Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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What is the difference between Totipotent cells and Pluripotent cells? [duplicate]

I read the Wikipedia article about Cell Potency (Article on Cell Potency) Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism. while ...
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When is an anatomic entity named “laterale” vs. “lateralis”?

I'm trying to learn the latin names of anatomical entities and I have a hard time remembering whether it's "Os cuneiforme laterale" or "Os cuneiforme lateralis". In that case it's "laterale". But in ...
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Difference between Peptone, Peptide and Proteose

In my school textbook, it is given that Pepsin converts proteins to peptones, proteose and peptides. What is the difference between the three products? On googling the terms, the definition was ...
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5k views

Coracoid vs. Coronoid - Etymology/Naming Choice?

The word coracoid (e.g., coracoid process of scapula) literally means "resembling a crow/raven" or "of the form of a crow/raven." In this case, I assume, resembling the hooked characteristic of a ...
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Etymology of PAX proteins

What is the reasoning behind naming proteins first found in Drosophila as paired box? All I could find on internet is that it was first found in Drosophila as a protein with paired domain, but I ...
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21k views

What is the difference between transverse section and longitudinal section? [closed]

Can anyone explain the difference between transverse and longitudinal section? Or are they the same?
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Is PCR a DNA cloning technique?

According to Genomes PCR is A technique that results in exponential amplification of a selected region of a DNA molecule [in test tube]. DNA cloning is Insertion of a fragment of DNA into a ...
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1answer
94 views

Meaning of “primers IL-2” in a scientific article

From an article ("Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Lewis Rats by FTY720 Treatment", 2003): We performed PCR amplification in a 100-μl reaction mixture containing 200 μM ...
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223 views

Can an exotic species be also endemic?

While talking about the evolution and conservation of dingoes in Australia, someone asked an interesting question: Can I define the dingo as an endemic species? That question, despite apparently ...
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787 views

Why do plants not have fat cells, and store their reserves in vacuoles instead?

Why don't plants have fat cells, but instead store reserves in vacuoles. And vice versa, why do humans feature fat cells instead of depositing storage molecules in vacuoles?
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992 views

What is meant by “catalytic amount of a hormone”?

This textbook says: In the classic definition, hormones are secretory products of the ductless glands, which are released in catalytic amounts into the blood stream and transported to specific ...
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ECG wave names origin

Why do electrocardiogram waves go P, Q, R, S, T and not like A, B, C, D? Is there any specific reason behind this?
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Terminology regarding sensory receptors

I was recently asked the following question: Compare the following pairs of receptors in the same sensory system. Include in your discussion: The distribution in the sensory epithelium;...
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What is the proper pronounciation of the scientific name of the ground elder / Aegopodium podagraria? [closed]

A audio sample would be great. As a kind of bonus: I would appreciate a kind of database, which contains a lot of botanical plant names.
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961 views

What is a tuckahoe?

I'm working on a book about names and nicknames of the fifty states of USA. I came across the following in an older reference: The name Tuckoes is a corruption of the common term Tuckahoe, or ...
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2k views

What is the meaning of “The Molecular Basis of Disease” [closed]

What is the exact meaning of The Molecular Basis of Disease? I have one assignment which involves presenting Molecular Basis of a Disease. I am not really sure what points to add.
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Which DNA elements belong to the definition of a gene?

I see a lot of different DNA elements mentioned as part of a gene (talking about eukaryotes): The length of DNA following the promoter is a gene and it contains the recipe for a protein. (video) ...
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Is there a name for dominant-intraspecific competition?

Some ecological competition dynamics have particular names (e.g.: scramble competition, contest competition, ...). I wonder if there's such a name for competition dynamics where the interspecific ...
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674 views

Do lower animals have instinctive behaviors?

Can an organism such as C. elegans, with only 302 neurons, exhibit "instinctive or innate behavior"? If not, then at what basic minimal structure is instinct manifest?
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How do communities relate to food webs?

I am a biology student who has just completed drawing a food web for class. As I was making it, I learned that a food web is the sum of all feeding interactions. My teacher associated food webs with ...
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1answer
967 views

Is there a difference between an organizer and inducer substance?

There is a question in my Embryology textbook's exercise that asks about an organizer and inducer substance. I found their definitions and now I am wondering if they are the same things?
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1answer
800 views

Aseptic technique: a single technique, or any technique fulfilling criteria, or collection of said techniques?

My friend just used the following sentence in her lab report: Aseptic technique is used in this step: I immediately felt something was wrong. She used the term as if it were a specific technique. ...
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502 views

“Air sac” and “air cell” in a chicken embryo

I need to translate the Russian term "воздушный мешок". It is part of the chicken embryo, marked by number 5 in the figure below. I found the expression air cell but also found the expression air ...
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378 views

What Makes an Afrothere an Afrothere?

The mole-like golden moles. The hedgehog-like tenrecs. The shrew-like sengis. The rodent-like hyraxes. The anteater-like aardvarks. The whale-seal-hybrid-like sirens. The tapir-like ...
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Is “TATA signal” synonymous with “TATA box”?

In the text I'm translating I have a diagram of an expression vector. It has a lot of marks, and one says "TATA signal". I googled and found the expression "TATA box". Are these expressions fully ...
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Using anatomical terms for human organs and parts of plants

I know how to apply anatomical directional terms (e.g., dorsal/ventral, anterior/posterior, etc.) for animals as a whole (bipeds and quadrupeds). Recently, I've been studying plant physiology, and I ...
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Is vermiform appendix no more a vestigial organ?

The appendix has a role in the immune response. So is it therefore recently removed from the list of vestigial organs?
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Is there a term for a procedure in which the chromatography column is washed with 20% alcohol

From a method description in a Russian document: After the chromatographic analysis is complete, the column is flushed with at least 2-3 volumes of water at a rate of 0.4 ml/min. The column is then ...
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7k views

What is the difference between “Bisphosphate” and “Diphosphate” in biochemistry?

I have often found bisphosphate compounds ( e.g. RuBP, RuBisCO, 2,3-BPGA etc.) and diphosphate compounds (e.g. ADP, GDP etc.) in biochemistry. They are commonly seen and are important compounds in ...
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1answer
184 views

Does gross production (P) and biomass (B) mean the same?

From fundamentals of ecology, Odum 2005: ... autogenic succession usually begins with an unbalanced community metabolism, where gross production, P, is either greater than or less than community ...
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730 views

What does self-perpetuating mean?

From Wikipedia The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through increasing complexity until it becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community. ...
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235 views

Why is the ribonucleoside derived from thymine, 5-Methyluridine, abbreviated m5U and not T?

The wikipedia article about Nucleosides presents a table in which there are three columns — Base, Ribonucleoside and Deoxyribonucleoside — and structures, names and abbreviations for the nucleosides ...
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1k views

What does fluorogenic mean for fluorescent probes?

Many fluorescent probes are described as being fluorogeninc as an advantage for fluorescence microscopy but what does fluorogenic mean? Dictionary definitions state that it means generating ...
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Gorgonopsid--What's In a Name?

The Gorgon--a terrifying, monstrous female with hairs made of live snakes and a stare so horrifying that it would literally turn you to stone. The Gorgonopsid--a predatory protomammal that hunted ...
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What is the difference between these two depictions of chromosome?

I understand that this is a single chromatid, but would this be considered a chromosome? Also before mitosis, the chromosomes appear as single chromatids but during interphase they replicate to form ...
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814 views

Why metacarpus is considered hand proper?

This textbook states The hand (or manus) consists of the following parts: (a) wrist or carpus, (b) hand proper (or metacarpus), and (c) digits (thumb and fingers). How could I justify why are ...
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322 views

What is meant by bionomics of a vector?

What is supposed to fall under the title Bionomics (The study of an organism and its relation to its environment; ecology.)? Suppose we are dealing with a vector, Anopheles sp. are the following ...
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What is the difference between Reservoir and paratenic hosts?

Paratenic host 'In parasitology, the term paratenic describes a host that is not necessary for the development of a particular species of parasite, but nonetheless may happen to serve to maintain the ...
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Dorsal vs Posterior and Ventral vs Anterior

From prior reading, I thought that Dorsal is the same as Posterior and Ventral is the same as Anterior. However, when I checked in google images for these anatomical terms for a horse (just to ...
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3k views

What is the difference between Crossbreeding, Outbreeding and Outcrossing?

I only found one book which isn't a textbook named Storey's Illustrated Guide to 96 Horse Breeds of North America By Judith Dutson (not sure if it is good enough to follow) that defined these terms. ...
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Is sigma factor a transcription factor?

After I googled 'sigma TF' I stumbled upon two papers(only). From a paper: Sigma factors (sigmas) are bacterial transcription factors that bind core RNA polymerase (RNAP) and direct transcription ...
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What is regulatory promoter?

I came across this term in University question paper. What is the difference between core promoter and regulatory promoter? I have googled (Web, Scholar and Books) it but couldn't find any ...
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Usage of the terms: Enhancer, Upstream activating sequence and Downstream activating sequence

From wikipedia An upstream activating sequence or upstream activation sequence (UAS) is a cis-acting regulatory sequence. It is distinct from the promoter and increases the expression of a ...
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What is the name of the bond between phosphate and the sugar in a nucleotide?

I am slightly confused about what the name of the bond is between the phosphate and sugar within a nucleotide. All my research comes up with is a phosphodiester bond being the backbone of DNA. But ...
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1answer
62 views

Is the term 'allele' specific to sexual populations?

I had always thought that 'allele' simply meant a variant of a gene and thus could be used in the context of either asexual or sexual populations. With it only being slightly less useful as a concept ...
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57 views

Help understanding the word 'glycosaminoglycan'?

In my biochemistry course I have to know about various polysaccharides and variants, and I am struggling with remembering them. I think it would help if I could break down their names. For '...
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1answer
461 views

What is Pseudopalindrome?

I stumbled upon this word in a webpage by bio.libretexts.org: The dam-methylase of E. coli recognizes the tetranucleotide GATC in DNA and transfers a methyl group (from S‑adenosyl methionine) to ...
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1answer
2k views

What is Tandem repeat?

After reading - (wikipedia) Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of one or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. ( a paper) A tandem ...
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1answer
404 views

Is apparent competition a suitable term in situations where one species is not negatively affected?

When two prey (or resource) species share a common predator (consumer), they can be in apparent competition. An increase in one prey species can increase the common predator density, which negatively ...
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322 views

What is the difference between a “semi-contracted” muscle and a “contracted” muscle?

I read on http://www.spine-health.com/glossary/muscle-tension: Muscle tension refers to the condition in which muscles of the body remain semi-contracted for an extended period. What is the ...