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Questions tagged [psychoneuropharmacology]

The study of the use of medications in treating mental disorders. Generally it includes pharmacokinetics (what the body does to medication) and pharmacodynamics (what the medications do to the body). Specific topics include protein binding (how available the medication is to the body), half-life (how long medications stay in the body), polymorphic genes (genes varying between persons), and drug-to-drug interactions (how medications affect one another).

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Why is atropine a CNS stimulant, although it blocks the muscarinic receptors in the brain?

I know that atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, so why does atropine have excitatory actions on the brain while it is blocking muscarinic receptors?
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Solubility of lithium carbonate in blood

When a person with Bipolar Disorder ingests a pill of $\ce{Li_2CO_3}$ and it enters the stomach the pill cap is dissolved in the hydrochloric acid; however, when it gets absorbed in the blood how does ...
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Why is Cacao a stimulant?

As I write this I've just eaten a fair amount of cacao (not cocoa) powder and it's given me quite a buzz. I've googled the effects and the Internet seems to think it's somehow psychoactive although it'...
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How is ATP converted to adenosine?

I am familiar with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), how one relates to the other, and how each is formed in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, but I am confused as ...
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Consistency of consciouness [closed]

So I was wondering if consciousness is continous and I found out it might not be the case. But in that case it begs a question, what if in every frame of consciousness my old me dies and new is reborn ...
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Modern Classification of Introspective Psychopharmacological Drug Profiles?

In the effort to better relate neuronal mechanisms to states of mind, it makes sense to have - in addition to pharmacological classifications of drugs and imaging/physiology classifications of their ...
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How to make GABA pass the blood brain barrier?

I thought of methylating GABA at the gamma amino group in order to make it pass the blood brain barrier, but would it work? The goal is to make a sedative. Like GHB or benzodiazepines (I know that ...
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Why does excess dopamine activity in the pleasure centers results in less pleasure in schizophrenics?

According to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is an excess of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway (nucleus accumbens), and this contributes to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. I ...
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Why do classic psychedelics not cause withdrawal, despite high tolerance?

"Classical" psychedelics, such as LSD, DMT, and Mescaline, are serotonin agonists that cause hallucinogenic effects. They are notorious for having rapid tolerance, such that after consuming such ...
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Placebo effect and why they work [closed]

I'm just wondering how the placebo effect works on people. If a patient is given fake drugs , how does that make him better? So what if they feel more "assured", how would that help the body immunity (...
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How to define biological schizophrenia? [closed]

I am thinking the biological factors of biological schizophrenia: a model about the assumption that schizophrenia is caused by biological factors. I am thinking general genetic classes where the ...
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What is two photon calcium imaging?

I have encountered the term "two photon calcium imaging" in a few papers. I have tried to look in the internet but can't understand what this technique actually is. I will be very happy for ...
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Can dopamine antagonists be used as dopamine upregulation?

Can dopamine antagonists such as Thorazine that are used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar be used to upregulate dopamine in the long term in healthy (non schizophrenic or bipolar) users to get a ...
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Differences in the action of Scopolamine and Atropine

Both Scopolamine and Atropine are muscarinic antagonists, having essentially the same action: blocking parasympathetic nerve receptors. The action on the brain by muscarinic antagonists is presumed ...
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Link between hypoglycemic events in Type 1 diabetics and clinical anxiety?

I recognize that the scientific community is aware that the chemical stress pathway is mediated by glucocorticoids. The pathway response initializes as a result of some sort of stress (potentially ...
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Why are so many recreational drugs serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonists?

I found out that many psychoactive drugs partially activate the 5HT1A receptor. Looking at Wikipedia, these include MDMA, LSD, CBD, Psliocybin/Psilocin, amphetamine and various other psychedelics, and ...
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Why is alcohol such a weak drug?

Most day to day drugs such as caffeine and paracetamol require a dosage in milligrams to have the desired effect. Why then, does it take many tens of grams of alcohol to have a tangible/noticeable ...
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Why alcohol can't help with OCD?

I was thinking about influence of ethanol on our brain. We know, that ethanol can affect GABA receptors and increase flow of chlorine in our brain cells. So it makes signal weaker and slow our CNS ...
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How does valerian make you calmer?

Why do Valerian pills make us calmer? What is the mechanism behind it? I understand how artificial tranquilizers work. Do valerian pill have similar chemical components?
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Why do typical acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (like carbamates) have a greater parasympathetic effect than a sympathetic effect?

I understand that the post-ganglionic neurones of the sympathetic system are adrenergic, but surely these neurones will be excited to the same extent as the parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurones (...
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What is an extinction test?

In Stolerman & Olufsen (2001) I read the sentence: After drug-appropriate responding with the training mixtures reached 85%, generalisation to ethanol was examined in extinction tests. Here ...
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Definition of general anesthesia

To quote Goodman & Gilman : An alternative way of defining the anesthetic state is to consider it as a collection of “component” changes in behavior or perception. The components of the ...
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Are antihistamines considered to be psychoactive substances?

I have heard many times that the widely used antihistamines are not considered to be psychoactive drugs. Yet their impact on ones cognitive functions can be substantial. According to some sources, ...
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Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Why do antidepressants take so long to reach efficacy? I've read of theories about it perhaps being due to the strength of negative feedback via serotonergic and adrenergic autoreceptors during the ...