Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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38 views

What morphological traits can be used to diagnose members of the Eucalypteae?

I read the Wikipedia article on Eucalypteae and it doesn't actually say what these plants have in common. (I am now reading through https://bsapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.3732/ajb.1200025 ...
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an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
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Is there a standard for how to encode DNA base pairs numerically?

DNA base pairs are made of the chemicals ATGC. Or is it ACGT? Or AGCT? Or TCAG? Etc. I'm curious if there is a standard on what order these chemicals go in, for writing purposes and specifically ...
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What is the proper anatomical name of the "band of Richer" that wraps around the quadriceps femoris?

There's this fascial band called the band of Richer that wraps around the quadriceps femoris muscle above the knee (in this illustration, look for it near the left knee). It seems to stem from the ...
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meaning of the name "Dictyostelium discoideum"

Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-known species of slime mould. Does anyone know what the name means? Here's my best guess. I found the 1935 article in which it was first described, but there doesn't ...
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2answers
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The use of the word “canonical” in biological science

What is the meaning of the word canonical in a scientific context? This is an example that I do not understand: BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the ...
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What is the difference between effective and efficient selection?

I always thought of the efficiency of natural selection in the context of molecular evolution. I.e. that linked selection and smaller population size cause less efficient selection. It took me a while ...
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1answer
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What is the meaning of harboring cryptic in below sentence?

Tissue culture became more widely used at this time because of the introduction of antibiotics, which facilitated long-term cell line propagation, although many people were already warning against ...
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111 views

What is the difference between the cheeks and the near parts?

Linguistically, there should be the different property or feature between cheeks and the parts right near them for us to call cheeks “cheeks.” What is the main difference between cheeks and the other ...
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How to decipher references in natural history works of the late Renaissance and early Modernity?

Old botany books from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries (and maybe also some later ones ?) enumerating lists of species use to give references to their own sources as abbreviations of one or few ...
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What do you call members of a same species that show some morphological differences depending on their environment and/or diet?

What do you call members of a same species that exhibit a number of morphological differences depending on their environment and/or diet? I was thinking of the term "different phenotypes," ...
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Does the cytoplasm include the organelles?

I am a student in middle school. My textbook says that Cytoplasm is the gelatinous liquid part of the cell excluding organelles. However my teacher said this is wrong. According to her, the correct ...
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3answers
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Definition of Cofactor, Coenzyme and Prosthetic Group

This question arises from a student multiple choice question regarding whether certain inorganic ions present in certain enzymes (Cl− in catalyse and Zn2+ in carbonic anhydrase) could be classified as ...
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Brain centers vs areas (and how they relate to nuclei)

I'm looking for a reputable source that can provide succinct definitions differentiating the following terms in the central nervous system (CNS; particularly in the brain): Area Center Nucleus ...
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3answers
343 views

Is there a name for this phenomenon described in "Phylogenies and the Comparative Method"?

The figures below are from Felsenstein's paper "Phylogenies and the Comparative Method". I was wondering if there was a specific name for this effect where there is an apparant correlation that is ...
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Is there a term that distinguishes extracellular "transport" proteins from membrane-bound "transport" proteins?

I've been researching genetics and biochemistry in my free time and I've noticed that proteins such as albumin and apolipoproteins that facilitate extracellular transport and proteins such as GLUT1 ...
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Is there a formal name for the dissolved caterpillar substance produced during metamorphosis?

Is there a formal name for the dissolved caterpillar substance produced during metamorphosis? I've seen this described as a protein-rich soup, a horrid meltdown, larval tissue breakdown, metamorphic ...
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1answer
330 views

Does a cell suspend or exit cell cycle at G0?

In an exam, there was one question which asked whether the cell exits or suspends cell cycle at G0 phase. I answered that it exits cell cycle but the official answer key says it suspends cell cycle. ...
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In fluorescence microscopy images what is meant by the term "puncta"?

I am reading papers where confocal fluorescence microscopy images were analysed. In many of the papers I see the term "puncta" being used when researchers analyse the colocalisation between ...
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1answer
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Is there a specific English term for this vessel for microbial sampling?

In Russian, such a container (see pictures) for microbial sampling is called бакпечатка (bakpechatka), as I learned just now. I've no idea about the etimology of the Russian term. Probably "bak&...
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2answers
269 views

Are "sympathetic nerves" the same as "cardiopulmonary splanchnic" nerves?

I've gathered from a number of sources (e.g., Patel (2015), Wikipedia, and here) that the sympathetic nerves leaving the sympathetic trunk to innervate the heart and lungs are called "...
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Medical terminology for asymmetrically-shaped paired body parts?

Some people have different sized feet [source], a limb that is slightly longer than the contralateral (on other side of the body) limb [source], or other instances of paired body parts being different ...
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1answer
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Meaning of "Domain with function to find" (FIIND)

From NALPs: a novel protein family involved in inflammation. FIIND - Domain with Function to Find. What is the meaning of this name? Does it mean "Domain with an unknown function"? I'm ...
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1answer
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Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both?

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both? I think sonic hedgehog is okay as a name for a chemical. Having said that, I am a little bit concerned about the way sonic hedgehog seems to mean the ...
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Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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What is the name of the groove down the middle of an anther?

I thought it had a name along the lines of interlocular groove, but I haven't been able to find that term anywhere.
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1answer
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Difference between "wash" and "rinse" in biotechnological procedure descriptions

Is there a difference between "rinse" and "wash" in sentences like this: Following the staining, the sections were washed twice with deionized water, then dehydrated using ethanol solutions of ...
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23 views

Difference between tissue compression and compaction

I often see these two terms used when studying models of cell dynamics. Is there a technical difference between the terms "compression" and "compaction" of a cell tissue?
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Is there a term for the entire system of moving oxygen around?

The respiratory system brings oxygen to the blood, and also can include stuff like nicotine from smoking. The circulatory system brings oxygenated blood (and all its little friends) to wherever they'...
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Is an ephemeral stream in an unflowing state considered a lentic or lotic environment?

I ask this question because I would like to discuss attributes of streams, rivers, bayous, and etc. in a text I'm writing and would like to simply refer to them as "lotic" environments. ...
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How to convert a genus name to a noun or adjective

Consider the crayfish family Cambaridae. As I understand it, this familial name can be turned into an English noun or adjective by changing the first letter to lower case and dropping the "ae.&...
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Are all mutagens carcinogens?

Not all carcinogens are mutagens. Alcohol and estrogen, for example, does not damage DNA. It's one of the assumptions of the Ames test that mutagenicity implies carcinogenicity, but is this always ...
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What is the correct nomenclature for expressing a genotype where a recombination event may occur?

Given an example punnett square: ...
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1answer
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What is intracellular retention?

On the wiki page for proto-cadherins, they write, "The cytoplasmic domain also mediates intracellular retention, a property which distinguishes the clustered protocadherins from the related ...
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Is there a difference between ISH and ISHH? (In Situ Hybridization, In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry)

I came across the term ISHH in my document and discovered that it stands for In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry. I's translating to Russian a document that uses this abbreviation. Example from the ...
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1answer
3k views

Why do animal cells "mistake" rubidium ions for potassium ions?

So, I was browsing the Wikipedia article for rubidium, and came across this interesting tidbit: Rubidium is not a known nutrient for any living organisms. However, rubidium ions have the same charge ...
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When is an anatomic entity named "laterale" vs. "lateralis"?

I'm trying to learn the latin names of anatomical entities and I have a hard time remembering whether it's "Os cuneiforme laterale" or "Os cuneiforme lateralis". In that case it's "laterale". But in ...
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2k views

What is a tuckahoe?

I'm working on a book about names and nicknames of the fifty states of USA. I came across the following in an older reference: The name Tuckoes is a corruption of the common term Tuckahoe, or ...
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Binomial nomenclature: Why am I seeing different genera with the same species name?

I have looked online but still do not understand how two organisms can have the the same species names but be in different genera? Do all genera share common species names? Also which would be more ...
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What does the acronym ‘PIN’ stand for referring to PIN proteins in plants?

There are so called PIN proteins, or PIN-formed proteins, in plants. What does this acronym mean? Wikipedia briefly explains the function of the protein but not the origin of the name. It's not ...
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What would be a single elegant-sounding word denoting controlled increase or decrease?

I am a biologist and frequently encounter the words 'upregulated' and 'downregulated' in the literature. Appropriately, these words are flagged by my browser spell-checker; they don't seem to be very ...
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When does one decide to refer to a virus as a new variant?

I've read that SARS-Cov-2 has several variants, e.g.: Can the U.S. keep Covid variants in check? Here's what it takes. Novavax’s Vaccine Works Well — Except on Variant First Found in South Africa ...
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Difference between a phototroph and a photosynthetic organism?

A quick search on google about the topic and the page on wikipedia did not help understanding the difference between these two related terms.
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Where does the term "cos site" come from?

The word cosmid is derived from cos sites of lambda phages. Why are cos sites called cos sites? What does this "cos" refer to?
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Understanding the use of English tenses in biological journal articles

My colleague and I (second language speakers) got in an argument in understanding the sentence: " however, how this complexity and diversification have been achieved remains rather poorly ...
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Cancer: what does it mean "at presentation"?

Unclear to me what this means: "Objective The biological heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes prognosis difficult. We translate the results of a genome-wide high-throughput ...
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1answer
130 views

Do biologists use the word "solubilize" to mean "dissolve"?

I work with biologists who often use the word "solubilize" to mean "dissolve". Is this correct usage? I keep correcting them (I'm not a biologist, but I help with writing), and we'...
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A word that includes plants and fungi, but not animals [closed]

Hello biologists and biology enthusiasts! I am working on a project which includes information about plants and fungi. It would be very helpful for me if there a word that means plants-and-fungi, but ...

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