Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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8 views

Can PGPM include pathogenic growth promoters?

I am extremely confused with definition of P.G.P.M. (plant growth promoting microbes/microbiota)such as P.G.P.F (plant growth promoting fungi) and P.G.P.B. (plant growth promoting bacteria). In many ...
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3answers
788 views

Is the genetic term “polycistronic” still used in modern biology?

Is the term "cistronic", meaning an ORF on a mRNA, still commonly used in modern genetics? I´ve seen "polycistronic" being applied to prokaryotic mRNA in old textbooks, but I´ve rarely stumbled upon ...
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12 views

What is the difference between Flora, Manual, monograph, catalogue, periodicals [duplicate]

Pls suggest differences with reference to taxonomy and systematics
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2answers
67 views

Is 'disorientation event' a common term among biologists?

On the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources web page about the marine turtle conservation program it says, "When a hatchling sea turtle is attracted away from the ocean towards a direct or ...
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2answers
129 views

What is it called when a dead flower is rotted away and only the veins remain?

I've spotted a flower that is dead: It looks like most of the tissue has rotted away and only the veins remain. (Sorry, I don't know the proper name for flower veins). What is the technical term ...
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1answer
59 views

Does a cell suspend or exit cell cycle at G0?

In an exam, there was one question which asked whether the cell exits or suspends cell cycle at G0 phase. I answered that it exits cell cycle but the official answer key says it suspends cell cycle. ...
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1answer
30 views

Difference between cerebroside and globoside

I have a general idea about their difference that cerebrosides have a single sugar while globosides have more than one sugars. This is the structure of a ceramide (syphingosine and a fatty acid ...
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1answer
30 views

What's the subpatellar tendon?

I read in Thomas Myers book Anatomy Trains: Although the muscles themselves have attachments within the anterior compartment to the tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane, the next station ...
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2answers
37 views

What's the difference between reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity?

I'm trying to understand better these two concepts, but I cannot see a clear difference yet. Reaction norm: "set of phenotypes that can be produced by an individual genotype when exposed to different ...
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1answer
61 views

What does substrate mean?

I have been reading some literature on measurements related to biofilms. In some articles the word "substrate" seems to stand for the material on which a biofilm is growing. In other articles, it ...
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1answer
26 views

Is “muscular attachment” synonymous to tendon? (when talking about the insertion of glutei medius and minimus to greater trochanter of the femur)

I have read the following two terms in an MRI report (both points refer to the insertion of gluteus medius/minimus to greater trochanter of the femur): mild degeneration of the muscular attachment ...
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2answers
91 views

What is a myotube?

If I understand correctly, the following images show the main components in a human skeletal muscle: From Life: The Science of Biology: From Human Physiology/The Muscular System in wikibooks: ...
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‘Inoculum’ vs ‘inoculant’ – which one is it?

I’m currently writing the report of a study which looked at commercial soil inoculants (Rhizobium sp.). However, I’m confused about the differences between the words inoculum and inoculant and when to ...
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1answer
62 views

Spatially Encoded GPCRs?

I'm reading this paper, and I'm already lost in terms of what they mean by GPCR signaling is spatially encoded. The trafficking of G protein coupled‐receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most exciting ...
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171 views

What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
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1answer
51 views

What do we call these containers used in biotechnology?

I'm translating an autoclave instruction from Russian, and it says that these containers (ванночки) (see the black circle on the below photo) are to be sterilized in the autoclave. I'm not sure what ...
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1answer
101 views

Is this model of understanding of what's natural selection and what's not, correct? [closed]

Here in this account I just want to make sure, that I've grasped the concept of natural selection as is usually spoken by evolutionary biologists, truly the wording here are non standard and in some ...
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1answer
80 views

What is meant by “heads” and “tails” in the context of gene orientation?

I have a hard time understanding what this paper is talking about when it says: We observed maximal cleavage at sites oriented tail-to-tail and separated by -10 bp to +30 bp (Fig. 2d). Finally, ...
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2answers
141 views

Is spiders building webs on plants an example of mutualism or commensalism?

In one section of the GED study book I'm looking through to prepare myself for exams, they define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism, and give examples. One of the examples they give for ...
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What is the definition of “Natural Selection”?

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. Natural selection, a process that results in the adaptation of an organism to its ...
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1answer
185 views

What's a “constitutionally small penis”?

I'm reading some urology papers and came across one involving penis growth (Kim & Song, 2008); here's an intro passage that I'm confused about: A total of 58 patients with constitutionally ...
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1answer
114 views

What is the reason behind the subphylum name “Urochordata” for tunicates?

There are two major invertebrate subphyla of the chordates (phylum Chordata): Cephalochordata (the lancelets) Urochordata, aka Tunicata (the tunicates) My understanding is that the cephalochordates ...
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11 views

What soft tissue separates bones of toes?

I need to know a little about the "knuckles" of toes; specifically the 4 areas that separate the 5 proximal/metatarsal joins. I'd like to know the terms for areas that might be damaged if the width ...
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1answer
61 views

What does the number after Vitamin B signify?

Does the number after Vitamin B signify anything? For example what is the significance of 12 in Vitamin B12?
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1answer
66 views

Branch taking over a tree trunk

I stumbled upon a birch growing in sandy soil in a coniferous forest in central Russia. It looks like over time the tree trunk got bent towards the trail and one of the branches became the new trunk ...
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2answers
129 views

Why is ATP synthase sometimes referred to as ATPase?

Quite a few times I have seen the term ‘ATPase’ used for what I would consider ATP synthase. For example, my text has: “The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is also catalysed by the enzyme ATPase.” I ...
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1answer
201 views

Why is xylem a tissue and not an organ?

My textbook "CGP AS-Level Biology Exam Board: Edexcel Complete Revision & Practice" says xylem is a tissue. Then I read from this website that "[Xylem's] major components include xylem parenchyma,...
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GEN file format, SNPs and alleles

I have a few questions I can't seem to get a straight answer to, regarding the .gen file format and also biology in general. The ...
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66 views

What's inside the perinuclear space?

The cell proper contains the cytoplasm in general and the cytosol in particular when referring to the fluid/gel without notable organelle. Once we move inside the nucleus there is the nucleoplasm and ...
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1answer
48 views

Notation for repetitive nucleic acids

With regard to nucleic acids with repeating residues, could anyone provide a description of what the following sequences are, and the key differences between them: Poly(dA) Oligo(dA) Poly(A)
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107 views

Why is photosynthesis described as a “physico-chemical” process? [closed]

In my textbook it is given that photosynthesis is a physico-chemical process. How can it be a physical process?
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1answer
57 views

Is there an adjective I can use to describe body parts like hands, feet, eyes, and ears that exist on both sides of the body's sagittal plane?

Body parts like human hands, feet, ears, eyes, etc. exist on either side of the human body's sagittal plane and can therefore be specified with the adjectives left and right. Is there a special ...
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1answer
24 views

Is there a word for the length of time an animal stays with parents before going off on their own?

Gestation is a word describing the pregnancy for animals, and you can use 'gestation period' to describe how long a pregnancy generally takes for a species. I'd like to know if there's a corollary ...
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2answers
68 views

More general term than “adaptation”

The Wikipedia article about adaptation states: Adaptation differs from flexibility, acclimatization, and learning. What is a more general term than adaptation? For example, is there an umbrella ...
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1answer
65 views

What do the acronyms in C.elegans neuron names stand for? [closed]

In this site, I see a variety of acronymic names for C.elegans neurons but what do these names mean (for example AVAL, AVAR)?
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1answer
46 views

Difference between crossover rate and recombination rate?

I am not a biology student and therefore, need clarification if crossover rate and recombination rate are the same thing. So if the text says 'recombination rate per base pair per generation' or '...
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1answer
43 views

The reproduction patterns of fungi: what’s the difference between them?

I am going to take TOEFL, and am getting perplexed by the difference between cell division and budding and fragmentation of fungi. Those three terms seem like all the same all to me, so could anyone ...
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1answer
143 views

What does 'proper' mean in the anatomical context?

I've seen the word 'proper' in websites, lectures, etc., in the context of human anatomy. But I'm unsure as to what its definition is. For example, the 'oral cavity proper'.
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Veins in Plant Leaves (terminology)

Why do we call the vascular bundles in plant leaves "veins"? I think its probably because the xylem and pholem serve circulatory function analogous to the human body's circulatory system with arteries ...
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2answers
565 views

What is a synonym of the word design that can be used in context of evolution?

For example let's take two sentences; "engineer made a design for camera", "evolution made an X for eye". What is the best X that could be used? I need it for an essay about evolution.
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1answer
63 views

Is there a name for the use of sunlight in metabolic processes?

"Photosynthesis" is what is used to describe how plants use sunlight to synthesize sugars, but, I also heard some animals like humans use sunlight in the process of creating vitamin D. Is there a ...
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1answer
39 views

Is studying chemical and physical properties of chemical substances that make up organisms really a task of molecular biology?

I have read in a high school textbook that (translated into English by myself): "Branch of science that concerns itself with studying chemical and physical properties of substances that make up ...
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1answer
111 views

Are cell biology and cytology the same science?

According to Wikipedia, the terms can be used interchangeably, but according to my college professors, cytology is exclusively the study of chromosomes and identification of their abnormalities.
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150 views

Loss of function in inflammation

The Wikipedia-article about Inflammation says The five classical signs of inflammation are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function (Latin calor, dolor, rubor, tumor, and functio laesa). ...
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81 views

What is the meaning of 'state of nature' in On the Origin of species by Charles Darwin?

I have started reading "On the origin of species" by Charles Darwin. The beginning paragraph is: When we look to the individuals of the same variety or sub-variety of our older cultivated plants ...
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1answer
27 views

What is the term for a given interpretation of a fossil record?

There exists a term, that I have heard and forgotten it appears, for taking a described species in paleontology and creating a version of what it was like in life. For example, a prior ...
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1answer
200 views

How to tell petiole apart from stem?

How to tell petiole apart from stem? Is it by the rule that there is usually a pair of stipules at the base of a petiole?
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4answers
3k views

Why do both the mango and the bee have “Indica” in their binomial name?

In my textbook, it is written that the binomial name of mango is Mangifera indica and the binomial name of a bee is Apis indica. Now in the name the second part is the name of species. But mango and ...
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1answer
505 views

What does the acronym ‘PIN’ stand for referring to PIN proteins in plants?

There are so called PIN proteins, or PIN-formed proteins, in plants. What does this acronym mean? Wikipedia briefly explains the function of the protein but not the origin of the name. It's not ...
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37 views

Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?