
26 views

water loss from mesophyll cell wall (A-level)

I need help with understanding water loss by mesophyll. My AQA A-level textbook lacks a lot of detail, it says that during transpiration water evaporates from mesophyll cell wall. My question is ...
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1answer
61 views

What are the names of these plants?

I found these plants in my backyard in South Florida. What are they?
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0answers
6 views

What happens to materials filtered out by Casperian strip?

When water is absorbed from soil to roots, it filtered by Casperian strip. Apoplastic pathways become symplastic and the solution moves through cell membrane. So what happens to substances that are ...
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0answers
17 views

Can seed coat protect the seed from bacterial and fungi infection?

When I was doing biology exercise, one question says seed coat can protect the seed from bacterial and fungi infection and the other question says it can't. I searched online and I couldn't find ...
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2answers
37 views

Are agave plants perennial?

If I were to harvest an agave plant for its nectar, would it kill the plant? I have watched videos of the process and it seems quite invasive.
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1answer
38 views

Vine To Tree Root Grafting

I am experimenting with grafting multiple heartleaf philodendrons(philodendron cordatum) to the root of an oak tree(quercus). If the grafting is successful, the next step is to cut the root from the ...
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0answers
19 views

Why do roots and shoots have different budding patterns?

While reading my textbook I noticed that roots and shoots generally branch off from the main plant body very differently. Lateral roots grow off the pericycle, allowing a connection between the ...
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0answers
24 views

What is a 1-flowered raceme?

PlantNET describes the inflorescences of Daviesia acicularis as: Racemes reduced to 1 flower How is a 1-flowered raceme different from a single flower?
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0answers
77 views

How does pH affect the structure, and therefore integrity of plasma membranes?

I know that the pH of the environment does have an effect on plasma membranes, but I'm not sure how exactly the concentration of H+ ions would affect the phospholipid bilayer. Thanks
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0answers
47 views

Putting C4 and C3 plants into a sealed chamber?

I'm planning an experiment that I will do for my biology class, and was wondering what I should expect, as I formulate my hypothesis. I have to enclose a C3 plant and a C4 plant in a sealed container ...
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1answer
110 views

What's the difference between a simple and 1-foliolate (unifoliolate) leaf?

How is a 1-foliolate leaf (e.g., Hardenbergia) different from a simple leaf?
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2answers
101 views

Is the xylem like a tissue paper?

I am a 5th grader learning about the plant transport mechanics and I learnt that the xylem is made up of dead cells.So if water travels up the xylem and water travels only 1 way, is it like how water ...
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23 views

Function of endodermis

So I know that the endodermis prevents water (and any solutes) from passing through this layer via the apoplast pathway. But what advantage does this (being able to prevent water moving via apoplast ) ...
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1answer
385 views

Are mesophyll cells the same as parenchyma cells?

I read in my biology textbook that ground tissue is constituted by parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.It was also mentioned that, in leaves the ground tissue was made up of thin walled ...
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1answer
297 views

What are pit fields?

I found this statement from my biology text book, "The sieve tube elements and the companion cells are connected by pit fields present between the common longitudinal walls". Is the pit field same ...
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0answers
48 views

How do Venus flytraps reset their trigger mechanism when touched only once?

Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) leaves will only close when their trigger hairs are touched more than once within 20-30 seconds in order to keep from wasting energy closing on an object that isn't ...
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1answer
103 views

How do trees grow?

A nail is inserted into a tree's trunk at a young stage of its development. At which height will we find the nail after some years? Will it be found higher or at the same height(What extent of ...
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1answer
145 views

Is it possible to graft plants from different families?

For example, I have some Eastern Hemlock rootstock (Pinaceae), and want to graft a scion from Dawn Redwood (Cupressaceae) onto it. Is this possible? Is anything like this possible?
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0answers
89 views

Does the Histogen Theory apply to plant roots as well as stems?

My school textbook briefly mentions a certain "Histogen Theory" (von Hanstein) of plant growth/development. However, I can't find any authoritative source on this matter online. According to my book, ...
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1answer
37 views

Why are newly grown leaves red?

After a period of heavy rain, several trees in my garden will put out an impressive burst of new leaves, with an incredible vibrant red colour, almost the colour of port wine. The new leaves will then ...
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3answers
451 views

Stomata during night (respiration)

How does carbon dioxide from respiration diffuse out of the leaf during the night? Do stomata close completely during night?
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1answer
458 views

How to correctly preserve organic matter with ethylene and polyethylene glycol?

I am trying to preserve and dye flowers, especially roses. Let me walk you through the process I am trying to optimize: 1) Soaking flowers in 96%-ethanol for a day to dehydrate them. This step ...
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0answers
248 views

What is the function of astrosclereids?

What is the function of astrosclereids? Image of an astrosclereid: http://www.kbg.fpv.ukf.sk/studium_materialy/morfologia_rastlin/webchap5scler/web5.3-7.jpg A few answers I know: 1. Mechanical ...
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1answer
145 views

Genotype result of double fertilization

So, clearly, the endosperm would be a fusion of the polar nuclei and one male gamete. Does this mean that each male gamete would have a T allele on it? I can't seem to figure out a way to predict ...
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2answers
136 views

Why are the no bioluminescent plants?

There are bioluminescent creatures and some fungi too. As far as I can see there are no bioluminescent plants. Why is this? I imagine it would make a good attraction for night pollinators, or even ...
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1answer
48 views

plant crossing for creating breeding population

I read some material about plant breeding. For a self-incompatible plant with high heterozygosity, it said that after selecting the plant population based on phenotype/desired trait, a cross was done ...
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1answer
391 views

Negative Phototropism In Plants

Why does the root of a plant go away from the sun? The shoot goes towards the sun, why does the root go away from it?
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0answers
40 views

What attaches plant cells to the cell wall?

In animal cells integrins span the plasma membrane and attach the cell membrane to the extracellular matrix. I was wondering how are plant cells attached to the cell wall? Is it just the middle ...
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270 views

Location of male and female reproductive organs in fern (prothallus)

I can't seem to find an authoritative answer to this anywhere else online. Basically, my school text-book says the antheridium (male organ) is located on the lower surface of the fern prothallus and ...
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117 views

What predates on cactus in the Atacama desert?

Introduction Last week, I was in the Atacama desert where I've seen many cacti. Some / many of them were seemingly suffering from predation. Most of predation seemed to be on cardón, often restricted ...
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0answers
75 views

How exactly does a plant know where water and light are?

I actually researched on this, but nothing was found regarding this. The only thing I found is that auxins grow on the farthest side causing it to elongate. Yes, but how exactly do the plants know ...
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1answer
578 views

Why will happen if plant phloem does not contain sieve plates?

What are the primary functions of the sieve plates that make them so crucial? I've done a bit of reading online and found "Sieve plates are perforated end walls separating the component cells (sieve ...
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1answer
66 views

What is this growth on a Rosa rugosa stem?

I saw many of these on my big old Rosa rugosa bush yesterday. What are they?
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1answer
86 views

Reasons for a flower type to consume water faster than another?

This is an easy experiment where you put a white flower into a recipient filled with water and liquid watercolor, so that the flower gets dyed. While doing this experiment for different types of ...
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1answer
84 views

Please identify this plant

I don't know anything about plants