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Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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Surgical vs anatomical neck

What is the significance of differentiating anatomical neck and surgical neck of a bone? What could be criterias for differentiation? I found an article here that says fractures to surgical neck ...
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How screeching affects the body?

Most times when I hear a screech (such as moving a sharp object on a chalkboard thereby causing such unpleasant noise), my body twitches. There are also other unpleasant sounds that causes the ...
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1answer
370 views

Why does the term “epicondyle” often refer to either of the two at the elbow end of the humerus?

Why does the term "epicondyle" often refer to either of the two at the elbow end of the humerus? Example: I understand that epicondyle means near a condyle, but there are several condyles in the ...
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250 views

What is the difference between muscle tension and muscle tightness?

Is there any difference between muscle tension and muscle tightness? I want to study the relation between forearm muscles tightness/tension and tendinopathy (specifically, medial and lateral ...
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1answer
386 views

What is “Peripheral Dogma”?

The book, Introduction to Bioinformatics, by Arthur M. Lesk, 3rd edition; Oxford; low-price-edition; in its chapter-1 (introduction), page-no. 6 ; provided a paragraph, entitled "Dogmas: Central and ...
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1answer
543 views

“producer cell line” vs. “host cell line” in biopharmacology

I'm translating a text that describes the creation and testing of a cell line that produces a drug (a protein) and also procedures for creation and maintenance of cell banks. Example sentence: ...
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1answer
413 views

What is the meaning of Dimer Catastrophe?

What is the meaning of Dimer Catastrophe? I still don't understand it even I've already read the paper about it. Here's the link to the paper origin NCBI
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1answer
7k views

Is there a difference between “cell line” and “cell strain”?

I'm translating one Russian text where a cell line is transfected to produce a drug. I wonder if I can sometimes use "cell strain" or simply "strain" instead of "cell line" or instead of "producer" (...
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Can we call a sorbent-filled pipette tip “microcolumn”?

I came across the use of the word "microcolumn" in a Russian text. This word was used to describe a ZipTip® C18 Pipette Tip. It took me some time and some e-mailing to the author to realize that the ...
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0answers
37 views

Are the human placenta chorionic villi and villous tree the synonyms?

Are the human placental chorionic villi and the villous tree the synonyms? Or, if not, can I say that these tissues would have practically the same gene expression profile in an RNA microarray ...
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34 views

What word/expression is used to describe a band's share in the stained portion of the electrophoretic lane?

I was translating the following sentence from Russian, and realized I was not sure how to put it right: The study shows that the electropherograms of the studied samples of DRUG NAME obtained in ...
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What is the difference between Endoproteinase Lys-C and Lysyl endopeptidase?

What is the difference between Endoproteinase Lys-C and Lysyl endopeptidase? In the text I'm translating about peptide mapping, "lysine protease" is mentioned (in Russian: лизиновая протеаза). This ...
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1answer
269 views

Does Goryaev's chamber have the same grid layout as the conventional counting chamber used in the West?

I'm translating a Russian biotec text where some cell counting operations are mentioned. The piece of equipment the authors mention in this context is "Goryaev's chamber" (камера Горяева): We ...
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1answer
27 views

Are there any chromosomal/molecular difference in following human reproductive- traits?

Are there any chromosomal/molecular difference in 5 following human traits?Klinefelter-syndrome, Transgender, Bisexual, intersex, hermaphrodite. Are all 5 terms synonymous?
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2answers
289 views

What could I call such nucleic-acid-Sequence? A sort of palindromic sequence? is there any term called mirror repeat?

5'... ATGCC|CCGTA ...3' 3'... TACGG|GGCAT ...5' or say 5'... AAGT|TGAA ...3' 3'... TTCA|ACTT ...5' or in generalised way; on each strand; ABCDEF|FEDCBA Is there any terminology for such-sort ...
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1answer
79 views

Correct term for initially neutral mutations that subsequently cannot be reversed

Can anyone tell me what the correct name is for a neutral mutation to a protein that occurs when that mutation becomes "locked in" due to a subsequent mutation? For example: mutation A is neutral ...
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2answers
9k views

What is the anatomical term for a two jointed leg?

Allow me to apologize in advance for the layman's terminology. I'm wondering what the anatomical term for a cat- or a goat-style hind leg is. Cats, goats, t-rexes, and many many other animals don't ...
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0answers
313 views

Difference between dysentery and bloody diarrhea

The difference between diarrhoea and dysentery is quite clear; but the appearance of blood in stool or bloody diarrhoea is a very confusing term when compared with dysentery. Are they different in the ...
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1answer
1k views

What does “substoichiometric amounts” mean in the context of molecular biology?

Recent paper: PRC2 is composed of the histone methyltransferase EZH2, EED, SUZ12, and the histone binding proteins RBBP4 and RBBP7. JARID2, AEBP2, PHF1, MTF2, and PHF19 are also present in PRC2 ...
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1answer
108 views

Is there a word for the assumption that a sufficiently complex and refined organ must be the result of natural selection on a large time scale?

Is there a term for the valid assumption that a sufficiently complex and refined organ must be the result of natural selection on a large time scale? Example: A biologist exists in a world where ...
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1answer
5k views

What is the difference between the cellular affix -cyte and -blast?

The affix -blast means an immature cell, and -cyte indicates any cell. So how do we define if a cell is mature (-cyte) or immature (-blast)? How does this apply to odontoblasts and ameloblasts? Why ...
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4answers
989 views

Is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression an epigenetic process?

Is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression (for example regulation by microRNAs) a type of epigenetic gene expression regulation? I think we can categorize it as epigenetic since the DNA ...
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1answer
52 views

Meaning of “Antibody is 50% w/w pure of interfering proteins”

From Google Patents, "Preparing antibodies from cho cell cultures for conjugation": An isolated antibody or ADC is typically at least 50% w/w pure of interfering proteins and other contaminants ...
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1answer
969 views

Difference between “wash” and “rinse” in biotechnological procedure descriptions

Is there a difference between "rinse" and "wash" in sentences like this: Following the staining, the sections were washed twice with deionized water, then dehydrated using ethanol solutions of ...
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1answer
210 views

E. coli bioreactor or E. coli fermenter?

I have a Requirements Specification in Russian for a "Fermenter" that would be used for "E. coli cultivation". This E. coli strain would be used to make a generically-engineered drug. The "fermenter" ...
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2answers
1k views

Is induction and derepression the same thing?

Induction This is a definition that our professor mentioned in class $-$the process of turning on the expression of gene in the response to a substance in the enviornment is called induction. ...
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1answer
296 views

What does the phrase 'background level' mean?

I was reading BIOS Biochemistry and stumbled upon a phrase 'background level' in the following excerpt $-$ The lac operon contain lacZ,lacY and lacA genes encoding $beta$-galactosidase, galactoside ...
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2answers
4k views

Difference between pipette and pipettor

I've been translating a text listing some analytical laboratory equipment, and found that some fellow translators translate the Russian word "автоматическая пипетка" (avtomaticheskaya pipetka, which ...
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1answer
7k views

What is heteroduplex?

I fail to understand the what exactly is heteroduplex due to unavailability of a suitable diagram. According to wikipidea: A heteroduplex is a double-stranded (duplex) molecule of nucleic acid ...
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2answers
5k views

Why cancer disease is named after sun signs ? [duplicate]

I googled it, It didn't helped me a lot. So Why cancer disease is named after sun signs ?
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2answers
86 views

Is this in vivo or ex vivo?

This question has probably been asked a few times but I get the concept I just dont know how to apply it for this paticular experiment I aim to use cherry tomatoes and determine its glutamate content ...
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1answer
4k views

Enzootic vs Epizootic?

I'm studying microbiology and I see these words - epizootic and enzootic, often but there are no clear explanations for them online. Can someone help please?
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1answer
705 views

What is a cognate enhancer sequence?

What is a cognate enhancer sequence? While reading a paper (1) presented at a journal class in graduate school, I encountered this sentence: HIF-1 binds to its cognate enhancer sequence, the ...
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2answers
110 views

What's the correct name for the war of sexes in evolution?

I'm searching for the correct term for the part of the selfish gene evolution regarding sexes. In nature, this means the evolution of the traits such as the ducks' adaptation to "trap" the drakes' ...
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1answer
116 views

Term of the type xxx-troph for a compound not used by an organism

A prototroph for compound X can make it A bradytroph grows faster if X is scavenged An auxotroph needs to scavenge X A hyperauxotroph lacks both the biosynthetic pathway and the transporters for X ...
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1answer
162 views

Cell cycle-regulated genes and mRNA

I am a mathematician and my knowledge about biology is close to zero. I am reading a bioinformatics paper and I would like to understand a bit more about the biology task they are talking about. I ...
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5answers
7k views

What is the difference between a predator and a parasite?

A human encountering a tiger or a malaria plasmodium is likely to suffer, and the tiger/plasmodium is likely to gain from the transaction. Not necessarily a good example, and I am aware that a ...
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1answer
221 views

What's the proper term for “brain waves” read from an EEG?

An EEG records the electrical activity of the brain. An EEG shows voltage differences as a function of time and shows what have become known as "brain waves". Is there a scientific/technical word/...
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2answers
148 views

Spatial dimensions for an animal

I'm reading a review paper. They say: The position of an object in head-centered coordinates (that is, relative to an animal's head) can be defined along three axes: the medio-lateral (radial) axis,...
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1answer
762 views

Is there a difference between macroevolution and group selection?

I encountered two different attitudes towards macroevolution: The first one included long-term microevolution such as the evolution of Cetacea. The second one included only macroevolution in terms of ...
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1answer
838 views

What's the difference between evolution fitness and reproductive success?

What's the difference biological fitness and reproductive success in the biological terminology?
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1answer
312 views

Was Darwin aware of the difficulties behind the concept of species?

Introduction The concept of species is a very old concept that suffers from not being a natural category. There exists no single definition that would categorize living beings into groups and that ...
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1answer
129 views

Is curling the fingers considered digit flexion?

Is curling the fingers considered finger flexion and straightening the fingers considered finger extension? I feel like this is correct in everyday language, but I am not sure if it is correct in ...
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1answer
277 views

Question about radiation and how it affects biological systems

I'm doing research on the effects of radiation, and specifically UV, X-Ray and Gamma radiation, on biological systems at the cellular level and beyond. I understand that radiation types can be ...
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1answer
1k views

Confluency or confluence, which term is correct to describe the % area covered by cells?

I noticed that both of them are used in many scientific papers. Are these two terms, or can they be used interchangeably?
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1answer
141 views

Can we say it's hybridisation if it's the same species?

If we mixed two population of the same species into the same environment and then they reproduce together, can we say it's hybridisation? The wikipedia definition is the following: Hybridisation (...
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1answer
54 views

Conservation Ex Situ

This came up in my biology diversity course and I wanted to raise a question about it. On the topic of ex situ, one of the presentations that a speaker mentioned that one of its disadvantages is ...
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1answer
12k views

What is the difference between the mitotic spindle and microtubules?

In mitosis, I understand that the centromeres line up on the spindle. I also know that the centrioles form microtubles between the centromeres during mitosis in the metaphase. But, are microtubles ...
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2answers
831 views

What is synaptic clearance?

Please explain what the term synaptic clearance means. For example, what would dopamine synaptic clearance be? It is important to me in context of dopamine signaling variation due to difference in ...
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1answer
3k views

Explanation of the ‘cherry red spot' in Tay Sachs disease

In Tay Sachs disease, a hallmark symptom is a cherry red spot in the macula of the eye surrounded by a halo of white. I understand that the ganglion cells, which are higher in numbers around the ...