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Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

48 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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238 views

What's a “constitutionally small penis”?

I'm reading some urology papers and came across one involving penis growth (Kim & Song, 2008); here's an intro passage that I'm confused about: A total of 58 patients with constitutionally ...
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134 views

What's inside the perinuclear space?

The cell proper contains the cytoplasm in general and the cytosol in particular when referring to the fluid/gel without notable organelle. Once we move inside the nucleus there is the nucleoplasm and ...
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48 views

Why plant tissues end in -enchyma?

Many plant tissue types end in the affix -enchyma. Etymology: enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" Examples are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma (meaning "to pour beside," "...
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22 views

Name for fluid that leaks out of phyllid (non-vascular) plants?

As Wikipedia says (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-vascular_plant): Consequently, phyllids are unable to control the rate of water loss from their tissues and are said to be poikilohydric. And ...
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59 views

What does “dissection-based microscopy” mean as described here, and how can it give genetic information?

The Phys.org article 'DNA microscopy' offers entirely new way to image cells references the new Open Access paper in Cell DNA Microscopy: Optics-free Spatio-genetic Imaging by a Stand-Alone Chemical ...
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166 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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137 views

Exocrine system + endocrine system =?

What is the title name for endocrine system + exocrine system? In another language that I speak they are called "secretion system" but in English the term secretion system is different and it is ...
3
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165 views

What is the difference between Endoproteinase Lys-C and Lysyl endopeptidase?

What is the difference between Endoproteinase Lys-C and Lysyl endopeptidase? In the text I'm translating about peptide mapping, "lysine protease" is mentioned (in Russian: лизиновая протеаза). This ...
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343 views

Difference between dysentery and bloody diarrhea

The difference between diarrhoea and dysentery is quite clear; but the appearance of blood in stool or bloody diarrhoea is a very confusing term when compared with dysentery. Are they different in the ...
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99 views

More general usage of the term 'congener'

In taxonomy the term 'congener' refers to two species within the same genus. In more colloquial usage, it can refer to any two objects within the same category. Is there a way to refer to related ...
3
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58 views

Color perception vs shade perception demo

I can't seem to find one of the best demos I've seen of color vs brightness perception. It consisted of a rotating animation of earth made of red of bright red points on a dark green background. As ...
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32 views

Medical terminology for asymmetrically-shaped paired body parts?

Some people have different sized feet [source], a limb that is slightly longer than the contralateral (on other side of the body) limb [source], or other instances of paired body parts being different ...
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25 views

Veins in Plant Leaves (terminology)

Why do we call the vascular bundles in plant leaves "veins"? I think its probably because the xylem and pholem serve circulatory function analogous to the human body's circulatory system with arteries ...
2
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1answer
70 views

an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
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1k views

What does the “G” and “V” in penicillin V and penicillin G stand for?

I've been looking for a convincing explanation for the designation penicillin G and V. The answers I've found includes G as in "gold standard" and "V" as in "viscus" but they're not sourced and not ...
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2k views

What is the difference between “dysregulation” and “deregulation” of miRNA?

I've started to study the role of miRNA in cancer. Wikipedia says: Just as miRNA is involved in the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells, so has dysregulation of miRNA been associated with ...
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49 views

Chief Sensory Cells

What makes the second order neurons of posterior grey horn of spinal cord to be called as "chief" sensory cells? Why don't we call 1st order, or third order neurons or other second order neurones in ...
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45 views

Is there a name for dominant-intraspecific competition?

Some ecological competition dynamics have particular names (e.g.: scramble competition, contest competition, ...). I wonder if there's such a name for competition dynamics where the interspecific ...
2
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373 views

Gorgonopsid--What's In a Name?

The Gorgon--a terrifying, monstrous female with hairs made of live snakes and a stare so horrifying that it would literally turn you to stone. The Gorgonopsid--a predatory protomammal that hunted ...
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12 views

Is there a difference between dormant and latent, in regards to viruses?

When speaking of viruses, are dormancy and latency considered the same thing? According to the Wikipedia definition as well as reading into this, the answer is yes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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1answer
106 views

Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
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19 views

What does “operationally soluble” mean, re. Tax10 enzyme?

I am trying to work out whether the enzyme Tax10 is soluble or insoluble. I need to know if some buffers won't work with Tax10. I am trying to confirm Tax10 activity, having confirmed protein ...
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34 views

Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as “enzymatic lysates”?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...
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2answers
1k views

Special visceral efferent

Why are special visceral efferent nerves are named as such? They are supplying motor impulses to muscles of pharyngeal arch, which are both skeletal(facial) and visceral(laryngeal) 1, so why only ...
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496 views

Usage of the terms: Enhancer, Upstream activating sequence and Downstream activating sequence

From wikipedia An upstream activating sequence or upstream activation sequence (UAS) is a cis-acting regulatory sequence. It is distinct from the promoter and increases the expression of a ...
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80 views

How screeching affects the body?

Most times when I hear a screech (such as moving a sharp object on a chalkboard thereby causing such unpleasant noise), my body twitches. There are also other unpleasant sounds that causes the ...
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12 views

Can we call a sorbent-filled pipette tip “microcolumn”?

I came across the use of the word "microcolumn" in a Russian text. This word was used to describe a ZipTip® C18 Pipette Tip. It took me some time and some e-mailing to the author to realize that the ...
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39 views

Are the human placenta chorionic villi and villous tree the synonyms?

Are the human placental chorionic villi and the villous tree the synonyms? Or, if not, can I say that these tissues would have practically the same gene expression profile in an RNA microarray ...
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34 views

What word/expression is used to describe a band's share in the stained portion of the electrophoretic lane?

I was translating the following sentence from Russian, and realized I was not sure how to put it right: The study shows that the electropherograms of the studied samples of DRUG NAME obtained in ...
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174 views

Meaning of “pure” in “pure plant DNA” (horizontally transferred to bacteria in soil conditions)

The abstract of Transformation of Acinetobacter baylyi in non-sterile soil using recombinant plant nuclear DNA, by Simpson et al., 2007: To provide estimates of horizontal gene transfer from ...
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2k views

Neuston vs pleuston

I was recently reading about the wonderful chondrophores, and came across the terms "neuston" and "pleuston". According to Wikipedia, "neuston" are "the organisms that float on the top of water ... ...
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62 views

Are upstream activating factor (UAF) and upstream binding factor (UBF) the same thing?

During ribosome pre-40S and pre-60S synthesis, many sources state the importance of UAF or UBF in initiation complex of ribosome DNA transcription. None of the sources I've seen mentions the other ...
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1answer
79 views

Does a cell suspend or exit cell cycle at G0?

In an exam, there was one question which asked whether the cell exits or suspends cell cycle at G0 phase. I answered that it exits cell cycle but the official answer key says it suspends cell cycle. ...
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20 views

“Straight” or “linear” helix

If an alpha helix is discontinued for a short while and then continues in a different direction, I prefer to call in "kinked". If the helix is simply uniformly following one direction, I prefer to ...
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9 views

Can PGPM include pathogenic growth promoters?

I am extremely confused with definition of P.G.P.M. (plant growth promoting microbes/microbiota)such as P.G.P.F (plant growth promoting fungi) and P.G.P.B. (plant growth promoting bacteria). In many ...
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107 views

‘Inoculum’ vs ‘inoculant’ – which one is it?

I’m currently writing the report of a study which looked at commercial soil inoculants (Rhizobium sp.). However, I’m confused about the differences between the words inoculum and inoculant and when to ...
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13 views

What soft tissue separates bones of toes?

I need to know a little about the "knuckles" of toes; specifically the 4 areas that separate the 5 proximal/metatarsal joins. I'd like to know the terms for areas that might be damaged if the width ...
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40 views

Why has the term “natural history” been used to denote the study of nature, and more recently, of life?

The term "natural history" is a translation of the Latin phrase historia naturalis meaning "the story of nature". Nowadays denoting the study of life, it originally also covered astronomy. Why has ...
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101 views

Which word is used to indicate that a vessel is “blood-filled” during a necropsy?

I'm translating a necropsy report, and one sentence says: Синусоиды полнокровные. Портальные тракты сохранены, сосуды умеренно полнокровные. The sinusoids are plethoric. The portal tracts are ...
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67 views

Name for a set/collection of eggs which are laid and receive no nurturing of any sort by parents

OK - so, mammals have litters, and they look after their young. Hens (birds generally) have clutches and many/most look after their young. Octopuses have broods since the female looks after the eggs,...
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88 views

Mental Symphysis

Why dow we consider mandibular symphysis(symphysis menti) as type of Amphiarthrosis that too of symphysis variety, eventhough it lacks movement and cartilage at joint? Why don't we consider as ...
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156 views

What is regulatory promoter?

I came across this term in University question paper. What is the difference between core promoter and regulatory promoter? I have googled (Web, Scholar and Books) it but couldn't find any ...
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288 views

What is the difference between muscle tension and muscle tightness?

Is there any difference between muscle tension and muscle tightness? I want to study the relation between forearm muscles tightness/tension and tendinopathy (specifically, medial and lateral ...
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54 views

What is the term for toes that pull together with an upstep?

I fairly recently learned the term digitigrade, to describe the anatomy of a creature that stands on its toes rather than on the flat of its foot, like cats and ...
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79 views

What is the term for being younger than the body age?

I remember that I once attended a seminar in which the speaker talked about the heart rate of different kinds of butterflies. Normally, the heart rate of the adult butterfly will be more complex than ...
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299 views

Is there an organism which is “The Opposite of Hydra”?

My understanding is that if hydra is cut into pieces, each piece can evolve into a new hydra. What I'm looking for is whether there exists an organism with a this property reversed, that is, if two or ...
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1answer
236 views

What is a reflex pathway?

I know that the pathway of nerve impulses during a reflex action is called a reflex arc. However, I want to know whether the term reflex arc can be called either a reflex path or simple reflex?
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1answer
69 views

Difference between cerebroside and globoside

I have a general idea about their difference that cerebrosides have a single sugar while globosides have more than one sugars. This is the structure of a ceramide (syphingosine and a fatty acid ...