Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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887 views

Why metacarpus is considered hand proper?

This textbook states The hand (or manus) consists of the following parts: (a) wrist or carpus, (b) hand proper (or metacarpus), and (c) digits (thumb and fingers). How could I justify why are ...
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1answer
352 views

What is meant by bionomics of a vector?

What is supposed to fall under the title Bionomics (The study of an organism and its relation to its environment; ecology.)? Suppose we are dealing with a vector, Anopheles sp. are the following ...
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What is the difference between Reservoir and paratenic hosts?

Paratenic host 'In parasitology, the term paratenic describes a host that is not necessary for the development of a particular species of parasite, but nonetheless may happen to serve to maintain the ...
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Dorsal vs Posterior and Ventral vs Anterior

From prior reading, I thought that Dorsal is the same as Posterior and Ventral is the same as Anterior. However, when I checked in google images for these anatomical terms for a horse (just to ...
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1answer
4k views

What is the difference between Crossbreeding, Outbreeding and Outcrossing?

I only found one book which isn't a textbook named Storey's Illustrated Guide to 96 Horse Breeds of North America By Judith Dutson (not sure if it is good enough to follow) that defined these terms. ...
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Is sigma factor a transcription factor?

After I googled 'sigma TF' I stumbled upon two papers(only). From a paper: Sigma factors (sigmas) are bacterial transcription factors that bind core RNA polymerase (RNAP) and direct transcription ...
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152 views

What is regulatory promoter?

I came across this term in University question paper. What is the difference between core promoter and regulatory promoter? I have googled (Web, Scholar and Books) it but couldn't find any ...
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491 views

Usage of the terms: Enhancer, Upstream activating sequence and Downstream activating sequence

From wikipedia An upstream activating sequence or upstream activation sequence (UAS) is a cis-acting regulatory sequence. It is distinct from the promoter and increases the expression of a ...
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2answers
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What is the name of the bond between phosphate and the sugar in a nucleotide?

I am slightly confused about what the name of the bond is between the phosphate and sugar within a nucleotide. All my research comes up with is a phosphodiester bond being the backbone of DNA. But ...
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1answer
68 views

Is the term 'allele' specific to sexual populations?

I had always thought that 'allele' simply meant a variant of a gene and thus could be used in the context of either asexual or sexual populations. With it only being slightly less useful as a concept ...
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1answer
57 views

Help understanding the word 'glycosaminoglycan'?

In my biochemistry course I have to know about various polysaccharides and variants, and I am struggling with remembering them. I think it would help if I could break down their names. For '...
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1answer
492 views

What is Pseudopalindrome?

I stumbled upon this word in a webpage by bio.libretexts.org: The dam-methylase of E. coli recognizes the tetranucleotide GATC in DNA and transfers a methyl group (from S‑adenosyl methionine) to ...
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1answer
2k views

What is Tandem repeat?

After reading - (wikipedia) Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of one or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. ( a paper) A tandem ...
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1answer
408 views

Is apparent competition a suitable term in situations where one species is not negatively affected?

When two prey (or resource) species share a common predator (consumer), they can be in apparent competition. An increase in one prey species can increase the common predator density, which negatively ...
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363 views

What is the difference between a “semi-contracted” muscle and a “contracted” muscle?

I read on http://www.spine-health.com/glossary/muscle-tension: Muscle tension refers to the condition in which muscles of the body remain semi-contracted for an extended period. What is the ...
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1answer
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Surgical vs anatomical neck

What is the significance of differentiating anatomical neck and surgical neck of a bone? What could be criterias for differentiation? I found an article here that says fractures to surgical neck ...
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How screeching affects the body?

Most times when I hear a screech (such as moving a sharp object on a chalkboard thereby causing such unpleasant noise), my body twitches. There are also other unpleasant sounds that causes the ...
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417 views

Why does the term “epicondyle” often refer to either of the two at the elbow end of the humerus?

Why does the term "epicondyle" often refer to either of the two at the elbow end of the humerus? Example: I understand that epicondyle means near a condyle, but there are several condyles in the ...
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274 views

What is the difference between muscle tension and muscle tightness?

Is there any difference between muscle tension and muscle tightness? I want to study the relation between forearm muscles tightness/tension and tendinopathy (specifically, medial and lateral ...
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413 views

What is “Peripheral Dogma”?

The book, Introduction to Bioinformatics, by Arthur M. Lesk, 3rd edition; Oxford; low-price-edition; in its chapter-1 (introduction), page-no. 6 ; provided a paragraph, entitled "Dogmas: Central and ...
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587 views

“producer cell line” vs. “host cell line” in biopharmacology

I'm translating a text that describes the creation and testing of a cell line that produces a drug (a protein) and also procedures for creation and maintenance of cell banks. Example sentence: ...
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1answer
431 views

What is the meaning of Dimer Catastrophe?

What is the meaning of Dimer Catastrophe? I still don't understand it even I've already read the paper about it. Here's the link to the paper origin NCBI
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1answer
7k views

Is there a difference between “cell line” and “cell strain”?

I'm translating one Russian text where a cell line is transfected to produce a drug. I wonder if I can sometimes use "cell strain" or simply "strain" instead of "cell line" or instead of "producer" (...
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Can we call a sorbent-filled pipette tip “microcolumn”?

I came across the use of the word "microcolumn" in a Russian text. This word was used to describe a ZipTip® C18 Pipette Tip. It took me some time and some e-mailing to the author to realize that the ...
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37 views

Are the human placenta chorionic villi and villous tree the synonyms?

Are the human placental chorionic villi and the villous tree the synonyms? Or, if not, can I say that these tissues would have practically the same gene expression profile in an RNA microarray ...
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What word/expression is used to describe a band's share in the stained portion of the electrophoretic lane?

I was translating the following sentence from Russian, and realized I was not sure how to put it right: The study shows that the electropherograms of the studied samples of DRUG NAME obtained in ...
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What is the difference between Endoproteinase Lys-C and Lysyl endopeptidase?

What is the difference between Endoproteinase Lys-C and Lysyl endopeptidase? In the text I'm translating about peptide mapping, "lysine protease" is mentioned (in Russian: лизиновая протеаза). This ...
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1answer
284 views

Does Goryaev's chamber have the same grid layout as the conventional counting chamber used in the West?

I'm translating a Russian biotec text where some cell counting operations are mentioned. The piece of equipment the authors mention in this context is "Goryaev's chamber" (камера Горяева): We ...
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1answer
27 views

Are there any chromosomal/molecular difference in following human reproductive- traits?

Are there any chromosomal/molecular difference in 5 following human traits?Klinefelter-syndrome, Transgender, Bisexual, intersex, hermaphrodite. Are all 5 terms synonymous?
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What could I call such nucleic-acid-Sequence? A sort of palindromic sequence? is there any term called mirror repeat?

5'... ATGCC|CCGTA ...3' 3'... TACGG|GGCAT ...5' or say 5'... AAGT|TGAA ...3' 3'... TTCA|ACTT ...5' or in generalised way; on each strand; ABCDEF|FEDCBA Is there any terminology for such-sort ...
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82 views

Correct term for initially neutral mutations that subsequently cannot be reversed

Can anyone tell me what the correct name is for a neutral mutation to a protein that occurs when that mutation becomes "locked in" due to a subsequent mutation? For example: mutation A is neutral ...
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10k views

What is the anatomical term for a two jointed leg?

Allow me to apologize in advance for the layman's terminology. I'm wondering what the anatomical term for a cat- or a goat-style hind leg is. Cats, goats, t-rexes, and many many other animals don't ...
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336 views

Difference between dysentery and bloody diarrhea

The difference between diarrhoea and dysentery is quite clear; but the appearance of blood in stool or bloody diarrhoea is a very confusing term when compared with dysentery. Are they different in the ...
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1k views

What does “substoichiometric amounts” mean in the context of molecular biology?

Recent paper: PRC2 is composed of the histone methyltransferase EZH2, EED, SUZ12, and the histone binding proteins RBBP4 and RBBP7. JARID2, AEBP2, PHF1, MTF2, and PHF19 are also present in PRC2 ...
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113 views

Is there a word for the assumption that a sufficiently complex and refined organ must be the result of natural selection on a large time scale?

Is there a term for the valid assumption that a sufficiently complex and refined organ must be the result of natural selection on a large time scale? Example: A biologist exists in a world where ...
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6k views

What is the difference between the cellular affix -cyte and -blast?

The affix -blast means an immature cell, and -cyte indicates any cell. So how do we define if a cell is mature (-cyte) or immature (-blast)? How does this apply to odontoblasts and ameloblasts? Why ...
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4answers
1k views

Is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression an epigenetic process?

Is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression (for example regulation by microRNAs) a type of epigenetic gene expression regulation? I think we can categorize it as epigenetic since the DNA ...
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52 views

Meaning of “Antibody is 50% w/w pure of interfering proteins”

From Google Patents, "Preparing antibodies from cho cell cultures for conjugation": An isolated antibody or ADC is typically at least 50% w/w pure of interfering proteins and other contaminants ...
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1k views

Difference between “wash” and “rinse” in biotechnological procedure descriptions

Is there a difference between "rinse" and "wash" in sentences like this: Following the staining, the sections were washed twice with deionized water, then dehydrated using ethanol solutions of ...
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220 views

E. coli bioreactor or E. coli fermenter?

I have a Requirements Specification in Russian for a "Fermenter" that would be used for "E. coli cultivation". This E. coli strain would be used to make a generically-engineered drug. The "fermenter" ...
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2answers
2k views

Is induction and derepression the same thing?

Induction This is a definition that our professor mentioned in class $-$the process of turning on the expression of gene in the response to a substance in the enviornment is called induction. ...
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1answer
320 views

What does the phrase 'background level' mean?

I was reading BIOS Biochemistry and stumbled upon a phrase 'background level' in the following excerpt $-$ The lac operon contain lacZ,lacY and lacA genes encoding $beta$-galactosidase, galactoside ...
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2answers
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Difference between pipette and pipettor

I've been translating a text listing some analytical laboratory equipment, and found that some fellow translators translate the Russian word "автоматическая пипетка" (avtomaticheskaya pipetka, which ...
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1answer
7k views

What is heteroduplex?

I fail to understand the what exactly is heteroduplex due to unavailability of a suitable diagram. According to wikipidea: A heteroduplex is a double-stranded (duplex) molecule of nucleic acid ...
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5k views

Why cancer disease is named after sun signs ? [duplicate]

I googled it, It didn't helped me a lot. So Why cancer disease is named after sun signs ?
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Is this in vivo or ex vivo?

This question has probably been asked a few times but I get the concept I just dont know how to apply it for this paticular experiment I aim to use cherry tomatoes and determine its glutamate content ...
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4k views

Enzootic vs Epizootic?

I'm studying microbiology and I see these words - epizootic and enzootic, often but there are no clear explanations for them online. Can someone help please?
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1answer
752 views

What is a cognate enhancer sequence?

What is a cognate enhancer sequence? While reading a paper (1) presented at a journal class in graduate school, I encountered this sentence: HIF-1 binds to its cognate enhancer sequence, the ...
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2answers
112 views

What's the correct name for the war of sexes in evolution?

I'm searching for the correct term for the part of the selfish gene evolution regarding sexes. In nature, this means the evolution of the traits such as the ducks' adaptation to "trap" the drakes' ...
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119 views

Term of the type xxx-troph for a compound not used by an organism

A prototroph for compound X can make it A bradytroph grows faster if X is scavenged An auxotroph needs to scavenge X A hyperauxotroph lacks both the biosynthetic pathway and the transporters for X ...