Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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108 views

Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
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Eyebrows in different directions

My eyebrows are not symmetrical: the left side grows upwards and the right side grows downwards. I've noticed a few people whose eyebrows grow in different directions. I've been looking at ...
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2answers
68 views

Functional unit

What is meant by functional unit of a system? like when we say that the neuron is the basic unit of neural system do we mean that all those things that are performed by neural system can be performed ...
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43 views

Medical terminology for asymmetrically-shaped paired body parts?

Some people have different sized feet [source], a limb that is slightly longer than the contralateral (on other side of the body) limb [source], or other instances of paired body parts being different ...
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259 views

What's a “constitutionally small penis”?

I'm reading some urology papers and came across one involving penis growth (Kim & Song, 2008); here's an intro passage that I'm confused about: A total of 58 patients with constitutionally ...
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2answers
2k views

Definitions of hermaphroditism, dioecious and monoecious?

What is the difference between these terms "monoecious","Hermaphrodite". my lecturer says hermaphrodite is a zoological term and monoecious is botanical term, but in contrary to it, in my textbook ...
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1answer
29 views

Can the word phalanx also be used to describe the finger bone plus the soft parts around the bone?

I was talking in an SE chatroom about fingers, and not being a native English speaker, I had to look up the word used for the part of a finger from the tip to the closest knuckle. I came across the ...
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2answers
1k views

Are there venomous plants?

There certainly are poisonous plants, but I was wondering, whether there are venomous specimen, too? First, I thought the stinging nettle could be one such. After all, it's common knowledge it "...
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1answer
40 views

What is the difference between sieve cells and sieve-tube elements?

I looked it up and I'm still confused. Apparently, sieve cells lack sieve plates? What does that really mean? It's difficult to find a good picture of either.
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41 views

What are the appendeges behind a crane fly's wings?

I noticed that crane flies have strange appendages behind their wings. The appendages look like a pair of antenna or a pair of vestigial wings. In the following picture I marked these appendages with ...
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2answers
58 views

Are neurotransmitters part of the endocrine system?

I was speaking with a substitute teacher of mine, and we were discussing whether neurotransmitters are part of the endocrine system or not. My class just spent an entire semester on the topic of the ...
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Name for fluid that leaks out of phyllid (non-vascular) plants?

As Wikipedia says (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-vascular_plant): Consequently, phyllids are unable to control the rate of water loss from their tissues and are said to be poikilohydric. And ...
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1answer
50 views

What's it called when a male seahorse gets “inseminated”?

I am looking for the scientific term for the process where a male seahorse receives eggs from the female. For example, we usually say, "the male inseminates the female with sperm." What is the correct ...
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1k views

Difference between “wash” and “rinse” in biotechnological procedure descriptions

Is there a difference between "rinse" and "wash" in sentences like this: Following the staining, the sections were washed twice with deionized water, then dehydrated using ethanol solutions of ...
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1answer
71 views

an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
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3k views

Is a DNA molecule a single strand of polynucleotide or two of them linked together?

Our molecular biology teacher told us that a double helix of DNA was composed of two DNA molecules linked together by hydrogen bonds. The thing is, until now, I always thought a DNA molecule was ...
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3answers
4k views

Are there verbs for “undergo mitosis” and “undergo meiosis”?

From my experience on SE sites, I believe this is the right site to ask this question under "terminology". I've been trying to find out whether English has one-word verbs for "undergo mitosis" and "...
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2answers
125 views

Why don't we speak of medial and lateral rotation of the forearm? And pronation and supination of the upper arm?

Why don't we speak of medial and lateral rotation of the forearm? I notice we speak of forearm supination and forearm pronation, but why not medial and lateral rotation. It seems to me that if we ...
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22 views

“Straight” or “linear” helix

If an alpha helix is discontinued for a short while and then continues in a different direction, I prefer to call in "kinked". If the helix is simply uniformly following one direction, I prefer to ...
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2answers
1k views

Special visceral efferent

Why are special visceral efferent nerves are named as such? They are supplying motor impulses to muscles of pharyngeal arch, which are both skeletal(facial) and visceral(laryngeal) 1, so why only ...
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50 views

Why plant tissues end in -enchyma?

Many plant tissue types end in the affix -enchyma. Etymology: enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" Examples are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma (meaning "to pour beside," "...
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2answers
57 views

What is a “Valid Species”?

I read in a reference book on Google Books (Biology of Termites: a Modern Synthesis, eds. Bignell, Roisin, and Lo) that the termite Heterotermes perfidus found on the South Atlantic island of St ...
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59 views

What does “dissection-based microscopy” mean as described here, and how can it give genetic information?

The Phys.org article 'DNA microscopy' offers entirely new way to image cells references the new Open Access paper in Cell DNA Microscopy: Optics-free Spatio-genetic Imaging by a Stand-Alone Chemical ...
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1answer
65 views

In the context of heterotrophic theory of abiogenesis, what is an organism that eats other organisms called?

In the heterotrophic theory for the origin of life, we imagine a primordial soup that is rich in organic compounds and the first organisms emerge eating those compounds. Since these organic compounds ...
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9 views

Can PGPM include pathogenic growth promoters?

I am extremely confused with definition of P.G.P.M. (plant growth promoting microbes/microbiota)such as P.G.P.F (plant growth promoting fungi) and P.G.P.B. (plant growth promoting bacteria). In many ...
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809 views

Is the genetic term “polycistronic” still used in modern biology?

Is the term "cistronic", meaning an ORF on a mRNA, still commonly used in modern genetics? I´ve seen "polycistronic" being applied to prokaryotic mRNA in old textbooks, but I´ve rarely stumbled upon ...
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1answer
15k views

What is the cell matrix?

What is the matrix in the cell, and how does it connect cells together? I read about this in my textbook. I know that a matrix is the material (or tissue) that connects other cells together. My ...
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2answers
324 views

Is spiders building webs on plants an example of mutualism or commensalism?

In one section of the GED study book I'm looking through to prepare myself for exams, they define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism, and give examples. One of the examples they give for ...
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1answer
665 views

Is pith a ground tissue with no specialized function?

Here is a question from the book My Max Score SAT Biology E/M Subject Test (where the SAT is the exam taken by American high school students): Ground tissue with no specialized function A. Xylem ...
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3answers
10k views

What is “enzymatic activity”? [closed]

I should be grateful if anyone would send me a link to an article or an encyclopedia/handbook contaning an explanation of the concept of enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, I did not manage to find ...
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1answer
172 views

What is the meaning of “within-season variation”?

I am reading a paper about phenology and climate change for my assignment and I found this concept "within-season variation", can someone explain it to me? and how it is related to changes over time?
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4answers
4k views

Doubly-compound leaf examples?

I've got a project where we collect leaves, classify them, etc. There are some required classifications. One of the requirements is to get a doubly-compound leaf. What are some trees that are doubly-...
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1answer
853 views

What's the difference between a simple and 1-foliolate (unifoliolate) leaf?

How is a 1-foliolate leaf (e.g., Hardenbergia) different from a simple leaf?
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1answer
376 views

Land recultivation? Land revegetation? Land reclamation? Land rehabilitation?

I'm translating a Russian text about the recultivation (рекультивация) of land formerly used for open-pit mining. The process of 'land recultivation' in Russia involves three general stages: ...
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2answers
312 views

What does 'virus prototype strain' mean?

Does the term 'prototype virus strain' mean the first virus isolated and without mutations?
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2answers
136 views

What is it called when a dead flower is rotted away and only the veins remain?

I've spotted a flower that is dead: It looks like most of the tissue has rotted away and only the veins remain. (Sorry, I don't know the proper name for flower veins). What is the technical term ...
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2answers
74 views

Is 'disorientation event' a common term among biologists?

On the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources web page about the marine turtle conservation program it says, "When a hatchling sea turtle is attracted away from the ocean towards a direct or ...
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75 views

More general term than “adaptation”

The Wikipedia article about adaptation states: Adaptation differs from flexibility, acclimatization, and learning. What is a more general term than adaptation? For example, is there an umbrella ...
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2answers
9k views

What is the difference between sinew and tendon?

I wonder what the difference between sinew and tendon is. I searched for it but didn't get any clear answer: https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-sinew-and-tendon: They are often ...
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2answers
4k views

What is full form of r and K in r-selection species and K-selection species?

What is full form/ meaning of 'r' and 'K' in r-selection species and K-selection species? Does this 'r' means "Random" and the 'K' means "constant"?
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85 views

Difference between cerebroside and globoside

I have a general idea about their difference that cerebrosides have a single sugar while globosides have more than one sugars. This is the structure of a ceramide (syphingosine and a fatty acid ...
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1answer
85 views

Does a cell suspend or exit cell cycle at G0?

In an exam, there was one question which asked whether the cell exits or suspends cell cycle at G0 phase. I answered that it exits cell cycle but the official answer key says it suspends cell cycle. ...
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3answers
38k views

Inoculation vs. vaccination

Is there any actual difference between inoculation and vaccination or are these terms interchangeable? In case the difference exists, would it be correct to say that inoculation is purposefully ...
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1answer
60 views

What's the subpatellar tendon?

I read in Thomas Myers book Anatomy Trains: Although the muscles themselves have attachments within the anterior compartment to the tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane, the next station ...
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2answers
44 views

What's the difference between reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity?

I'm trying to understand better these two concepts, but I cannot see a clear difference yet. Reaction norm: "set of phenotypes that can be produced by an individual genotype when exposed to different ...
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1answer
74 views

Spatially Encoded GPCRs?

I'm reading this paper, and I'm already lost in terms of what they mean by GPCR signaling is spatially encoded. The trafficking of G protein coupled‐receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most exciting ...
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1answer
86 views

What does substrate mean?

I have been reading some literature on measurements related to biofilms. In some articles the word "substrate" seems to stand for the material on which a biofilm is growing. In other articles, it ...
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80 views

Branch taking over a tree trunk

I stumbled upon a birch growing in sandy soil in a coniferous forest in central Russia. It looks like over time the tree trunk got bent towards the trail and one of the branches became the new trunk ...
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1answer
339 views

Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon?

Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon when it does not connect the diaphragm to any bone?
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29 views

Is “muscular attachment” synonymous to tendon? (when talking about the insertion of glutei medius and minimus to greater trochanter of the femur)

I have read the following two terms in an MRI report (both points refer to the insertion of gluteus medius/minimus to greater trochanter of the femur): mild degeneration of the muscular attachment ...