Questions tagged [respiration]

The exchange of gases across organs that facilitate transport of the gases to and from the cells of the organism.

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Odd- and even-sneezers

There's an anecdotal claim that people exhibit clear pattern when clearing their nose: Usually sneezing once (odd-sneezers) Usually sneezing twice (even-sneezers) Usually making a long series of ...
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How deep underwater could you breathe using a tube which breaks the surface until the water pressure makes it impossible to inhale air?

I'm struggling with a question asking how deep you can breathe underwater using a hollow reed before the water pressure makes it impossible to inhale. The question asked to use this data of maximal ...
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How do schools of fish get enough oxygen?

Fish get oxygen from the water running over their gills, during which up to ~80% of oxygen is removed from the water. In schools of fish, how do fish swimming behind other fish get enough oxygen in ...
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Is it incorrect to assume alveoli as spherical and distinct, especially when analysing lung inflation/deflation?

I have recently read the paper "Laplace’s Law and the Alveolus: A Misconception of Anatomy and a Misapplication of Physics". To summarise it, here is a section from its abstract: The ...
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Do airsacs contract and expand when birds breathe? [closed]

Something I was wondering. When birds breathe, do their airsacs contract and expand like the lungs do? Also, if they do, do they contract and expand as much as the lungs do? Thanks so much!
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Can fermentation and aerobic respiration occur at the same time?

In muscle cells during exercise, does lactic acid fermentation and aeorobic respiration occur at the same time, and does this mean the cell makes more or less ATP during this time? The cell can't ...
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Is there a known efficiency rate for CO2 capture from ambient air in photosynthesising plants?

When humans take in air to their lungs, we capture about 5% of the total quantity of the air as oxygen (which in turn equals about 24% of the available oxygen in the air) Is there an equivalent rate ...
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What are the side-effects of long-term liquid breathing?

I just saw a recent Physics question that mentioned liquid breathing (which I had never heard of before) and I started to wonder about its long-term effects. Let's imagine a person underwent liquid ...
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How long to breathe (the equivalent of) all of the atmosphere? [closed]

I have done some rough calculations of how long it might take humanity: approx 80,000 years (that's taking Earth's population as 7.5 billion, 11,000 litres a day of breathing, the weight of 1 litre of ...
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What is the mechanism behind ventilatory acclimatization?

In my respiratory physiology lectures, my professor explained that hypoxia-induced hyperventilation occurs in 2 stages when people try to acclimate at high altitudes. My question is about the long-...
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Why does exhaled air still contain oxygen?

I am a high school student and I am a little confused in the concept of breathing: My confusion is that, when we talk of exchange of gases we say that gases always diffuse from their high "...
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combustion vs biological oxidation of glucose [duplicate]

I am a high school student and I am a little confused in cellular respiration, To represent respiration many biology text books just writes, C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O But in actual ...
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How does gas equilibration occur in the alveolus, numerically?

I am attempting to model gas exchange across the alveolar membrane. My main question is there a direct exchange of O2 molecules for CO2 molecules? If so, then my model predicts (assuming alveolar ...
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How does chest wall compliance affect functional residual capacity (FRC)?

The functional residual capacity is made up of expiratory reserve volume (ERV) plus the residual volume (RV) - i.e. the volume of air remaining in the lungs after passive expiration. Compliance of ...
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Are the IRV and ERV equal in amount?

I am reading about Inspiratory Reserve Volume and Expiratory Reserve Volume in my textbook. So my general question is aren't the two terms show the same amount of air ? I would like to tell you why I ...
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Is the diaphragm made of two muscles?

Is there a 'crural' and 'costal' parts of the diaphragm as suggested in this paper or is it just a single muscle?
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Can all oxygen be provided cutaneous in humans?

What partial pressure of oxygen is needed on the skin to completely replace the lungs function as oxygen receivers? Respiration has other functions too. I am only asking about oxygen intake. ...
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Are there land animals that use gill-like organs instead of lungs?

Among aquatic, water-breathing animals, gills and other continuous-flow breathing methods dominate over lungs and other storage-based breathing methods as in land animals. Notably, axolotls have gill-...
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Why is thoracic breathing dominant in women while abdominal breathing is dominant in men?

In human males, lateral movement of thorax constitutes 25% of breathing while abdominal movement accounts for 75% of breathing. It is exactly the opposite in the case of women. I got this piece of ...
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Will obligate aerobic bacteria die if placed in a buffer solution even in the presence of oxygen?

The electron transport chain in aerobic bacteria functions by pumping H+ out of the cell to establish a concentration gradient. So if the bacteria are placed in a buffer solution having pH equal to ...
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Do humans emit more carbon through respiration or defecation?

Where does most of the carbon we ingest go? I understand that a large amount is exhaled as carbon dioxide, but what percent is defecated (and theoretically deposited in the ground)?
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How do plants respire at night?

If the stomata close during the night to conserve water, how does the plant get oxygen for respiration when they are closed? Do they not fully close? Does the plant's metabolism slow down to ...
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What happens if ace2 from lungs is removed? Will there be any major impact on our body?

when ace2 receptors are not present in the lungs will we experience any disturbance or suffer from any other problems
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Unlike humans, why do plants not have something blood-like to transport $O_2$ throughout their body?

Since plants have a large number of stomata at different parts of their body, they can get $O_2$ at almost every part of the plant and so, they don't need to transport it throughout the whole body ...
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Respiration and Photosynthesis of Plant [duplicate]

With the respiration and photosynthesis relationship we know that the products of one of the processes are the reactants of the other. Why do plants still need a constant supply of oxygen, or carbon ...
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Is breathing a reflex action or is it an intrinsic process?

The process of breathing is controlled by respiratory centers in the brain stem. Do these centers have an innate activity, i.e., just send out signals to breathing muscles intrinsically, and have the ...
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Do plants take in the same amount of CO2 as they release?

There are many claims in the media that trees remove more carbon dioxide form the atmosphere than they release back into the atmosphere. By what chemical pathway can this occur? The law that matter is ...
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Why do earthworms surface after a rain?

Googling, I find two different explanations for why earthworms tend to surface after a rain. This page from UCSB, for example, gives both answers, contradicting itself: The first explanation is ...
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Oxygen uptake with gills from water vs lungs from atmosphere

The concentration of oxygen in water tends to be around 6.5-8 mg/L. In the atmosphere, it is 21%, one liter of air weighs roughly 1.25 gram, so, oxygen concentration is 0.25 g/L or 250 mg/L. So, lungs ...
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What is a deep exhalation/inhalation?

I tried to find the academic definition of deep exhalation/inhalation but found nothing special. I speculate that the correct definition is as follows: • Deep ...
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How does the partial pressure of oxygen affect mental focus?

On this Wikipedia page it says that lower oxygen levels can cause light-headedness. Is there evidence that higher partial pressure of oxygen can improve mental focus?
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Can all animals breathe manually?

Originally I was pondering about why we have the ability to breathe manually. I couldn't think of any tangible advantage, given that the body can develop mechanisms to regulate the rate of breathing ...
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What's the (or some of the) minimum(s) amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide needed by plants?

We currently have a problem of increasing $\ce{CO2}$ in the atmosphere. But assuming we find a way to carbon sink it, what is the minimum $\ce{CO2}$ we need to leave in the atmosphere to provide a ...
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Cough at 1000 km/h?

How fast does air move in the airways during a cough? The following passage is from Talley and O'Connor's Clinical examination: a systematic guide to physical diagnosis (emphasis mine): Cough is a ...
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Lungs permeability

My question is: $O_2$ and $CO_2$ pass to (in & out) the bloodstream due to difference in partial pressure and its permeability to those gases (I suppose that's why no $N_2$ passes). So, to what ...
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Is there any organism that is born with all the nutrients and resources needed for their entire lifetime?

I understand that adult mayflies have no mouth, but they do take in oxygen through openings in their exoskeleton. Is there any organism that does not need to ingest any type of nutrition and does not ...
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How does the body switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Lets take the case of a person doing heavy exercise. Aerobic respiration is taking place, but oxygen is about to be finished up. Glycolysis occurs, Krebs cycle finishes. Now NADH and FADH2 enter ...
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Why does affinity of Hemoglobin increases for Oxygen in carbon monoxide poisoning?

I have studied this in almost every physiology book but I just can't understand how carbon monoxide can affect oxygen's affinity to Hemoglobin. I know that there is left shift in oxygen dissociation ...
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How does shortage of oxygen halt the NADH dehydrogenase complex?

I understand that in the absence of oxygen the functioning of cytochrome c oxidase stops because it is its substrate. However I don’t understand how stopping cytochrome c oxidase also stops the ...
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What triggers the switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

I understand that when there is a shortage of oxygen cells convert the pyruvic acid from glycolysis to lactic acid to regenerate NAD+. What I don’t understand is how they switch to anaerobic ...
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Formula for Oxygen Consumption for Atlantic Salmon (Mathematical) - insecurities regarding variable

The oxygen is calculated in mg per kg per something, so what does $h^{-1}$ stand for? hours maybe? The formula given below is an estimation of oxygen consumption for Atlantic salmon \begin{...
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How are electrons entering the electron transport chain in cellular respiration energised (excited)?

In photosynthesis, electrons are excited by light energy from the sun (photoactivated). How do they become excited in human cellular respiration? I believe it has something to do with NADH and ...
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Surviving only on another's exhales?

While reading this - Surviving under water in air bubble - this question came to me: How long can an adult person survive on breathing in only exhales of another adult person? Can this be even ...
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What are the sources of molecular hydrogen in human breath?

In the BBC News article CES 2019: Tech preview of the expo's hottest new gadgets there is a new product that one can use to measure the hydrogen in ones breath, and this is supposed to have some ...
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Calculation of Respiration Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems Based on Total Respiration (RT)

Overview Researchers have been studying a temperate grassland ecosystem with the view to understand it's current status with regard to carbon inputs and outputs and to identify whether the grassland ...
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What does the difference between GPP - NPP represent?

Overview Researchers have been studying a temperate grassland ecosystem with the view to understand it's current status with regard to carbon inputs and outputs and to identify whether the grassland ...
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What is the role of lamellar bodies in lung cells?

Lamellar bodies have been found to be secreted in lung cells many of their associated proteins have been identified. What is the current consensus or research on the function that these lamellar ...
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What causes inhalation during breathing?

I have read here that the two major inhalation muscles are the (1) diaphragm and the (2) external intercostals. Additionally, inhalation can also be caused by (1) expansion of the abdominal cavity, ...
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Why is ATP synthase sometimes referred to as ATPase?

Quite a few times I have seen the term ‘ATPase’ used for what I would consider ATP synthase. For example, my text has: “The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is also catalysed by the enzyme ATPase.” I ...
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If the effect of increase CO2 in the air has a negative effect, why doesn't decreased CO2 have a positive effect?

I recently asked a question about whether there were studies on the effects of reduced CO2 level air and got what sounds like a good answer: Are there studies on the effect of reduced CO2 levels on ...