Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

0
votes
2answers
153 views

A synthetic sieve organ known as kliver?

in this video at 5:28, the narrator talks about a "vat-grown all-purpose sieve organ" called Kliver that would do away with both liver and kidney transplant. But i don't seem to find online resources ...
4
votes
1answer
181 views

Is there a specific suffix for “within a cell”? i.e. in a similar manner to how -aemia refers to within the blood

Words like hyperglycemia and hyponatremia refer to the relative level of each component in the blood, not in the cell. Is there a suffix for within the cell? For reference I would like one word as an ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

What to call a trait that has current utility but unclear evolutionary origin?

I'm looking for a commonly used term to describe a trait that has clear current utility but an evolutionary origin that is uncertain and that we do not necessarily wish to emphasize in our description ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

What does “operationally soluble” mean, re. Tax10 enzyme?

I am trying to work out whether the enzyme Tax10 is soluble or insoluble. I need to know if some buffers won't work with Tax10. I am trying to confirm Tax10 activity, having confirmed protein ...
0
votes
3answers
230 views

Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
4
votes
1answer
164 views

Hormonal terms Somatotrophin or somatotropin?

Are Somatotropin and Somatotrophin hormones the same? It's confusing because when you type in Somatotrophin in google, it says, "a growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.", but there'...
3
votes
0answers
147 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

What is it called when an animal only has one type/variation of dentition?

An example would be alligators that only have one type/shape of tooth. Not the variation in function and shape like seen in humans, which have canines, molars, incisors, etc
5
votes
3answers
836 views

What is the difference between silent and synonymous mutations?

Several sources all caution that silent mutations and synonymous substitutions are not the same thing and should not be confused. But they seem to draw different actual distinctions between the terms: ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Why is there a carbon atom without a greek letter in protein residues?

For protein residues I know that $C\alpha$ denotes the first carbon atom attached to a functional group. Each subsequent carbon is given a corresponding greek letter ($\beta, \gamma, \delta$) except ...
8
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the difference between a protein and a factor?

In terms of nomenclature/semantics, why are some proteins named proteins, and some named factors? I've been revising on eukaryotic DNA, and I've come across some proteins that seem to serve roughly ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

What is the difference between infected and infectious in epidemiology?

I am studying the SIR model and in the infected class I, both infectious and infected individuals are included, as stated here I know that the model uses the assumption that the disease has an ...
5
votes
1answer
64 views

What is the meaning of “leukemic cell recovery” in an abstract?

An article abstract: Significant predictors of treatment outcome are poorly defined for patients with T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A high WBC at diagnosis, which has ...
1
vote
2answers
64 views

Lack of skin in a certain area of the body — hypo[what]? [closed]

Lack of skin in a certain area of the body. How shell I name this? Hypocutaneousis? Hypo[somethingElse]? What is the correct term?
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Why has the term “natural history” been used to denote the study of nature, and more recently, of life?

The term "natural history" is a translation of the Latin phrase historia naturalis meaning "the story of nature". Nowadays denoting the study of life, it originally also covered astronomy. Why has ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Definitions of hermaphroditism, dioecious and monoecious?

What is the difference between these terms "monoecious","Hermaphrodite". my lecturer says hermaphrodite is a zoological term and monoecious is botanical term, but in contrary to it, in my textbook ...
2
votes
0answers
849 views

What does the “G” and “V” in penicillin V and penicillin G stand for?

I've been looking for a convincing explanation for the designation penicillin G and V. The answers I've found includes G as in "gold standard" and "V" as in "viscus" but they're not sourced and not ...
3
votes
2answers
36 views

Is there a term for the group of individual organisms whose matrilineally descended female ancestors all share a common ancestor?

A group of individual organisms that are all descended from a common ancestor is a clade. Is there a term for a group of individuals whose matrilineally descended ancestors (mothers, maternal ...
3
votes
2answers
51 views

Gene terminology - is one gene a concrete, single physical sequence?

Suppose you have two identical copies of the same, coding nucleotide sequence (e.g. two copies of BCL2 - a random gene I found on Wikipedia). Could you say that these are two genes (i.e. the name "...
1
vote
2answers
158 views

How do I name a binding antibody? “Binding antibody to”, “binding antibody against”, or “anti-[antigen] binding antibody”?

I'm translating a text that describes how an immunogenicity of a drug is measured by assaying the levels of binding antibodies to the drug. Or is it "against the drug"? I'm wondering how to name these ...
3
votes
1answer
196 views

How can epigenetic changes be erased if they are inherited?

I’m a little bit confused about DNA methlyation reprogramming and about the nature of an epigenetic phenomenon. According to Wikipedia: After fertilization the paternal and maternal genomes are ...
0
votes
1answer
207 views

What is a reflex pathway?

I know that the pathway of nerve impulses during a reflex action is called a reflex arc. However, I want to know whether the term reflex arc can be called either a reflex path or simple reflex?
0
votes
0answers
93 views

Which word is used to indicate that a vessel is “blood-filled” during a necropsy?

I'm translating a necropsy report, and one sentence says: Синусоиды полнокровные. Портальные тракты сохранены, сосуды умеренно полнокровные. The sinusoids are plethoric. The portal tracts are ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Are mesophyll cells the same as parenchyma cells?

I read in my biology textbook that ground tissue is constituted by parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.It was also mentioned that, in leaves the ground tissue was made up of thin walled ...
8
votes
2answers
861 views

What defines a microbial species?

I know that microbes are not capable of sexual reproduction, thus sorting them into species according to "groups that can interbreed and generate fertile offspring" should not apply.
-3
votes
1answer
1k views

Why aren't white blood cells called pus cells?

So, pus is just a concentration of dead white blood cells that results from your body detecting an infection or a foreign body that needs to be removed and sending a whole bunch of white blood cells ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Difference between spiking and firing

In the article "A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial Map Formation Using Persistent Homology" by Y. Dabaghian, F. Mémoli, L. Frank, G. Carlsson I read some sentences with huge ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Can action potential generating ion channels only be understood as assemblies of membrane proteins (and not as single proteins)?

I always believed to have roughly understood how voltage-gated ion channels and the creation of action potentials work: as and by single (or non-interacting groups of) membrane proteins, that behave ...
4
votes
1answer
212 views

Are freshwater jellyfishes really jellyfishes?

Articles from the aquaticcommunity.com and the Nature Conservancy suggest that freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyi, are more closely related to the Genus Hydra. From the Nature Conservancy ...
0
votes
2answers
51 views

What is an adjective that describes the property of conferring fitness?

I find it wordy to repeat trait X is a trait that confers fitness. I wonder if I can instead write trait X is useful. If not, is there an adjective that describes this property of conferring ...
6
votes
3answers
4k views

“Higher plants” or “vascular plants”?

What is the difference — if any — between "higher plants" and "vascular plants"? On Wikipedia, "higher plants" redirects to "vascular plants", which seems like an indication that both ...
1
vote
1answer
534 views

Where are action potentials initially created?

Is the axon hillock still the place where one thinks and talks of that action potentials are initially created? (I've heard this place moved into the direction of the axon initial segment.) If one ...
2
votes
1answer
427 views

What is the proper naming of Aminoacyl-tRNAs?

I want to refer to an aminoacyl-tRNA with the anticodon 3'-UAC-5' that is charged with methionine. What is the proper name for this molecule?
1
vote
1answer
142 views

What is the meaning of pygo and pagus in the word pygopagus? [closed]

I know definition of the disease pygopagus but I want to know the meaning of separate parts of it, in fact what's the meaning of pygo- and -pagus in terminology?
2
votes
1answer
550 views

What is the opposite of a mutation (the regular state)?

What is the term, if there is one, to describe the natural state of a gene? The one single word to describe it, just like mutation is the one single word do describe a deviation from that state.
27
votes
3answers
5k views

Is a walnut a nut or a drupe?

We've been learning about fruits (and the various categories thereof) in class; among them we have the nut and the drupe. My textbook differentiates between those terms as: Nut: It is a single-...
0
votes
0answers
67 views

Name for a set/collection of eggs which are laid and receive no nurturing of any sort by parents

OK - so, mammals have litters, and they look after their young. Hens (birds generally) have clutches and many/most look after their young. Octopuses have broods since the female looks after the eggs,...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the differences between isozymes, allozymes and isoforms? [closed]

As far as I have understood Isozymes are derived from different genes but perform similar functions Allozymes are derived from the same gene but different loci, functionally conserved ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Why are primary sensory cells considered neurons but muscle cells are not?

The rough picture of cells involved in neural processing looks like this: I wonder, why primary sensory (receptor) cells (like rods, cones, hair cells, Merkel cells) are consensually considered ...
1
vote
1answer
208 views

Why is the outer circle of human mitochondrial DNA ‘heavy’, whereas the inner circle is ‘light’?

Why is the outer circle of human mitochondrial DNA "heavy" whereas the inner circle is "light"?
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Biological terminology: “codes for” vs. “codes a” [closed]

Maybe this is answered already before, but I cannot find it: Most authors say/write "a gene codes for a protein", some use "a gene codes a protein". The latter seems to me the grammatically correct ...
2
votes
2answers
657 views

What are the (correct) terms for these flagella-arrangements?

I came across the following diagrams depicting two kinds of arrangement of flagella over cells. Now according to my (very unreliable) school textbook, the arrangements are termed as: A - ...
3
votes
2answers
700 views

What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
3
votes
1answer
59 views

What do you call mRNAs that translate to the same protein?

For example AUAACC and AUCACG in distinct mRNAs may both be translated to the same dipeptide Ile-Thr.
0
votes
2answers
159 views

Is spliceosomal RNA called snRNP or snRNA? [closed]

I have been reading articles by various sources, and they seem to interchangeably call the U1/U2/U4/U6 compounds involved in RNA splicing snRNPs as well as snRNAs. This confuses me deeply. They must ...
3
votes
1answer
331 views

Land recultivation? Land revegetation? Land reclamation? Land rehabilitation?

I'm translating a Russian text about the recultivation (рекультивация) of land formerly used for open-pit mining. The process of 'land recultivation' in Russia involves three general stages: ...
1
vote
1answer
259 views

SNP vs common SNP

Wikipedia citing Nature defines SNP to be a one where each (thus the lowest frequency) allele exceeds some percentage threshold in the population. But I see a lot of papers and books calling such an ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Terminology for parts of the leg

Going out on a limb here (pun intended)...I'm writing a paper in which I need to refer to various sections of the human leg from upper thigh to knee to calf and ankle. However, "calf" covers a fairly ...
-1
votes
2answers
793 views

What is the difference between the otolith membrane and the endolymph?

The human vestibular system contains otoliths to sense acceleration in the vertical and horizontal plane. I cannot find what the difference is between the otolith membrane and the endolymph? Can ...
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Name of neurons affecting or being affected by a neuron?

This question is about terminology: By which established and catchy terms are the sets of neurons with respect to a given neuron $N$ called which directly affect $N$ synaptically are ...