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RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a biological macromolecule made of nucleotides used in cells to convey genetic information to protein. RNA also plays a role in catalyzing certain biological reactions as well as carrying genetic material in some viruses.

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How do reoviruses manage to get nuceic acids inside their core given they stay in the host cell to replicate ?

To avoid host cell shut off and apoptosis, reoviruses produce capped mRNA internally within a core particle and the only viral genome released in the cytoplasm of the infected cells is ssRNA. Where ...
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Transcription of Multiple RNAs on One Section of DNA in Eukaryotes

When RNA Polymerase moves along the template strand it bind to the promoter and moves along in a 3'-5' fashion on the template strand. Can RNA Polymerase also move along the coding strand of this ...
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What makes/breaks the hydrogen bonds between DNA and RNA during transcription?

So I know that RNA polymerase catalyzes the phosphodiester bonds that hold the sugar backbones of a growing mRNA molecule together during transcription. However, I'm less sure about the hydrogen bonds ...
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The differences between RNA and DNA and why Uracil is used instead of Thymine

How does the chemical build of uracil make it better suited than thymine to be used in RNA?
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Why does M1 RNA together with C5 protein in 100mM Mg(II) fail to cleave tRNA?

Sidney Altman discovered that RNA moeity of RNAse P (M1 RNA) alone is able to perform enzymatic cleavage of ptRNA, which won him the Nobel Prize of Chemistry in 1989. However, when I read the Nobel ...
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RNA isolation problem in Drosophila larvae

I am trying to isolate total RNA from Drosophila larvae using TRIzol method. I am using 30-40 larvae for the same. Is it an appropriate number for RNA isolation? I got 260/280 ratio as 1.8 and 260/...
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Why analyse transcriptome instead of proteome?

Analysing the transcriptome (RNA-Seq, microarrays, qPCR etc) is probably the most widely used technology to assess gene expression and dynamic cellular processes. The results are then extrapolated (...
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144 views

How does transcription end?

In rho-dependent termination in prokaryotes, how does RNA polymerase “know” that it has reached the end of a gene and that it has to stop so that the rho-factor can bind mRNA’s rut site? Is there a ...
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Order of samples for RNA extraction

I want to extract RNA from various tissue samples, liver, gut etc, in different treatment groups. Due to the large amount of samples I will extract in sets. I am wondering, in reducing the potential ...
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how Eukaryotic cell protect itself from RNAi , silencing mechanism?

RNAi- rna interference the siRNA can potentially bind to a part of coding rna strand having the complementary bases w.r.t siRNA. So how does cell protect essential coding rna from the RNAi mechanism ...
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Sequence between PolyA signal and PolyA tail

Between the polyadenylation (PolyA) signal (AAUAAA in humans) and the start of the polyA tail, there is a short sequence of about 10~20 (G/U rich) bases, is there a special term for it? Image credit: ...
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If a person is infected with an RNA virus what percentage of the RNA in the blood of the person contains RNA of the virus?

Karius uses DNA sequencing of everything that's contained in a sample to detect all bacteria and DNA-viruses in the sample. Given the way that costs of sequencing are falling this approach seems to be ...
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How to design shRNA?

So I have to design a shRNA and insert it in a vector with on the 5'end a Xhol restriction site and at the 3' end a BglII site. The gene of interest: ...
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38 views

Why did protocell division coincide exactly with RNA replication?

I know that, in the RNA world, it has been suggested that the first protocell formed by a hollow liposome structure encapsulating an RNA molecule. However, from then on it becomes confusing: I've ...
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49 views

Secondary structure and function in mRNA and single-stranded virus RNA

Although some mRNAs and the RNA of single-stranded RNA viruses do have some secondary structure, this is much less than in rRNA, tRNA etc. Why is this so? What prevents their folding to the extent ...
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1answer
562 views

RNA polymerase and DNA helicase

Is DNA helicase or RNA polymerase responsible for breaking the hydrogen bond between the 2 strands during transcription for eukaryotic cells? My textbook (WJEC Biology for AS level) says it is DNA ...
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1answer
26 views

The role of GC content in promoting or hindering transcription

This is quite a specific question, and I'm hoping someone might be able to assist in a literature hunt I've been engaged in for ages. I study some long bacterial operons, and have noticed that the GC%...
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48 views

What causes the complementary copy of an RNA molecule to separate?

I have recently read an article which explains that, in the RNA World hypothesis, an RNA molecule gets 'scanned' by nucleic acid, catalysed by a different specifically-folded RNA molecule, to arrange ...
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UV-lamp, DNA and RNA extraction lab

I'm equipping a lab room (~3x5 meters) that's supposed to be used for DNA and RNA extractions. I know about the basic safety precautions when working with RNA and DNA extraction (fresh gloves, ...
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With respect to which METRIC is my DNA 99% similar to any other person's DNA? [duplicate]

I clarified my question, by editing the title. Using the comments and links below, I have answered it myself: The answer to my question is: The similarity is between 98.4%-99.9%, depending on which ...
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2answers
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Insertion of an additional base at start codon make the protein still functional?

So the question is if: a deletion of a codon for the amino acid lysine (AAG) is more or less likely to cause nonfunctionality of the protein than: Insertion of an additional base (C) within the ...
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Correct structure of RNA [closed]

Of the 2 figures, which is the correct structure of RNA, This is the link : 1: https://i.stack.imgur.com/IYgyv.jpg Sorry, the figure is not to scale. If there's any problem with the question ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between alarmones and riboswitches

An Alarmone is an intracellular signal molecule that is produced due to harsh environmental factors. They regulate the gene expression at transcription level. A riboswitch is a regulatory segment of a ...
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Eukaryotic equivalent of bacterial tmRNA

According to this Wikipedia article, tmRNA is only found in bacteria, with its purpose being to “rescue stalled ribosomes”. This brings me to the question of is there a eukaryotic equivalent of this ...
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How do cells determine RNA types?

I was reading about the different types of RNA polymerases, and I am confused as to how a cell determines which type of RNA it is transcribing. According to this nature article: RNA pol I ...
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2answers
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Ribosomes producing proteins, but need proteins to be produced?

So according to my textbook: RNA is used to create ribosomal RNA (known as rRNA) which is then combined with proteins to form the ribomsomes necessary for protein synthesis. I'm a bit confused ...
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Does the complimentary base pairing of rRNA with itself play a role in its transcription?

I have read that the termination of the transcription of mRNA involves a termination sequence in the form of a stem loop. As the structure of ribosomal RNA involves extensive internal base pairing, I ...
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What is the point of storing biological samples in Trizol/TriSURE before RNA extraction?

The Wikipedia article on Trizol says that it helps break the cells and maintain RNA integrity during homogenisation of samples. Does anybody know by how much Trizol improves RNA integrity compared to ...
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Will an RNA sequence anneal to its forward-complement sequence?

Say I have a target RNA strand: 5'--AAUGGCCCUUUAAA-->3' I know that this strand will readily anneal to the sequence 3'<--UUACCGGGAAAUUU--5' which is the reverse-complement. I'm wondering if ...
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131 views

Questions about RNA Polymerase

I'm confused about the terminology and directions described in processing DNA to proteins in this paragraph. RNA polymerase reads a DNA template in the 3’ to 5’ direction to synthesize RNA in the ...
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2answers
76 views

Complete human rDNA sequence

I've been trying to retrieve the complete human rDNA sequence (non-spacers and spacers), which should be about 43-kb in length using Biomart, NCBI, and rnacentral, but I have only been able to find ...
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31 views

Should I use glycogen in isopropanol to precipitate RNA or does glycogen have harmful consequences on downstream protocols such as RNA seq?

I have heard that one can use glycogen in isopropanol to better visualise the RNA pellet after centrifugation. What are the advantages and disadvantages of adding glycogen in isopropanol for RNA ...
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Smallest, specific RNA-binding protein - w/ sequence?

I'm looking to synthetically fuse an RNA-binding protein onto another protein, inside a viral vector which has a size-limit. I've considered some options, but I'm wondering what StackExchange will say....
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Incomprehensible Bioanalyzer profile

I have extracted RNA from about 4000 C. elegans worms today, using my Trisure and phase-lock gel protocol. The ratios at the Nanodrop are excellent, indicating that there is not protein or salt ...
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120 views

Should I use RNAseZAP on my bench and pipettes before RNA extraction?

Should I spray RNAseZAP on my bench and pipettes before working with RNA? I am regularly using RNase at my bench and would like to work with RNA as well. Could traces of RNase on my equipment degrade ...
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55 views

Where is DNA during the process of RNA extraction using Trisure?

Where is DNA during the process of RNA extraction using Trisure described here? Given that DNA is also a nucleic acid, should I expect the isolated RNA to also contain DNA? However, Bioline claims RNA ...
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Assays for detecting RNA binding with protein

In a project I'm working on, we are designing a system where specific RNAs bind to proteins - an important part of this is to test whether the RNA binds when we modify the proteins in some way. What ...
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271 views

Is there a double helix RNA?

I wonder what is its function and if it can be the genetic material for a living organism. If not, why?
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Why can't nucleotides when mixed together form an RNA on their own?

Why nucleotides when mixed together in the absence of a template RNA molecule do not readily link up into a chain? We know that the bond between nucleotides side by side is stronger than the hydrogen ...
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Meaning of term ‘rapidly labeled RNA’

I encountered the term, “rapidly labeled RNA”, in the article: Rapidly labeled HeLa cell nuclear RNA. I. Identification by zone sedimentation of a heterogeneous fraction separate from ribosomal ...
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Why is a T-to-C change assumed to be A-to-I in RNA-seq data? (RNA editing)

I understand that the mechanism of A-to-I change is deamination of adenosine (A) by one of the ADAR enzymes and that this resulting inosine (I) nucleotide is translated as a guanine (G) by translation ...
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Can a phosphodiester bond form between RNA and DNA?

In the initiation of DNA synthesis: the RNA segments are first synthesized by primase and then elongated by DNA polymerase (Wikipedia). What does 'elongated' mean in this context? Is it possible ...
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What do you call mRNAs that translate to the same protein?

For example AUAACC and AUCACG in distinct mRNAs may both be translated to the same dipeptide Ile-Thr.
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Is spliceosomal RNA called snRNP or snRNA? [closed]

I have been reading articles by various sources, and they seem to interchangeably call the U1/U2/U4/U6 compounds involved in RNA splicing snRNPs as well as snRNAs. This confuses me deeply. They must ...
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Meaning of acceptor/donor splicing sites? [closed]

What is the meaning of acceptor and donor in acceptor site and donor site expressions in the context of RNA splicing. Note that I know the biological meaning of these concepts. I am just intrigued by ...
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207 views

why is DNA better for storing genetic info while RNA better for transmission of it?

I do know that RNA cannot be used for transmission since it is unstable, but how does it prove to be a better transmitter of genetic information?
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58 views

de novo assembly applications

Hey I hope this question supposed to be in this forum. I'm not from the biology community, I'm from the data security community so im not familiar with the words you might use for answers I need to ...
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184 views

Where does tracrRNA comes from? [closed]

I'm talking about CRISPR system. I know the crRNA is transcribed from the palindromic repeat and the "spacer" but I don't know where the tracrRNA comes from.
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Is there any evidence for the validity of RNA/DNA supplements?

Is there any evidence for the validity of RNA/DNA supplements? I've recently been seeing advertisements for RNA and DNA health supplements in the form of a pill, which claim to perform some rather ...
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How can one determine how much of a region flanking an RNA sequence of interest to include in order to look for interfering secondary structures?

I have a set of RNA sequences, and I have been analyzing slices (i.e. target frames) of these sequences in order to determine whether they conform to certain structural criteria. One of these criteria ...