Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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1answer
120 views

an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
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1answer
69 views

What is the etymology for Pinus halepensis?

I have a problem of figuring out the etymology of Pinus halepnesis. An etymonline search with halepensis brought no result. It is unclear to me from the English wikipedia article and from the ...
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1answer
83 views

Is there a term for the opposite of intergenic?

I am looking for a term that describes DNA regions that overlap genes, i.e., non-intergenic DNA regions. For example, say I am writing a paper about DNA-binding sites (i.e., DNA sequences that ...
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52 views

What's the difference between the terms “muscle” and “muscle organ”?

Foundational Model of Anatomy distinguishes between Muscle organ and Muscle. What's the difference between the two?
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Meaning of “stripped” in “stripped antibody-depleted sera”

From a research paper: FOLR1 autoantibody detection The assay for identification of the presence and relative quantification of FOLR1 autoantibodies in serum samples was performed as previously ...
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1answer
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Meaning of the word “targeted” in a description of chromatin immunoprecipitation

From a research paper: The ChIP assay demonstrated that CIC physically binds to the promoter region of FOLR1, PCFT and RFC1. Compared with IgG control antibody, CIC antibody enriched 4.1-fold more ...
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3answers
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Is a walnut a nut or a drupe?

We've been learning about fruits (and the various categories thereof) in class; among them we have the nut and the drupe. My textbook differentiates between those terms as: Nut: It is a single-seeded ...
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1answer
67 views

Why is an intron (or exon) still called intron (exon) if retained in (excluded from) mRNA?

In most explanations, the sections of RNA removed during splicing are called introns, and the remaining segments that are stitched together are called exons. That is, introns and exons are defined in ...
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3answers
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Are all carcinogens mutagens?

I assume that all carcinogens must be mutagens, but I've read that this is not the case. However, I can't find any good examples or an explanation of why it is not the case. How can a non-mutagenic ...
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2answers
6k views

Difference between pipette and pipettor

I've been translating a text listing some analytical laboratory equipment, and found that some fellow translators translate the Russian word "автоматическая пипетка" (avtomaticheskaya pipetka, which ...
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2answers
5k views

Why should a tumor look like a crab?

Origin of the word "cancer" The disease was first called cancer by Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC). He is considered the “Father of Medicine”. Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and ...
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1answer
269 views

What’s the Difference Between Grass and Sedge?

What’s the difference between grasses and sedges? in terms of anatomy and classification.
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Is “computational biology” different from “bioinformatics”?

Are "computational biology" and "bioinformatics" simply different terms for the same thing or is there a real difference?
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Why plant tissues end in -enchyma?

Many plant tissue types end in the affix -enchyma. Etymology: enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" Examples are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma....
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Why is the “mango fly” called a “mango fly”?

Cordylobia anthropophaga, the mango fly, tumbu fly, tumba fly, putzi fly, or skin maggot fly, is a species of blow-fly common in East and Central Africa. Wiki page Why is Cordylobia anthropophaga ...
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What is the thinnest spot on the ilium called?

Is there a specific name for the spot on the human iliac fossa where the bone is the thinnest? (Or, is there a name for the thickness measurement of that spot, e.g. the left/right _________ is 2.1mm?) ...
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2answers
70 views

What are the stretch of amino acids?

I found the words "stretch of amino acids" in a newspaper article. "This lipopeptide matches the stretch of amino acids in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 exactly." What is the &...
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1answer
48 views

What does allelomorph mean?

Is there any difference between allele and allelomorph since most websites call them the same. If they are same then why two different term?
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1answer
61 views

Is there term for thermophilic-halophilic plants and if so, what is it?

I know that in botany there is a wide classification for plants that can survive in hot deserts (semi-arid or arid) and harsh climates such as 4-season countries with a tendency to droughts each year (...
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1answer
39 views

When there is incomplete dominance of one allele, is one allele still considered recessive?

When you have incomplete dominance between two alleles of a gene (say, on two different tail lengths blending into an intermediate tail length or two rose colours blending together), can you still ...
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44 views

What does it mean for an enzyme to be “constitutively partially active”?

I am reading a paper* about the link between the enzyme GSK3 and autism, and I have come across the following statement: Unlike many kinases that require a signal to be activated, GSK3 is ...
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2answers
2k views

Vitamins — how did they get their names?

There are several types of vitamins. A,B,C,D,E,H,K,P, etc. How did they get their names?
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31 views

Could be misleading using some terms to describe certain phenomena?

I am implementing a series of comparative analyses related to Low Complexity Regions in some organisms. Given that these regions show a wide range of length (measured in amino acids) and different ...
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3answers
409 views

What could I call such nucleic-acid-Sequence? A sort of palindromic sequence? is there any term called mirror repeat?

5'... ATGCC|CCGTA ...3' 3'... TACGG|GGCAT ...5' or say 5'... AAGT|TGAA ...3' 3'... TTCA|ACTT ...5' or in generalised way; on each strand; ABCDEF|FEDCBA Is there any terminology for such-sort ...
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Clarification for the anatomical terminology of the cerebellum

I've been trying to find descriptions for some of the fissures found on the inferior surface of the cerebellum, and so far the only source I've been able to find that provides an adequate description ...
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1answer
55 views

What exactly is “lateral septum”?

I came across the phrase lateral septum and I can't seem to find the precise definition online. Is it "the areas roughly to the right and the left of the septum pellucidum"? Or is it the ...
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1answer
32 views

What are “intrinsic hypothalamic fibers”? (From an article on neuronal mechanisms of sexual desire)

I came across the phrase intrinsic hypothalamic fibers which I cannot understand. What is meant by intrinsic - that these fibers (long myelinated axons?) start in the hypothalamus? Or that they start ...
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2answers
2k views

What does the root “phyllum” mean used botanical binomial nomenclature

I often encounter the root "phyllum" in binomial names in botany, but I've had trouble finding an actual definition for this root in any Latin dictionary outside of its taxonomic meaning. From context ...
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2answers
49 views

What is the defining characteristics of a Gap Species?

For the following competitive exam question: A road is constructed through a tropical rain forest, following which a population of a species of butterflies declines. Which of the following is NOT a ...
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1answer
382 views

Difference between dysentery and bloody diarrhea

The difference between diarrhoea and dysentery is quite clear; but the appearance of blood in stool or bloody diarrhoea is a very confusing term when compared with dysentery. Are they different in the ...
3
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1answer
77 views

RNA polymerase Sigma subunit: transcription factor, coenzyme, or what?

Studying prokaryotic transcription, it seems that the α2ββ′ω core enzyme + the sigma (σ) subunit comprise the ‘holoenzyme’ required for prokaryotic transcription. In traditional enzyme nomenclature, ...
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5answers
18k views

Why is the opposite of plantar flexion called “dorsiflexion”?

Why is the action of flexing the foot so that the toes move anteriorly/superiorly (i.e. in the direction opposite that which they move during plantar flexion) described as "dorsiflexion?" In the same ...
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1answer
48 views

Are “tremors” and “ tetanic contractions” the same thing?

Do these two expressions have the same meaning? 1- Tetanic contractions in the skeletal muscles 2- Rythmic shaking of the hands (These two expressions are supposed to be two symptoms of Parkinson’s ...
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2answers
65 views

Meaning of “standard reactions” in a DNA extraction procedure description

From a DNA extraction procedure description (an in-house pharma document I'm translating into Russian): Preparation of Standards All the standard reactions should be prepared at least in duplicates. ...
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3answers
4k views

Is a DNA molecule a single strand of polynucleotide or two of them linked together?

Our molecular biology teacher told us that a double helix of DNA was composed of two DNA molecules linked together by hydrogen bonds. The thing is, until now, I always thought a DNA molecule was ...
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1answer
46 views

Meaning of “optical” in “Optical cap, 8X Strip” (used in qPCR)

I'm translating an English document that lists equipment used in a qPCR procedure: Reagents/Materials Optical cap, 8X Strip I googled and found that the meaning of this line is "a strip of 8 ...
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3answers
59k views
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2answers
3k views

Explanation of the ‘cherry red spot' in Tay Sachs disease

In Tay Sachs disease, a hallmark symptom is a cherry red spot in the macula of the eye surrounded by a halo of white. I understand that the ganglion cells, which are higher in numbers around the ...
5
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1answer
101 views

What is a “fairy smile”?

From Hrdy and Burkart (2020): At birth, both chimpanzee and human newborns seek out eyes, are capable of mutual gazing, and caught just right, may imitate someone else’s outstretched tongue or other ...
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1answer
68 views

What is the difference between floral primordia and floral buds?

As we know an axillary bud differentiates to form a floral bud, but what is a floral primodium?
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3answers
6k views

“Higher plants” or “vascular plants”?

What is the difference — if any — between "higher plants" and "vascular plants"? On Wikipedia, "higher plants" redirects to "vascular plants", which seems like an indication that both ...
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2answers
115 views

Are “sympathetic nerves” the same as “cardiopulmonary splanchnic” nerves?

I've gathered from a number of sources (e.g., Patel (2015), Wikipedia, and here) that the sympathetic nerves leaving the sympathetic trunk to innervate the heart and lungs are called "cardiopulmonary ...
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1answer
26 views

Difference between stem cell “expansion”, “repopulation”, and “self-renewal”?

From this paper (link:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4130805/), I read "Thus G-CSF results in the expansion of phenotypic HSCs in the bone marrow with reduced repopulating activity and ...
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0answers
35 views

umbrella term for microtiter plate, petri dish, cell culture flask etc

I'm looking for a term I can use in a software user interface that includes anything that may carry cell cultures or similar biological imaging samples (ie that may conceivably go into an automated ...
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0answers
56 views

Medical terminology for asymmetrically-shaped paired body parts?

Some people have different sized feet [source], a limb that is slightly longer than the contralateral (on other side of the body) limb [source], or other instances of paired body parts being different ...
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1answer
89 views

Technical term for a mutation that only occurs after a preceding one

Consider a hypothetical population of 1000 organisms. (a) 300 of these 1000 have a T to G substitution at a specific position 1. (b) 200 of these 1000 have an A to T substitution at a second ...
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2answers
2k views

Confluency or confluence, which term is correct to describe the % area covered by cells?

I noticed that both of them are used in many scientific papers. Are these two terms, or can they be used interchangeably?
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What do repopulation and expansion mean in stem cell biology?

I was studying a lecture on the effects of cytokines on hematopoiesis, and it uses these two terms often in the context of the effects of regulators on hematopoietic stem cells: All repopulating bone ...
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283 views

Stem and Branch of plants

What is the difference between the stem of a plant and the branch of a plant. Is the branch part of the stem?
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1answer
23 views

Meaning of “Domain with function to find” (FIIND)

From NALPs: a novel protein family involved in inflammation. FIIND - Domain with Function to Find. What is the meaning of this name? Does it mean "Domain with an unknown function"? I'm ...

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