Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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Reading genotype aloud

For this genotype, P2ry12$^{+/+}$ I read it "P2ry12 wild type." For animals with the GFP being expressed under one Cx3cr1 promoter, Cx3cr1$^{+/GFP}$, how do I read that aloud? What about for:...
neurosciencecalc's user avatar
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There are plants and animal genera with the same Latin name. What are the scopes of uniqueness?

The genus Leptochilus occurs as a genus of wasps, and of a genus of ferns. What are the parts of the phylogenetic tree where uniqueness is required, and how many of them are they? (Where can I read ...
Falko's user avatar
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Why is tautonymy forbidden in botany?

From Merriam Webster: tautonym: a taxonomic binomial in which the generic name and specific epithet are alike and which is common in zoology especially to designate a typical form but is forbidden to ...
imrobert's user avatar
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What is the exact definition of the term 'trait'?

A trait is a characteristic shown by an organism. For example a Tt plant would show the 'tallness' trait. It seems to me that, by analogy, sickle cell anaemia (SCA) carriers should show the 'normal' ...
Harjot Dhillon's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
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Is the "endo-" prefix in "endotherm" inconsistent/opposite to its use in "endothermic reaction"?

It seems to me that the "endo-" in the biology term "endotherm" is opposite to the "endo-" in the chemistry term "endothermic reaction." Is that the case? As I ...
Alexander's user avatar
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Is this scenario allopatric or sympatric speciation?

I stumbled over a speciation scenario but I am not able to say to which type it belongs. I guess for people more familiar with the theory it might be easy to tell. I was reading about the fin whale (...
G. Blaickner's user avatar
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Are organisms that are genetically modified with a deletion classified as "transgenic"?

Imagine you delete a genomic region in a zygote with a CRISPR plasmid to generate an F1 animal with a genomic deletion. The animal should be considered transgenic because of the presence of the ...
AdamCS's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
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What is the exact definition of a "gene"?

(In this question, I'm only considering the molecular-biology notion of a gene, not the older Mendelian notion.) Wikipedia defines a "gene" as "a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that is ...
tparker's user avatar
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What is regional homogeneity in neurology?

newbie to.neurology here. For context, I'm studying this article (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-89166-8#Sec14) which relates the gut microbiome to brain structure in schizophrenia ...
Specs_Goldfish's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
102 views

When did the term "non-avian dinosaur" come in common use?

When I first learned about the prehistoric (mega)fauna that we now commonly call non-avian dinosaurs they where just referred to as dinosaur. I am trying to figure out when we made the collective ...
Dinomaster's user avatar
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What is the Latin term for animals which dust bathe?

I have lost track of this term. I am sure that I encountered a Latin word (not a taxonomic word) which applies to all animals which dust bathe. I fact, I am not even sure how to describe a word like ...
Theo H's user avatar
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Do we need to underline the name of a gene while handwriting?

While teaching about the cry genes and the Cry proteins in Biology class, my teacher told us that the names of genes are always written in lowercase and should be italicized, and the name of protein ...
Juhi Kumari's user avatar
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Is there a word to describe a sample of DNA that can be sequenced?

This is a question about terminology. I want to know if there is a word that is used to describe a sample as "able to be sequenced". My rough guess would be "sequencable". But that ...
Kevin Bowersox's user avatar
14 votes
5 answers
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Explaining "paraphyly" for the layperson?

I was a molecular biology major a while ago, but I never think I really understood cladistics TBH. Now reading about paraphyly, it shows this: In this phylogenetic tree [second image], the green ...
Lance's user avatar
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Is there a term to designate the property for an enzyme of catalyzing several reactions from the same substrate?

LacZ (beta-galacosidase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into either galactose and glucose or allolactose. Is there a term to designate such property for a single enzyme of catalysing several ...
The Quark's user avatar
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gene dosage vs copy number

In the online articles I'm reading, I see the authors mention gene dosage and copy number. My confusion is regarding if the two terms mean exactly the same thing - number of copies a gene occur in the ...
SmallChess's user avatar
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Additional to SNP (variant) calling, what is genotype calling in human genome?

Variant calling in human genome aims to determine in which positions there is polymorphic site or in which positions at least one of the dna bases differs from a human reference genome. Then beside ...
envs_h_gang_5's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
71 views

Scientific terms for front-brain, mid-brain and back-brain

I am looking for a (semi-) scientific way of phrasing "front part of brain" (part 1), "middle part of brain" (part 2) and "back part of brain" (part 3) as denoted in the ...
gmut's user avatar
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1 answer
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What does "run" mean in DNA sequencing?

In "[Genomics: A Very Short Introduction]" by John Archibald, the author discusses the DNA sequencing: In reality, most nuclear genomes are a mixture of unique sequences and short and long ...
Ahmed Samir's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
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What does ‘per DNA fragment’ mean?

In "[Genomics: A Very Short Introduction]" by John Archibald, the author discusses the DNA sequencing: In living cells, DNA rarely exists in isolation; it is typically bound tightly to ...
Ahmed Samir's user avatar
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What's the terminology for the deformity between the halluces and index toes caused by sandals?

In Japan, especially in the past, people tended to wear wooden sandals or the like, which separated their halluces from their index toes. As a result, there is often a gap between their halluces and ...
Michael's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What's the term for "Amino acid regulating the expression of components used to synthesize it"?

In the tryptophan operon wikipedia page, it says under the Attenuation title: A similar attenuation mechanism regulates the synthesis of histidine, phenylalanine and threonine. If my reading is ...
Freezing Soul's user avatar
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2 answers
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What is meant by "Common descent"?

"Common descent is a concept in evolutionary biology applicable when one species is the ancestor of two or more species later in time." (Wikipedia) [Credit:https://bio.libretexts.org/...
Freezing Soul's user avatar
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1 answer
132 views

What is a random piece of DNA called?

If I picked up a DNA molecule and randomly snipped out a piece with scissors what is the scientific name for the resulting piece? I'll confess right up front that I am not an academic or professional. ...
NetCentric's user avatar
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388 views

Are, or how are, polyuria and diuresis different?

http://wikidiff.com/diuresis/polyuria and http://neetprep.com/subject/U3ViamVjdDo1Ng==/topic/VG9waWM6NzEx/doubt/RG91YnQ6MTQ0MDc= appear to state that the terminology is identical, or provide ...
RokeJulianLockhart's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
224 views

What does "sect." mean?

For example, Centaurea sect. Microlophus
Al Lelopath's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
656 views

What is the technical term for a combination-mouth-anus?

Some organisms have a single hole that is used both for food intake and for waste excretion. Does the scientific community have a name for that hole? What is it called? Or is it simply called the ...
Mathew Alden's user avatar
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2 answers
58 views

Examples of subvarieties and forms in botany or other biological nomenclature?

So I found a fairly complex Rhododendron subgenus to subsection classification list, and despite there being ...
Lance's user avatar
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What is the difference between "ecological succession" and the term "stage of regeneration", is there a difference between them?

In ecology what is the meaning of the term "ecological succession" and the term "stage of regeneration", is there a difference between them? Edit 1: Perhaps the term "Stage of ...
wesleysc352's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
34 views

Terminology for Transgenes

I'm designing an in vivo delivery vector for therapeutic transgenes. I have two different potential versions of the transgenes. If they were innate, they'd be referred to as "alleles." Does ...
Laura Prendergast's user avatar
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Is there any universally accepted definition for pain?

There are many terms in the literature of any domain of knowledge that does not have a standard or universally accepted definition. There can be several definitions from several organizations or ...
hanugm's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the difference between ‘classical’ and ‘non-classical’ pathogen resistance genes in plants?

I have stumbled across a mention of classical resistance genes against pests in plants, however the classification seems a bit vague. What would be classified as classical resistance genes and what as ...
Olaf's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
3k views

What does rescue mean in the context of biological experiments?

I have come across the term 'rescue' in biological contexts a lot recently and despite reading multiple definitions online cannot seem to get my head around what the word means on its own, and what it ...
aquaporin's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
299 views

Animal specific names with non-alphabetic characters

I'm part of a research team that investigates and documents native bee species, and we identified one of our Andrena specimens as A. w-scripta. With over ten years of experience in insect and ray-...
Vampire Fat's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
133 views

What does "DS" stand for in some articles?

I'm super ashamed of asking such a question, but there is an abbreviation that often comes in some papers that I have to read, I have no idea what it stands for and I'm just too ashamed to ask my ...
Natad's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
668 views

Difference between in cis/in trans and in phase/out of phase

Something I've never been quite clear on is the difference between in cis/in trans and in phase/out of phase, as used for the genetics of diploid organisms. My understanding is that the in cis/in ...
Set's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
54 views

What is the DNA sequences between two Inverted Repeats called?

I would like to know some rules about the nomenclature of Inverted Repeats DNA sequences. More in detail, I want to know what is the name of sequences between two inverted repeats. For example, I have ...
Marco Monti's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
43 views

Is there a term for fixation OR loss of an allele?

I remember reading a paper which used a term to describe either fixation OR loss of an allele via drift. Its definition is basically "the removal/fixation of a polymorphism in a population due to ...
Nick O'Brien's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is pyruvate considered a high energy molecule like ATP or NADH?

ATP, NADH and FADH2 are high energy molecules. The second half of glycolysis is known as the pay-off phase, characterised by a net gain of the energy-rich molecules ATP and NADH. In fermentation, for ...
Amir Riazi's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
90 views

How do we determine what we call "flexion" and what we call "extension"?

Question: How did we determine which motion to call "flexion" and which to call "extension" with regard to the wrist and the neck? Background: Just to set the stage, I'm not asking ...
Drew V Mouseton's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
45 views

Is the use of DNA SNPs vs amino acid variations in the description to detail the absence or presence of a consequent amino acid variation?

Studying Schizophrenia and reading some papers discussing polymorphisms in the 5HT-2A receptor gene (HTR2A). Specifically, the authors mention A-1438G, T102C, his452tyr. Was his452tyr not described as ...
neurosciencecalc's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
361 views

Why are O-antigens and H-antigens on (certain) bacteria called O and H?

Somehow, despite extensive searching, I cannot find an answer.... Does O stand for oxygen and H signify hydrogen?
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
2k views

What is, (and what isn't) "kinetic replication" as it applies to molecules and to living organisms?

CNN's World's first living robots can now reproduce, scientists say describes "xenobots"; clusters of stem cells that move around and by this motion occasionally push enough free stem cells ...
uhoh's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Where could I find biology-specialized transcription services for my conference? [closed]

I'm a conference organizer for various conferences in the field of biology. Just recently, I stumbled upon this Nature article: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-03487-2 and I have ...
Martin S.'s user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
39 views

Is tumor necrosing factor alpha now properly referred to as "tumor necrosing factor"?

"Because LTα is no longer referred to as TNFβ,[64] TNFα, as the previous gene symbol, is now simply called TNF, as shown in HGNC (HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee) database." says https://en....
Matthew Christopher Bartsh's user avatar
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1 answer
58 views

What morphological traits can be used to diagnose members of the Eucalypteae?

I read the Wikipedia article on Eucalypteae and it doesn't actually say what these plants have in common. (I am now reading through https://bsapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.3732/ajb.1200025 ...
Step Start's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

What is the proper anatomical name of the "band of Richer" that wraps around the quadriceps femoris?

There's this fascial band called the band of Richer that wraps around the quadriceps femoris muscle above the knee (in this illustration, look for it near the left knee). It seems to stem from the ...
Vun-Hugh Vaw's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
154 views

meaning of the name "Dictyostelium discoideum"

Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-known species of slime mould. Does anyone know what the name means? Here's my best guess. I found the 1935 article in which it was first described, but there doesn't ...
garrett mitchener's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
438 views

The use of the word “canonical” in biological science

What is the meaning of the word canonical in a scientific context? This is an example that I do not understand: BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the ...
Arash Salehi's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
102 views

What is the meaning of harboring cryptic in below sentence?

Tissue culture became more widely used at this time because of the introduction of antibiotics, which facilitated long-term cell line propagation, although many people were already warning against ...
Arash Salehi's user avatar

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