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Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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0answers
35 views

Dead flower: Only the veins remain

I've spotted a flower that is dead: It looks like most of the tissue has rotted away and only the veins remain. (Sorry, I don't know the proper name for flower veins). What is the technical term ...
5
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2answers
8k views

What is the difference between sinew and tendon?

I wonder what the difference between sinew and tendon is. I searched for it but didn't get any clear answer: https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-sinew-and-tendon: They are often ...
5
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2answers
3k views

What is full form of r and K in r-selection species and K-selection species?

What is full form/ meaning of 'r' and 'K' in r-selection species and K-selection species? Does this 'r' means "Random" and the 'K' means "constant"?
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1answer
26 views

Difference between cerebroside and globoside

I have a general idea about their difference that cerebrosides have a single sugar while globosides have more than one sugars. This is the structure of a ceramide (syphingosine and a fatty acid ...
1
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1answer
57 views

Does a cell suspend or exit cell cycle at G0?

In an exam, there was one question which asked whether the cell exits or suspends cell cycle at G0 phase. I answered that it exits cell cycle but the official answer key says it suspends cell cycle. ...
10
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3answers
36k views

Inoculation vs. vaccination

Is there any actual difference between inoculation and vaccination or are these terms interchangeable? In case the difference exists, would it be correct to say that inoculation is purposefully ...
1
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1answer
22 views

What's the subpatellar tendon?

I read in Thomas Myers book Anatomy Trains: Although the muscles themselves have attachments within the anterior compartment to the tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane, the next station ...
0
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2answers
35 views

What's the difference between reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity?

I'm trying to understand better these two concepts, but I cannot see a clear difference yet. Reaction norm: "set of phenotypes that can be produced by an individual genotype when exposed to different ...
0
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1answer
55 views

Spatially Encoded GPCRs?

I'm reading this paper, and I'm already lost in terms of what they mean by GPCR signaling is spatially encoded. The trafficking of G protein coupled‐receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most exciting ...
2
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1answer
59 views

What does substrate mean?

I have been reading some literature on measurements related to biofilms. In some articles the word "substrate" seems to stand for the material on which a biofilm is growing. In other articles, it ...
6
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1answer
65 views

Branch taking over a tree trunk

I stumbled upon a birch growing in sandy soil in a coniferous forest in central Russia. It looks like over time the tree trunk got bent towards the trail and one of the branches became the new trunk ...
3
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1answer
291 views

Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon?

Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon when it does not connect the diaphragm to any bone?
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1answer
22 views

Is “muscular attachment” synonymous to tendon? (when talking about the insertion of glutei medius and minimus to greater trochanter of the femur)

I have read the following two terms in an MRI report (both points refer to the insertion of gluteus medius/minimus to greater trochanter of the femur): mild degeneration of the muscular attachment ...
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2answers
84 views

What is a myotube?

If I understand correctly, the following images show the main components in a human skeletal muscle: From Life: The Science of Biology: From Human Physiology/The Muscular System in wikibooks: ...
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0answers
43 views

‘Inoculum’ vs ‘inoculant’ – which one is it?

I’m currently writing the report of a study which looked at commercial soil inoculants (Rhizobium sp.). However, I’m confused about the differences between the words inoculum and inoculant and when to ...
1
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1answer
94 views

Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
2
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1answer
136 views

How to tell petiole apart from stem?

How to tell petiole apart from stem? Is it by the rule that there is usually a pair of stipules at the base of a petiole?
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2answers
127 views

What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
2
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1answer
51 views

What do we call these containers used in biotechnology?

I'm translating an autoclave instruction from Russian, and it says that these containers (ванночки) (see the black circle on the below photo) are to be sterilized in the autoclave. I'm not sure what ...
5
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3answers
846 views

What is the difference between silent and synonymous mutations?

Several sources all caution that silent mutations and synonymous substitutions are not the same thing and should not be confused. But they seem to draw different actual distinctions between the terms: ...
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4answers
2k views

What is the definition of “Natural Selection”?

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. Natural selection, a process that results in the adaptation of an organism to its ...
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1answer
99 views

Is this model of understanding of what's natural selection and what's not, correct? [closed]

Here in this account I just want to make sure, that I've grasped the concept of natural selection as is usually spoken by evolutionary biologists, truly the wording here are non standard and in some ...
12
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2answers
7k views

Are all mutagens carcinogens?

Not all carcinogens are mutagens. Alcohol and estrogen, for example, does not damage DNA. It's one of the assumptions of the Ames test that mutagenicity implies carcinogenicity, but is this always ...
9
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2answers
9k views

What is the anatomical term for a two jointed leg?

Allow me to apologize in advance for the layman's terminology. I'm wondering what the anatomical term for a cat- or a goat-style hind leg is. Cats, goats, t-rexes, and many many other animals don't ...
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2answers
44 views

GEN file format, SNPs and alleles

I have a few questions I can't seem to get a straight answer to, regarding the .gen file format and also biology in general. The ...
2
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1answer
78 views

What is meant by “heads” and “tails” in the context of gene orientation?

I have a hard time understanding what this paper is talking about when it says: We observed maximal cleavage at sites oriented tail-to-tail and separated by -10 bp to +30 bp (Fig. 2d). Finally, ...
5
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4answers
13k views

What is an 'ex vivo' experiment?

Simple terminology question: Is there a hard boundary between in vitro and ex vivo? Is there a hard boundary between in vivo and ex vivo? Suppose a sensory neuron is electrically recorded in the ...
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1answer
57 views

What does the number after Vitamin B signify?

Does the number after Vitamin B signify anything? For example what is the significance of 12 in Vitamin B12?
2
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1answer
102 views

What is the reason behind the subphylum name “Urochordata” for tunicates?

There are two major invertebrate subphyla of the chordates (phylum Chordata): Cephalochordata (the lancelets) Urochordata, aka Tunicata (the tunicates) My understanding is that the cephalochordates ...
6
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0answers
155 views

What's a “constitutionally small penis”?

I'm reading some urology papers and came across one involving penis growth (Kim & Song, 2008); here's an intro passage that I'm confused about: A total of 58 patients with constitutionally ...
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1answer
241 views

What is the difference between scale vs cataphyll?

What is the difference between scale and cataphyll in botany - aren't these the same type of organ? E.g. do cycad cones have scales or cataphylls? Pine cones have scales, I understand the compound ...
3
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1answer
116 views

Term of the type xxx-troph for a compound not used by an organism

A prototroph for compound X can make it A bradytroph grows faster if X is scavenged An auxotroph needs to scavenge X A hyperauxotroph lacks both the biosynthetic pathway and the transporters for X ...
2
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2answers
2k views

Terminology for parts of the leg

Going out on a limb here (pun intended)...I'm writing a paper in which I need to refer to various sections of the human leg from upper thigh to knee to calf and ankle. However, "calf" covers a fairly ...
0
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0answers
11 views

What soft tissue separates bones of toes?

I need to know a little about the "knuckles" of toes; specifically the 4 areas that separate the 5 proximal/metatarsal joins. I'd like to know the terms for areas that might be damaged if the width ...
0
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3answers
240 views

Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
10
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3answers
14k views

Are blood vessels organs?

Are blood vessels classified as organs? Organs compose of 2 or more tissues and perform a certain function. Blood vessels have 3 different tissues and perform a function (transport blood), yet I do ...
8
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1answer
8k views

What is a “mechanistic study”?

I believe a "mechanistic study" means a study where a medicinal product is being used but the purpose of the study is to investigate the patient or disease, not the medicinal product. How does this ...
1
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1answer
45 views

More general term than “adaptation”

The Wikipedia article about adaptation states: Adaptation differs from flexibility, acclimatization, and learning. What is a more general term than adaptation? For example, is there an umbrella ...
12
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5answers
14k views

Why is the opposite of plantar flexion called “dorsiflexion”?

Why is the action of flexing the foot so that the toes move anteriorly/superiorly (i.e. in the direction opposite that which they move during plantar flexion) described as "dorsiflexion?" In the same ...
6
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2answers
124 views

Why is ATP synthase sometimes referred to as ATPase?

Quite a few times I have seen the term ‘ATPase’ used for what I would consider ATP synthase. For example, my text has: “The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is also catalysed by the enzyme ATPase.” I ...
13
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6answers
11k views

Difference between genetic engineering and synthetic biology

I've recently seen the term synthetic biology being used to describe research involving genetic modification of organisms. What is the difference between synthetic biology and genetic engineering? Is ...
3
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2answers
92 views

Etymology of PAX proteins

What is the reasoning behind naming proteins first found in Drosophila as paired box? All I could find on internet is that it was first found in Drosophila as a protein with paired domain, but I ...
4
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1answer
321 views

What is meant by bionomics of a vector?

What is supposed to fall under the title Bionomics (The study of an organism and its relation to its environment; ecology.)? Suppose we are dealing with a vector, Anopheles sp. are the following ...
2
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1answer
174 views

Why is xylem a tissue and not an organ?

My textbook "CGP AS-Level Biology Exam Board: Edexcel Complete Revision & Practice" says xylem is a tissue. Then I read from this website that "[Xylem's] major components include xylem parenchyma,...
4
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0answers
61 views

What's inside the perinuclear space?

The cell proper contains the cytoplasm in general and the cytosol in particular when referring to the fluid/gel without notable organelle. Once we move inside the nucleus there is the nucleoplasm and ...
0
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1answer
48 views

Notation for repetitive nucleic acids

With regard to nucleic acids with repeating residues, could anyone provide a description of what the following sequences are, and the key differences between them: Poly(dA) Oligo(dA) Poly(A)
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2answers
101 views

Why is photosynthesis described as a “physico-chemical” process? [closed]

In my textbook it is given that photosynthesis is a physico-chemical process. How can it be a physical process?
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1answer
54 views

Is there an adjective I can use to describe body parts like hands, feet, eyes, and ears that exist on both sides of the body's sagittal plane?

Body parts like human hands, feet, ears, eyes, etc. exist on either side of the human body's sagittal plane and can therefore be specified with the adjectives left and right. Is there a special ...
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1answer
24 views

Is there a word for the length of time an animal stays with parents before going off on their own?

Gestation is a word describing the pregnancy for animals, and you can use 'gestation period' to describe how long a pregnancy generally takes for a species. I'd like to know if there's a corollary ...
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1answer
62 views

What do the acronyms in C.elegans neuron names stand for? [closed]

In this site, I see a variety of acronymic names for C.elegans neurons but what do these names mean (for example AVAL, AVAR)?