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Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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What is functional dissection?

Reading [1] I found the sentence: Consistently, functional dissection of mouse and human wild-type and mutant RAS isogenic leukemia cells demonstrated induction of methotrexate resistance but also ...
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2answers
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Is a DNA molecule a single strand of polynucleotide or two of them linked together?

I'm so embarrassed to ask such a question here, but our molecular biology teacher told us that a double helix of DNA was composed of two DNA molecules linked together by hydrogen bonds. The thing is, ...
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Are mutations random?

The following claim Mutations are random or just the use of the expression Random mutations are very common among lay people. The claim is very common among lay people. The claim is often ...
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2k views

What is the difference between abundance and dominance in an ecosystem?

I was reading Hydroperiods of created and natural vernal pools in central Ohio: A comparison of depth and duration of inundation by Debra L. Gamble and William J. Mitsch (2008), and I came across this ...
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1answer
68 views

What is the difference between kingdoms protistae and protoctistae?

I understand that both kingdoms represent primitive eukaryotic organisms, and both contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms. What are the points that distinguish one kingdom from the ...
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1answer
30 views

Can you say “screening for a” in English?

I know this is not a "Correct Use of English Forum" but I'm afraid that people from outside the field won't be able to properly answer my question. Would it be correct to say "screening for a long ...
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33 views

Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as “enzymatic lysates”?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...
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2answers
776 views

Why is the prefrontal cortex called such?

Pre means before. Frontal means front. What does cortex means? Brain? Is it the front most part of the brain? Is it located at the most frontal part of the brain and that's why it's called ...
2
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1answer
336 views

Where did the term “vegetative nervous system” come from?

I am interested in the origin of the name. I am aware that Reil coined the term in the 1800s, but want to know why did he choose the term vegetative. I have not been able to find an answer to this ...
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what is the word origin of myelo- as in myelofibrosis or myeloma?

what is the word origin of myelo- as in myelofibrosis or myeloma? I know that these are plasma cancers originating in the bone marrow.
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2answers
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How different are these terms: Phylloclade, Phyllode, Cladophyll and Cladode?

We started with Plant Morphology in class (specifically, the morphology of angiosperms). My teacher's provided us with the following terms and their definitions. Phylloclade A modified ...
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2answers
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Special visceral efferent

Why are special visceral efferent nerves are named as such? They are supplying motor impulses to muscles of pharyngeal arch, which are both skeletal(facial) and visceral(laryngeal) 1, so why only ...
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229 views

Names of different cyclins

Different types of cell cyclins are designated as a to y Why are some letters like m, n, p, q.. etc. skipped? Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin
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2answers
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How can I describe running a solution four times through a chromatography unit (in an instruction)?

I'm translating a document from Russian: The mean retention time for the first four injections of RNase should be (40.8± 2) min. If the mean RT is beyond this range, adjust the gradient system (...
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1answer
71 views

Electrogenic ion transporter

At the molecular level, electrical current across cell membranes flows through three unique classes of integral membrane proteins (see Chapter 2): ion channels, electrogenic ion transporters, and ...
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1answer
225 views

What is “multiple” myeloma?

Multiple myeloma, commonly referred to as myeloma, is a cancer of the plasma cells found in the bone marrow.(source) Is there any significance in calling myeloma as "MULTIPLE" myeloma?
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1answer
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What is head of a bone?

For most of the long bones head is the proximal end, but for metacarpals and Ulna, head is the distal end. Why are their distal ends called as heads? What's the criteria for calling an end as head ...
2
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1answer
132 views

What does “out-titration” mean?

I am reading an article on developmental biology and cannot understand (even after searching the internet) what is meant by "out-titration". For example, in this phrase: We have previously shown ...
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0answers
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What is the difference between “dysregulation” and “deregulation” of miRNA?

I've started to study the role of miRNA in cancer. Wikipedia says: Just as miRNA is involved in the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells, so has dysregulation of miRNA been associated with ...
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Are 'homeothermic' and 'endothermic' synonymous?

I got this question from the comments below this answer. So, do homeothermic and poikilothermic have the same meaning as endothermic and ectothermic, respectively? A user also suggested that the ...
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1answer
239 views

What is the difference between scale vs cataphyll?

What is the difference between scale and cataphyll in botany - aren't these the same type of organ? E.g. do cycad cones have scales or cataphylls? Pine cones have scales, I understand the compound ...
2
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1answer
31 views

Term for timespan between generations

Is there a terminology for the average timespan between generations, like ΔG ? I mean by that the time from the parental generation being mature to the filial generation being mature.
3
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1answer
102 views

What is the difference between phylogenetic tree “construction” and “reconstruction”?

When I look through papers, there are two terms Phylogenetic tree construction Phylogenetic tree "Re"construction What is the difference between phylogenetic tree "construction" and "reconstruction" ...
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1answer
2k views

Segmentation in Platyhelminthes

My text book says: Platyhelminthes are unsegmented worms. Moreover, tape worm (Taenia solium), which is segmented, is one of the examples of Platyhelminthes. My question is: why a segmented worm ...
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1answer
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Meaning of “U” in “Viral Protein U”

What does U mean in Viral protein U? Viral protein U (Vpu) is a unique gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) with two well-described functions... So does U in this case ...
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1answer
101 views

What does the word “refractory” in “refractory period” refer to? [closed]

What does the word "refractory" in "refractory period" refer to? I know what it means "refractory period" (both, absolute and relative) in the action potential graph, but I don't understand what the ...
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Exocrine system + endocrine system =?

What is the title name for endocrine system + exocrine system? In another language that I speak they are called "secretion system" but in English the term secretion system is different and it is ...
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2answers
126 views

Comprehensive biology or anatomy wordbank

I teach A&P for bio non majors. I have a special needs student whose accommodation requires a word bank for any anatomy identification questions I have on the exam. I would like to present the ...
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3answers
2k views

Is prion a term used to describe the normal form of the protein as well as the disease causing form?

I've been reading my textbook and it refers to prions as a normal protein with a helpful function but it can turn into a disease causing form. However, I look in my other textbook and it refers to the ...
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0answers
77 views

Mental Symphysis

Why dow we consider mandibular symphysis(symphysis menti) as type of Amphiarthrosis that too of symphysis variety, eventhough it lacks movement and cartilage at joint? Why don't we consider as ...
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1answer
714 views

In the NCBI Taxonomy tree what does “no rank” mean?

NCBI publish their taxonomy browser at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi While many taxa have a well defined rank (Order, Family, Genus etc..), some of them have "no rank". ...
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1answer
77 views

What do we call this adjustable platform used to ensure that something is positioned strictly level in a lab?

This is an adjustable platform. Such a platform is used, for example, to make sure that a gel electrophoresis cassette is level relative to the earth. A passage in a procedure description which I'm ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the name for the opening in the mouth for the nasal passages?

Is there a proper anatomical name for the opening in the soft palette where the nasal passages enter the mouth?
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1answer
4k views

Was HindII the first restriction endonuclease to be extracted?

Background: Guided by wikipedia and pmc I found this paper by Hamilton O. Smith. and .Daniel Nathans. A restriction enzyme is a component of a restriction-modification ...
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Chief Sensory Cells

What makes the second order neurons of posterior grey horn of spinal cord to be called as "chief" sensory cells? Why don't we call 1st order, or third order neurons or other second order neurones in ...
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2answers
7k views

What is the difference between cytosol and cytoplasm?

I've generally seen cytosol defined as the solution inside cells minus the organelles, cytoskeleton, etc and cytoplasm as the cytosol plus the organelles, cytoskeleton, etc. This naturally leads to ...
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1answer
368 views

What is the meaning of the word 'bin' in the context of RNA-Seq?

I have a question from a book about RNA-Seq. I would like to know the meaning of the word "bin" in the below cited paragraph: RseQC has several nice features not found in the other programs: (a) ...
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2answers
3k views

What is full form of r and K in r-selection species and K-selection species?

What is full form/ meaning of 'r' and 'K' in r-selection species and K-selection species? Does this 'r' means "Random" and the 'K' means "constant"?
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1answer
1k views

Ear ossicles a part of Skull?

Is there anything special about not considering ear ossicles as a part of skull? I could not understand the reasoning behind such classification.
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1answer
2k views

Medical term for “holding urine for a long time”

Sometimes I get/feel pain in my stomach because of holding urine for long time. Is there any medical terminology describing: "holding urine for a long time", or pain associated with this activity?
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2answers
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What are “primary amino acids and secondary amino acids”? Context: analysis of amino acid content using reversed-phase HPLC

In a Russian document I'm translating, an HPLC system is used to analyse the amino acid content of a substance. The detector wavelength is set at 262 nm for "secondary amino acids" and 338 nm ...
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1answer
760 views

Small vs Large neurons

What is the criteria for classifying neurons as small and large? Is this classification based on gross size or the length of axon? Do they have any physiological difference? For instance it is said ...
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2answers
163 views

Does the term “Biophysics” have two different meanings?

1. Some sources (including the current Tag-info at biology SE) state; biophysics is the adoption of techniques / methodologies from physics to study biological systems. The use of methods from ...
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3answers
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Why is a mosquito feeding on human blood not a parasite?

I recently read in my Ecology course notes that a mosquito feeding on human blood is not considered as a parasite. However, since it sucks blood from the human body, shouldn't it be regarded as a ...
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1answer
526 views

What does “local folding” means in secondary structure?

I'm new to biology field, so I'm learning all kinds of biochemistry knowledge for a bioinformatics project. I've found a few definitions of secondary structure online. For example, I found this brief ...
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478 views

Why the “cfr.” in 'Cirrhipathes cfr. anguina' and not “cf.”?

Recently I stumbled upon the species name Cirrhipathes anguina. In the literature it is often mentioned as Cirrhipathes cfr. anguina. What does cfr. mean? Does it carry the same meaning as ...
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1answer
58 views

Difference between ‘tagging’ and ‘conjugating’ a fluorochrome to an antibody?

The Wikipedia entry on fluorescence repeatedly states that “a fluorochrome must be tagged or conjugated to the antibody”. How is tagged or conjugated different? Is this a mistake or are these indeed ...
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1answer
289 views

Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon?

Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon when it does not connect the diaphragm to any bone?
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401 views

Epistasis: Why should a recessive allele be a hypostatic gene?

Let us take the example of Recessive epistatsis, an epistasis in which a double recessive gene mask the phenotypic expression of alleles of another locus. (adapted from: An Introduction to Genetic ...
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What is the difference between Totipotent cells and Pluripotent cells? [duplicate]

I read the Wikipedia article about Cell Potency (Article on Cell Potency) Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism. while ...