Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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2answers
176 views

Are “sympathetic nerves” the same as “cardiopulmonary splanchnic” nerves?

I've gathered from a number of sources (e.g., Patel (2015), Wikipedia, and here) that the sympathetic nerves leaving the sympathetic trunk to innervate the heart and lungs are called "...
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65 views

Medical terminology for asymmetrically-shaped paired body parts?

Some people have different sized feet [source], a limb that is slightly longer than the contralateral (on other side of the body) limb [source], or other instances of paired body parts being different ...
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1answer
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Meaning of “Domain with function to find” (FIIND)

From NALPs: a novel protein family involved in inflammation. FIIND - Domain with Function to Find. What is the meaning of this name? Does it mean "Domain with an unknown function"? I'm ...
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1answer
122 views

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both?

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both? I think sonic hedgehog is okay as a name for a chemical. Having said that, I am a little bit concerned about the way sonic hedgehog seems to mean the ...
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Why are the knob-like projections on coronaviruses usually referred to in biology as “spikes” when they are not spike-shaped?

Why are the knob-like projections on coronaviruses usually referred to in biology as "spikes" (without quotation marks) when they are not spike-shaped? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peplomer ...
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Length of the human genome, base length of each chromosome [closed]

A human cell usually has one set of paternal genome and one set of maternal genome. For example, we often see ambiguous expressions such as The human genome is about $3*10^9$ bp long. The DNA genome ...
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42 views

Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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1answer
67 views

What is the difference between effective and efficient selection?

I always thought of the efficiency of natural selection in the context of molecular evolution. I.e. that linked selection and smaller population size cause less efficient selection. It took me a while ...
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2k views

What is the name of the groove down the middle of an anther?

I thought it had a name along the lines of interlocular groove, but I haven't been able to find that term anywhere.
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1answer
2k views

Difference between “wash” and “rinse” in biotechnological procedure descriptions

Is there a difference between "rinse" and "wash" in sentences like this: Following the staining, the sections were washed twice with deionized water, then dehydrated using ethanol solutions of ...
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23 views

Difference between tissue compression and compaction

I often see these two terms used when studying models of cell dynamics. Is there a technical difference between the terms "compression" and "compaction" of a cell tissue?
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1answer
20 views

Is there a term for the entire system of moving oxygen around?

The respiratory system brings oxygen to the blood, and also can include stuff like nicotine from smoking. The circulatory system brings oxygenated blood (and all its little friends) to wherever they'...
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Is an ephemeral stream in an unflowing state considered a lentic or lotic environment?

I ask this question because I would like to discuss attributes of streams, rivers, bayous, and etc. in a text I'm writing and would like to simply refer to them as "lotic" environments. ...
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1answer
71 views

How to convert a genus name to a noun or adjective

Consider the crayfish family Cambaridae. As I understand it, this familial name can be turned into an English noun or adjective by changing the first letter to lower case and dropping the "ae.&...
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Are all mutagens carcinogens?

Not all carcinogens are mutagens. Alcohol and estrogen, for example, does not damage DNA. It's one of the assumptions of the Ames test that mutagenicity implies carcinogenicity, but is this always ...
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21 views

Brain centers vs areas (and how they relate to nuclei)

I'm looking for a reputable source that can provide succinct definitions differentiating the following terms in the central nervous system (CNS; particularly in the brain): Area Center Nucleus ...
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1answer
34 views

What is the correct nomenclature for expressing a genotype where a recombination event may occur?

Given an example punnett square: ...
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1answer
55 views

What is intracellular retention?

On the wiki page for proto-cadherins, they write, "The cytoplasmic domain also mediates intracellular retention, a property which distinguishes the clustered protocadherins from the related ...
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1answer
38 views

Is there a difference between ISH and ISHH? (In Situ Hybridization, In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry)

I came across the term ISHH in my document and discovered that it stands for In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry. I's translating to Russian a document that uses this abbreviation. Example from the ...
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1answer
3k views

Why do animal cells “mistake” rubidium ions for potassium ions?

So, I was browsing the Wikipedia article for rubidium, and came across this interesting tidbit: Rubidium is not a known nutrient for any living organisms. However, rubidium ions have the same charge ...
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1answer
121 views

When is an anatomic entity named “laterale” vs. “lateralis”?

I'm trying to learn the latin names of anatomical entities and I have a hard time remembering whether it's "Os cuneiforme laterale" or "Os cuneiforme lateralis". In that case it's "laterale". But in ...
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1answer
1k views

What is a tuckahoe?

I'm working on a book about names and nicknames of the fifty states of USA. I came across the following in an older reference: The name Tuckoes is a corruption of the common term Tuckahoe, or ...
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1answer
139 views

an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
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2answers
19k views

Binomial nomenclature: Why am I seeing different genera with the same species name?

I have looked online but still do not understand how two organisms can have the the same species names but be in different genera? Do all genera share common species names? Also which would be more ...
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2answers
954 views

What does the acronym ‘PIN’ stand for referring to PIN proteins in plants?

There are so called PIN proteins, or PIN-formed proteins, in plants. What does this acronym mean? Wikipedia briefly explains the function of the protein but not the origin of the name. It's not ...
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1answer
69 views

What would be a single elegant-sounding word denoting controlled increase or decrease?

I am a biologist and frequently encounter the words 'upregulated' and 'downregulated' in the literature. Appropriately, these words are flagged by my browser spell-checker; they don't seem to be very ...
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1answer
64 views

When does one decide to refer to a virus as a new variant?

I've read that SARS-Cov-2 has several variants, e.g.: Can the U.S. keep Covid variants in check? Here's what it takes. Novavax’s Vaccine Works Well — Except on Variant First Found in South Africa ...
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1answer
35 views

Difference between a phototroph and a photosynthetic organism?

A quick search on google about the topic and the page on wikipedia did not help understanding the difference between these two related terms.
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4answers
18k views

Where does the term “cos site” come from?

The word cosmid is derived from cos sites of lambda phages. Why are cos sites called cos sites? What does this "cos" refer to?
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1answer
81 views

Understanding the use of English tenses in biological journal articles

My colleague and I (second language speakers) got in an argument in understanding the sentence: " however, how this complexity and diversification have been achieved remains rather poorly ...
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2answers
47 views

Cancer: what does it mean “at presentation”?

Unclear to me what this means: "Objective The biological heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes prognosis difficult. We translate the results of a genome-wide high-throughput ...
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1answer
119 views

Do biologists use the word “solubilize” to mean “dissolve”?

I work with biologists who often use the word "solubilize" to mean "dissolve". Is this correct usage? I keep correcting them (I'm not a biologist, but I help with writing), and we'...
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1answer
97 views

A word that includes plants and fungi, but not animals [closed]

Hello biologists and biology enthusiasts! I am working on a project which includes information about plants and fungi. It would be very helpful for me if there a word that means plants-and-fungi, but ...
4
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1answer
59 views

Structure and reactions of the cofactors of oxidoreductases such as ferredoxin

I have seen the word flavoprotein being used in place of ferredoxin in few places and vice-versa. I have not found any source that mentions them both together and explains the relation between them. ...
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1answer
79 views

What is the etymology for Pinus halepensis?

I have a problem of figuring out the etymology of Pinus halepnesis. An etymonline search with halepensis brought no result. It is unclear to me from the English wikipedia article and from the ...
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1answer
98 views

Is there a term for the opposite of intergenic?

I am looking for a term that describes DNA regions that overlap genes, i.e., non-intergenic DNA regions. For example, say I am writing a paper about DNA-binding sites (i.e., DNA sequences that ...
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2answers
68 views

What's the difference between the terms “muscle” and “muscle organ”?

Foundational Model of Anatomy distinguishes between Muscle organ and Muscle. What's the difference between the two?
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2answers
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Meaning of “stripped” in “stripped antibody-depleted sera”

From a research paper: FOLR1 autoantibody detection The assay for identification of the presence and relative quantification of FOLR1 autoantibodies in serum samples was performed as previously ...
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1answer
10 views

Meaning of the word “targeted” in a description of chromatin immunoprecipitation

From a research paper: The ChIP assay demonstrated that CIC physically binds to the promoter region of FOLR1, PCFT and RFC1. Compared with IgG control antibody, CIC antibody enriched 4.1-fold more ...
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3answers
8k views

Is a walnut a nut or a drupe?

We've been learning about fruits (and the various categories thereof) in class; among them we have the nut and the drupe. My textbook differentiates between those terms as: Nut: It is a single-seeded ...
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1answer
74 views

Why is an intron (or exon) still called intron (exon) if retained in (excluded from) mRNA?

In most explanations, the sections of RNA removed during splicing are called introns, and the remaining segments that are stitched together are called exons. That is, introns and exons are defined in ...
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3answers
2k views

Are all carcinogens mutagens?

I assume that all carcinogens must be mutagens, but I've read that this is not the case. However, I can't find any good examples or an explanation of why it is not the case. How can a non-mutagenic ...
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2answers
7k views

Difference between pipette and pipettor

I've been translating a text listing some analytical laboratory equipment, and found that some fellow translators translate the Russian word "автоматическая пипетка" (avtomaticheskaya pipetka, which ...
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2answers
5k views

Why should a tumor look like a crab?

Origin of the word "cancer" The disease was first called cancer by Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC). He is considered the “Father of Medicine”. Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and ...
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1answer
290 views

What’s the Difference Between Grass and Sedge?

What’s the difference between grasses and sedges? in terms of anatomy and classification.
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4answers
6k views

Is “computational biology” different from “bioinformatics”?

Are "computational biology" and "bioinformatics" simply different terms for the same thing or is there a real difference?
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Why plant tissues end in -enchyma?

Many plant tissue types end in the affix -enchyma. Etymology: enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" Examples are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma....
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Why is the “mango fly” called a “mango fly”?

Cordylobia anthropophaga, the mango fly, tumbu fly, tumba fly, putzi fly, or skin maggot fly, is a species of blow-fly common in East and Central Africa. Wiki page Why is Cordylobia anthropophaga ...

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