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Tag for questions related to interaction between two different species living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.

6
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1answer
65 views

What benefits do sloths and manatees gain from algae growth on their fur/skin?

Slow moving sloths and manatees have green algae growing on their fur/skin. Are there any other animals that have algae growth on them, and does the algae benefit the fitness of these animals? ...
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0answers
38 views

What is this mushroom that only grows next to my tomato seedlings?

So far something like ten out of fifty seedlings (20%) have had this mushroom grow right next to a tomato seedling and nowhere else in the planters. The black gooey caps are between a peppercorn and a ...
-1
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2answers
95 views

Is there any species that cannot reproduce without its symbiont? [closed]

I was thinking about humans and machines being symbiotic "species". So I wonder if there exists in biology a species that could not reproduce without its symbiont.
3
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0answers
246 views

How did Portuguese man-of-war evolve?

In particular, how did the close cooperation of its many component species evolve? My hypothesis is that it began with a few, probably no more than two zooids cooperating in symbiosis, and overtime, ...
15
votes
3answers
199 views

Spruce growing high up in a maple trunk: Can a partially rotted trunk completely sustain another tree?

I've come across a spruce tree that is growing 15ft up in the crotch of a sugar maple tree: According to Google StreetView, the spruce has been there since before 2007 (over 10 years ago!). I've ...
2
votes
1answer
588 views

How do aerobic Rhizobium bacteria survive in root nodules while fixing atmospheric nitrogen?

I read that rhizobium carry the enzyme nitrogenase, which is irreversibly damaged upon the exposure of oxygen. Inside the root nodule of legumes leg-haemoglobin keeps a microaerophilic environment ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Are there any bacterial lineages which are particularly well adapted to becoming endosymbionts?

Is there any particular bacterial lineages which contain a large number of endosymbiotic species and that inhabit a large range of eukaryotic hosts? To me, this would seem to suggest that they are ...
6
votes
1answer
276 views

Phoresis and mechanical vectors

According to wikipedia and Human Parasitology By Burton Jerome Bogitsh, Clint Earl Carter, Thomas N. Oeltmann Phoresis: In this type of symbiotic relationship, the phoront, usually the smaller ...
4
votes
2answers
311 views

Basic question about symbiosis( or about kinds of symbiosis)

Is there a type of symbiosis where an organism is harmed and the other is neither harmed nor helped? If not, do you think there's a term for this sort of relation between two organisms?
0
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0answers
316 views

Can certain jellyfish photosynthesize in the medusa stage?

Can jellyfish (at least some of them) do photosynthesis in the symbiosis with zooxanthellae in their medusa form as well? I've heard that only Cassiopea andromeda can but I wasn't able to find a ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Why would a flower evolve such that a particular pollinator cannot pollinate it?

I went on an interpretive trail today and came across a wild flower sign. It said that some flower species evolved such that they can not be pollinated by humming birds as they are shaped such that ...
1
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3answers
99 views

Special bacteria in infants

This question is similar to a previous question, but is not the same. I was told, you are born with a bacteria in your digestive track that are made by the body. Can a body in development create it'...
3
votes
1answer
395 views

How does the mutualism of figs and wasps exactly work?

I have just rudimentary knowledge about the mutualism of figs and wasps and would like to know how this works step by step. Also how do humans use this mutualism? Do they support or hinder it at some ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Do clients of cleaner fish queue up?

I can't remember if I saw it in a cartoon, a documentary, or both, but the notion is that the clients of cleaner fish wait in line to be cleaned. "Clients" means the fish (or other aquatic animals) ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

How does symbiogenesis explain reproduction of organelles along with the cell?

Symbiogenesis is an evolutionary theory that says that prokaryotes eventually evolved into eukaryotes (having multiple organelles and better structure) by forming symbiotic relationships with other ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Why only mitochondria and plastids?

Why are there only two unique semi-independent organelles? Why are there no others, symbiogenesis seems like it should be a relatively common thing. So do most organelles just lose all their DNA? Or ...
3
votes
2answers
160 views

Can galls be formed from mutualistic relationships?

According to Wikipedia, galls (cecidia) are formed by parasitic insects and mites like gall wasps (Neuroterus albipes). At some metamorphic stage, these organisms alter cell division processes in ...
2
votes
3answers
283 views

Do adult humans exchange beneficial bacteria? If so, how?

Recently there has been increasing interest and research into symbiotic bacteria present in humans and human gut. I'm aware of two new discoveries: humans are surrounded by a unique cloud of ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

phosphorous availability to mycorrhizae and parent plant, timing - paper search

I'm researching phosphorous uptake in monocots to develop planting mixes for riparian planting. I recently saw a paper suggesting (the author lacked proof) that root zone mycorrhizae may solubilize ...