Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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37 views

Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?
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203 views

What does 'virus prototype strain' mean?

Does the term 'prototype virus strain' mean the first virus isolated and without mutations?
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1answer
451 views

Is pith a ground tissue with no specialized function?

Here is a question from the book My Max Score SAT Biology E/M Subject Test (where the SAT is the exam taken by American high school students): Ground tissue with no specialized function A. Xylem ...
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1answer
63 views

an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
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Why plant tissues end in -enchyma?

Many plant tissue types end in the affix -enchyma. Etymology: enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" Examples are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma (meaning "to pour beside," ...
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81 views

Who are Ursprungliche Eukaryoten?

The school textbook of my daughter (the textbook is written in German) describes the five kingdoms of life: prokaryota, plants, fungi, animals and "Ursprungliche Eukaryoten". These are defined as "...
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105 views

Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
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1answer
491 views

Is there logic in this sentence? “Authors discovered a gene as one of the genes evolved through natural selection”

From a news report: PhD candidate Daiki Sato and Professor Masakado Kawata have discovered SLC18A1 (VMAT1), which encodes vesicular monoamine transporter 1, as one of the genes evolved through ...
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2answers
213 views

A synthetic sieve organ known as kliver?

in this video at 5:28, the narrator talks about a "vat-grown all-purpose sieve organ" called Kliver that would do away with both liver and kidney transplant. But i don't seem to find online resources ...
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227 views

Is there a specific suffix for “within a cell”? i.e. in a similar manner to how -aemia refers to within the blood

Words like hyperglycemia and hyponatremia refer to the relative level of each component in the blood, not in the cell. Is there a suffix for within the cell? For reference I would like one word as an ...
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101 views

What to call a trait that has current utility but unclear evolutionary origin?

I'm looking for a commonly used term to describe a trait that has clear current utility but an evolutionary origin that is uncertain and that we do not necessarily wish to emphasize in our description ...
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What does “operationally soluble” mean, re. Tax10 enzyme?

I am trying to work out whether the enzyme Tax10 is soluble or insoluble. I need to know if some buffers won't work with Tax10. I am trying to confirm Tax10 activity, having confirmed protein ...
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278 views

Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
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193 views

Hormonal terms Somatotrophin or somatotropin?

Are Somatotropin and Somatotrophin hormones the same? It's confusing because when you type in Somatotrophin in google, it says, "a growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.", but there'...
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160 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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1answer
75 views

What is it called when an animal only has one type/variation of dentition?

An example would be alligators that only have one type/shape of tooth. Not the variation in function and shape like seen in humans, which have canines, molars, incisors, etc
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903 views

What is the difference between silent and synonymous mutations?

Several sources all caution that silent mutations and synonymous substitutions are not the same thing and should not be confused. But they seem to draw different actual distinctions between the terms: ...
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1answer
47 views

Why is there a carbon atom without a greek letter in protein residues?

For protein residues I know that $C\alpha$ denotes the first carbon atom attached to a functional group. Each subsequent carbon is given a corresponding greek letter ($\beta, \gamma, \delta$) except ...
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1k views

What is the difference between a protein and a factor?

In terms of nomenclature/semantics, why are some proteins named proteins, and some named factors? I've been revising on eukaryotic DNA, and I've come across some proteins that seem to serve roughly ...
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52 views

What is the difference between infected and infectious in epidemiology?

I am studying the SIR model and in the infected class I, both infectious and infected individuals are included, as stated here I know that the model uses the assumption that the disease has an ...
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1answer
70 views

What is the meaning of “leukemic cell recovery” in an abstract?

An article abstract: Significant predictors of treatment outcome are poorly defined for patients with T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A high WBC at diagnosis, which has ...
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2answers
65 views

Lack of skin in a certain area of the body — hypo[what]? [closed]

Lack of skin in a certain area of the body. How shell I name this? Hypocutaneousis? Hypo[somethingElse]? What is the correct term?
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38 views

Why has the term “natural history” been used to denote the study of nature, and more recently, of life?

The term "natural history" is a translation of the Latin phrase historia naturalis meaning "the story of nature". Nowadays denoting the study of life, it originally also covered astronomy. Why has ...
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2answers
1k views

Definitions of hermaphroditism, dioecious and monoecious?

What is the difference between these terms "monoecious","Hermaphrodite". my lecturer says hermaphrodite is a zoological term and monoecious is botanical term, but in contrary to it, in my textbook ...
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957 views

What does the “G” and “V” in penicillin V and penicillin G stand for?

I've been looking for a convincing explanation for the designation penicillin G and V. The answers I've found includes G as in "gold standard" and "V" as in "viscus" but they're not sourced and not ...
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Is there a term for the group of individual organisms whose matrilineally descended female ancestors all share a common ancestor?

A group of individual organisms that are all descended from a common ancestor is a clade. Is there a term for a group of individuals whose matrilineally descended ancestors (mothers, maternal ...
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51 views

Gene terminology - is one gene a concrete, single physical sequence?

Suppose you have two identical copies of the same, coding nucleotide sequence (e.g. two copies of BCL2 - a random gene I found on Wikipedia). Could you say that these are two genes (i.e. the name "...
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163 views

How do I name a binding antibody? “Binding antibody to”, “binding antibody against”, or “anti-[antigen] binding antibody”?

I'm translating a text that describes how an immunogenicity of a drug is measured by assaying the levels of binding antibodies to the drug. Or is it "against the drug"? I'm wondering how to name these ...
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1answer
208 views

How can epigenetic changes be erased if they are inherited?

I’m a little bit confused about DNA methlyation reprogramming and about the nature of an epigenetic phenomenon. According to Wikipedia: After fertilization the paternal and maternal genomes are ...
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1answer
220 views

What is a reflex pathway?

I know that the pathway of nerve impulses during a reflex action is called a reflex arc. However, I want to know whether the term reflex arc can be called either a reflex path or simple reflex?
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Which word is used to indicate that a vessel is “blood-filled” during a necropsy?

I'm translating a necropsy report, and one sentence says: Синусоиды полнокровные. Портальные тракты сохранены, сосуды умеренно полнокровные. The sinusoids are plethoric. The portal tracts are ...
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652 views

What's the difference between a simple and 1-foliolate (unifoliolate) leaf?

How is a 1-foliolate leaf (e.g., Hardenbergia) different from a simple leaf?
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1answer
1k views

Are mesophyll cells the same as parenchyma cells?

I read in my biology textbook that ground tissue is constituted by parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.It was also mentioned that, in leaves the ground tissue was made up of thin walled ...
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898 views

What defines a microbial species?

I know that microbes are not capable of sexual reproduction, thus sorting them into species according to "groups that can interbreed and generate fertile offspring" should not apply.
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2k views

Why aren't white blood cells called pus cells?

So, pus is just a concentration of dead white blood cells that results from your body detecting an infection or a foreign body that needs to be removed and sending a whole bunch of white blood cells ...
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1answer
89 views

Difference between spiking and firing

In the article "A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial Map Formation Using Persistent Homology" by Y. Dabaghian, F. Mémoli, L. Frank, G. Carlsson I read some sentences with huge ...
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44 views

Can action potential generating ion channels only be understood as assemblies of membrane proteins (and not as single proteins)?

I always believed to have roughly understood how voltage-gated ion channels and the creation of action potentials work: as and by single (or non-interacting groups of) membrane proteins, that behave ...
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1answer
219 views

Are freshwater jellyfishes really jellyfishes?

Articles from the aquaticcommunity.com and the Nature Conservancy suggest that freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyi, are more closely related to the Genus Hydra. From the Nature Conservancy ...
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51 views

What is an adjective that describes the property of conferring fitness?

I find it wordy to repeat trait X is a trait that confers fitness. I wonder if I can instead write trait X is useful. If not, is there an adjective that describes this property of conferring ...
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4k views

“Higher plants” or “vascular plants”?

What is the difference — if any — between "higher plants" and "vascular plants"? On Wikipedia, "higher plants" redirects to "vascular plants", which seems like an indication that both ...
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1answer
551 views

Where are action potentials initially created?

Is the axon hillock still the place where one thinks and talks of that action potentials are initially created? (I've heard this place moved into the direction of the axon initial segment.) If one ...
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1answer
469 views

What is the proper naming of Aminoacyl-tRNAs?

I want to refer to an aminoacyl-tRNA with the anticodon 3'-UAC-5' that is charged with methionine. What is the proper name for this molecule?
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1answer
171 views

What is the meaning of pygo and pagus in the word pygopagus? [closed]

I know definition of the disease pygopagus but I want to know the meaning of separate parts of it, in fact what's the meaning of pygo- and -pagus in terminology?
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604 views

What is the opposite of a mutation (the regular state)?

What is the term, if there is one, to describe the natural state of a gene? The one single word to describe it, just like mutation is the one single word do describe a deviation from that state.
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Is a walnut a nut or a drupe?

We've been learning about fruits (and the various categories thereof) in class; among them we have the nut and the drupe. My textbook differentiates between those terms as: Nut: It is a single-...
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67 views

Name for a set/collection of eggs which are laid and receive no nurturing of any sort by parents

OK - so, mammals have litters, and they look after their young. Hens (birds generally) have clutches and many/most look after their young. Octopuses have broods since the female looks after the eggs,...
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3k views

What are the differences between isozymes, allozymes and isoforms? [closed]

As far as I have understood Isozymes are derived from different genes but perform similar functions Allozymes are derived from the same gene but different loci, functionally conserved ...
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1answer
113 views

Why are primary sensory cells considered neurons but muscle cells are not?

The rough picture of cells involved in neural processing looks like this: I wonder, why primary sensory (receptor) cells (like rods, cones, hair cells, Merkel cells) are consensually considered ...
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220 views

Why is the outer circle of human mitochondrial DNA ‘heavy’, whereas the inner circle is ‘light’?

Why is the outer circle of human mitochondrial DNA "heavy" whereas the inner circle is "light"?
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58 views

Biological terminology: “codes for” vs. “codes a” [closed]

Maybe this is answered already before, but I cannot find it: Most authors say/write "a gene codes for a protein", some use "a gene codes a protein". The latter seems to me the grammatically correct ...