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Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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What is the botanical term for plants attraction to light/water/gravity? [on hold]

What is the scientific term for the botanical atrraction to Light/water/gravity?
2
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1answer
57 views

What is meant by “heads” and “tails” in the context of gene orientation?

I have a hard time understanding what this paper is talking about when it says: We observed maximal cleavage at sites oriented tail-to-tail and separated by -10 bp to +30 bp (Fig. 2d). Finally, ...
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3answers
1k views

What is the definition of “Natural Selection”?

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. Natural selection, a process that results in the adaptation of an organism to its ...
5
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0answers
114 views

What's a “constitutionally small penis”?

I'm reading some urology papers and came across one involving penis growth (Kim & Song, 2008); here's an intro passage that I'm confused about: A total of 58 patients with constitutionally ...
2
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1answer
25 views

What is the reason behind the subphylum name “Urochordata” for tunicates?

There are two major invertebrate subphyla of the chordates (phylum Chordata): Cephalochordata (the lancelets) Urochordata, aka Tunicata (the tunicates) My understanding is that the cephalochordates ...
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0answers
9 views

What soft tissue separates bones of toes?

I need to know a little about the "knuckles" of toes; specifically the 4 areas that separate the 5 proximal/metatarsal joins. I'd like to know the terms for areas that might be damaged if the width ...
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1answer
54 views

What does the number after Vitamin B signify?

Does the number after Vitamin B signify anything? For example what is the significance of 12 in Vitamin B12?
6
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2answers
72 views

Why is ATP synthase sometimes referred to as ATPase?

Quite a few times I have seen the term ‘ATPase’ used for what I would consider ATP synthase. For example, my text has: “The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is also catalysed by the enzyme ATPase.” I ...
2
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1answer
63 views

Why is xylem a tissue and not an organ?

My textbook "CGP AS-Level Biology Exam Board: Edexcel Complete Revision & Practice" says xylem is a tissue. Then I read from this website that "[Xylem's] major components include xylem parenchyma,...
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0answers
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What's inside the perinuclear space?

The cell proper contains the cytoplasm in general and the cytosol in particular when referring to the fluid/gel without notable organelle. Once we move inside the nucleus there is the nucleoplasm and ...
0
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1answer
43 views

Notation for repetitive nucleic acids

With regard to nucleic acids with repeating residues, could anyone provide a description of what the following sequences are, and the key differences between them: Poly(dA) Oligo(dA) Poly(A)
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2answers
65 views

Why is photosynthesis described as a “physico-chemical” process? [closed]

In my textbook it is given that photosynthesis is a physico-chemical process. How can it be a physical process?
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1answer
48 views

Is there an adjective I can use to describe body parts like hands, feet, eyes, and ears that exist on both sides of the body's sagittal plane?

Body parts like human hands, feet, ears, eyes, etc. exist on either side of the human body's sagittal plane and can therefore be specified with the adjectives left and right. Is there a special ...
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1answer
21 views

Is there a word for the length of time an animal stays with parents before going off on their own?

Gestation is a word describing the pregnancy for animals, and you can use 'gestation period' to describe how long a pregnancy generally takes for a species. I'd like to know if there's a corollary ...
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1answer
43 views

More general term than “adaptation”

The Wikipedia article about adaptation states: Adaptation differs from flexibility, acclimatization, and learning. What is a more general term than adaptation? For example, is there an umbrella ...
0
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1answer
42 views

What do the acronyms in C.elegans neuron names stand for? [closed]

In this site, I see a variety of acronymic names for C.elegans neurons but what do these names mean (for example AVAL, AVAR)?
3
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1answer
33 views

Difference between crossover rate and recombination rate?

I am not a biology student and therefore, need clarification if crossover rate and recombination rate are the same thing. So if the text says 'recombination rate per base pair per generation' or '...
0
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1answer
34 views

The reproduction patterns of fungi: what’s the difference between them?

I am going to take TOEFL, and am getting perplexed by the difference between cell division and budding and fragmentation of fungi. Those three terms seem like all the same all to me, so could anyone ...
1
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1answer
64 views

What does 'proper' mean in the anatomical context?

I've seen the word 'proper' in websites, lectures, etc., in the context of human anatomy. But I'm unsure as to what its definition is. For example, the 'oral cavity proper'.
2
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0answers
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Veins in Plant Leaves (terminology)

Why do we call the vascular bundles in plant leaves "veins"? I think its probably because the xylem and pholem serve circulatory function analogous to the human body's circulatory system with arteries ...
4
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2answers
556 views

What is a synonym of the word design that can be used in context of evolution?

For example let's take two sentences; "engineer made a design for camera", "evolution made an X for eye". What is the best X that could be used? I need it for an essay about evolution.
2
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1answer
60 views

Is there a name for the use of sunlight in metabolic processes?

"Photosynthesis" is what is used to describe how plants use sunlight to synthesize sugars, but, I also heard some animals like humans use sunlight in the process of creating vitamin D. Is there a ...
2
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1answer
33 views

Is studying chemical and physical properties of chemical substances that make up organisms really a task of molecular biology?

I have read in a high school textbook that (translated into English by myself): "Branch of science that concerns itself with studying chemical and physical properties of substances that make up ...
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1answer
59 views

Are cell biology and cytology the same science?

According to Wikipedia, the terms can be used interchangeably, but according to my college professors, cytology is exclusively the study of chromosomes and identification of their abnormalities.
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2answers
66 views

Loss of function in inflammation

The Wikipedia-article about Inflammation says The five classical signs of inflammation are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function (Latin calor, dolor, rubor, tumor, and functio laesa). ...
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2answers
74 views

What is the meaning of 'state of nature' in On the Origin of species by Charles Darwin?

I have started reading "On the origin of species" by Charles Darwin. The beginning paragraph is: When we look to the individuals of the same variety or sub-variety of our older cultivated plants ...
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1answer
25 views

What is the term for a given interpretation of a fossil record?

There exists a term, that I have heard and forgotten it appears, for taking a described species in paleontology and creating a version of what it was like in life. For example, a prior ...
2
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1answer
60 views

How to tell petiole apart from stem?

How to tell petiole apart from stem? Is it by the rule that there is usually a pair of stipules at the base of a petiole?
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4answers
3k views

Why do both the mango and the bee have “Indica” in their binomial name?

In my textbook, it is written that the binomial name of mango is Mangifera indica and the binomial name of a bee is Apis indica. Now in the name the second part is the name of species. But mango and ...
3
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1answer
369 views

What does the acronym ‘PIN’ stand for referring to PIN proteins in plants?

There are so called PIN proteins, or PIN-formed proteins, in plants. What does this acronym mean? Wikipedia briefly explains the function of the protein but not the origin of the name. It's not ...
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1answer
37 views

Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?
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1answer
95 views

What means a vírus prototype strain?

Whats means the term (prototype vírus strain)is a first virus isolated and without mutations?
2
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0answers
53 views

an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Why plant tissues end in -enchyma?

Many plant tissue types end in the affix -enchyma. Etymology: enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" Examples are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma (meaning "to pour beside," ...
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1answer
76 views

Who are Ursprungliche Eukaryoten?

The school textbook of my daughter (the textbook is written in German) describes the five kingdoms of life: prokaryota, plants, fungi, animals and "Ursprungliche Eukaryoten". These are defined as "...
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1answer
75 views

Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
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1answer
483 views

Is there logic in this sentence? “Authors discovered a gene as one of the genes evolved through natural selection”

From a news report: PhD candidate Daiki Sato and Professor Masakado Kawata have discovered SLC18A1 (VMAT1), which encodes vesicular monoamine transporter 1, as one of the genes evolved through ...
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2answers
95 views

A synthetic sieve organ known as kliver?

in this video at 5:28, the narrator talks about a "vat-grown all-purpose sieve organ" called Kliver that would do away with both liver and kidney transplant. But i don't seem to find online resources ...
4
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1answer
145 views

Is there a specific suffix for “within a cell”? i.e. in a similar manner to how -aemia refers to within the blood

Words like hyperglycemia and hyponatremia refer to the relative level of each component in the blood, not in the cell. Is there a suffix for within the cell? For reference I would like one word as an ...
2
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1answer
91 views

What to call a trait that has current utility but unclear evolutionary origin?

I'm looking for a commonly used term to describe a trait that has clear current utility but an evolutionary origin that is uncertain and that we do not necessarily wish to emphasize in our description ...
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0answers
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What does “operationally soluble” mean, re. Tax10 enzyme?

I am trying to work out whether the enzyme Tax10 is soluble or insoluble. I need to know if some buffers won't work with Tax10. I am trying to confirm Tax10 activity, having confirmed protein ...
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3answers
162 views

Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
4
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1answer
127 views

Hormonal terms Somatotrophin or somatotropin?

Are Somatotropin and Somatotrophin hormones the same? It's confusing because when you type in Somatotrophin in google, it says, "a growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.", but there'...
3
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0answers
115 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
3
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1answer
55 views

What is it called when an animal only has one type/variation of dentition?

An example would be alligators that only have one type/shape of tooth. Not the variation in function and shape like seen in humans, which have canines, molars, incisors, etc
5
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2answers
648 views

What is the difference between silent and synonymous mutations?

Several sources all caution that silent mutations and synonymous substitutions are not the same thing and should not be confused. But they seem to draw different actual distinctions between the terms: ...
2
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1answer
44 views

Why is there a carbon atom without a greek letter in protein residues?

For protein residues I know that $C\alpha$ denotes the first carbon atom attached to a functional group. Each subsequent carbon is given a corresponding greek letter ($\beta, \gamma, \delta$) except ...
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4answers
1k views

What is the difference between a protein and a factor?

In terms of nomenclature/semantics, why are some proteins named proteins, and some named factors? I've been revising on eukaryotic DNA, and I've come across some proteins that seem to serve roughly ...
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1answer
48 views

What is the difference between infected and infectious in epidemiology?

I am studying the SIR model and in the infected class I, both infectious and infected individuals are included, as stated here I know that the model uses the assumption that the disease has an ...
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1answer
63 views

What is the meaning of “leukemic cell recovery” in an abstract?

An article abstract: Significant predictors of treatment outcome are poorly defined for patients with T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A high WBC at diagnosis, which has ...