Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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6
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1answer
226 views

Why are O-antigens and H-antigens on (certain) bacteria called O and H?

Somehow, despite extensive searching, I cannot find an answer.... Does O stand for oxygen and H signify hydrogen?
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2answers
1k views

What is, (and what isn't) "kinetic replication" as it applies to molecules and to living organisms?

CNN's World's first living robots can now reproduce, scientists say describes "xenobots"; clusters of stem cells that move around and by this motion occasionally push enough free stem cells ...
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1answer
52 views

Where could I find biology-specialized transcription services for my conference? [closed]

I'm a conference organizer for various conferences in the field of biology. Just recently, I stumbled upon this Nature article: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-03487-2 and I have ...
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1answer
38 views

Is tumor necrosing factor alpha now properly referred to as "tumor necrosing factor"?

"Because LTα is no longer referred to as TNFβ,[64] TNFα, as the previous gene symbol, is now simply called TNF, as shown in HGNC (HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee) database." says https://en....
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1answer
55 views

What morphological traits can be used to diagnose members of the Eucalypteae?

I read the Wikipedia article on Eucalypteae and it doesn't actually say what these plants have in common. (I am now reading through https://bsapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.3732/ajb.1200025 ...
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1answer
78 views

What is the proper anatomical name of the "band of Richer" that wraps around the quadriceps femoris?

There's this fascial band called the band of Richer that wraps around the quadriceps femoris muscle above the knee (in this illustration, look for it near the left knee). It seems to stem from the ...
5
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1answer
51 views

meaning of the name "Dictyostelium discoideum"

Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-known species of slime mould. Does anyone know what the name means? Here's my best guess. I found the 1935 article in which it was first described, but there doesn't ...
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2answers
91 views

The use of the word “canonical” in biological science

What is the meaning of the word canonical in a scientific context? This is an example that I do not understand: BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the ...
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1answer
70 views

What is the meaning of harboring cryptic in below sentence?

Tissue culture became more widely used at this time because of the introduction of antibiotics, which facilitated long-term cell line propagation, although many people were already warning against ...
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1answer
112 views

What is the difference between the cheeks and the near parts?

Linguistically, there should be the different property or feature between cheeks and the parts right near them for us to call cheeks “cheeks.” What is the main difference between cheeks and the other ...
14
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1answer
482 views

How to decipher references in natural history works of the late Renaissance and early Modernity?

Old botany books from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries (and maybe also some later ones ?) enumerating lists of species use to give references to their own sources as abbreviations of one or few ...
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2answers
88 views

What do you call members of a same species that show some morphological differences depending on their environment and/or diet?

What do you call members of a same species that exhibit a number of morphological differences depending on their environment and/or diet? I was thinking of the term "different phenotypes," ...
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4answers
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Does the cytoplasm include the organelles?

I am a student in middle school. My textbook says that Cytoplasm is the gelatinous liquid part of the cell excluding organelles. However my teacher said this is wrong. According to her, the correct ...
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0answers
23 views

Is there a formal name for the dissolved caterpillar substance produced during metamorphosis?

Is there a formal name for the dissolved caterpillar substance produced during metamorphosis? I've seen this described as a protein-rich soup, a horrid meltdown, larval tissue breakdown, metamorphic ...
2
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1answer
65 views

Is there a term that distinguishes extracellular "transport" proteins from membrane-bound "transport" proteins?

I've been researching genetics and biochemistry in my free time and I've noticed that proteins such as albumin and apolipoproteins that facilitate extracellular transport and proteins such as GLUT1 ...
4
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1answer
132 views

In fluorescence microscopy images what is meant by the term "puncta"?

I am reading papers where confocal fluorescence microscopy images were analysed. In many of the papers I see the term "puncta" being used when researchers analyse the colocalisation between ...
2
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1answer
34 views

Is there a specific English term for this vessel for microbial sampling?

In Russian, such a container (see pictures) for microbial sampling is called бакпечатка (bakpechatka), as I learned just now. I've no idea about the etimology of the Russian term. Probably "bak&...
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1answer
187 views

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both?

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both? I think sonic hedgehog is okay as a name for a chemical. Having said that, I am a little bit concerned about the way sonic hedgehog seems to mean the ...
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0answers
61 views

Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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0answers
23 views

Difference between tissue compression and compaction

I often see these two terms used when studying models of cell dynamics. Is there a technical difference between the terms "compression" and "compaction" of a cell tissue?
3
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2answers
97 views

What is the difference between effective and efficient selection?

I always thought of the efficiency of natural selection in the context of molecular evolution. I.e. that linked selection and smaller population size cause less efficient selection. It took me a while ...
1
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1answer
20 views

Is there a term for the entire system of moving oxygen around?

The respiratory system brings oxygen to the blood, and also can include stuff like nicotine from smoking. The circulatory system brings oxygenated blood (and all its little friends) to wherever they'...
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0answers
17 views

Is an ephemeral stream in an unflowing state considered a lentic or lotic environment?

I ask this question because I would like to discuss attributes of streams, rivers, bayous, and etc. in a text I'm writing and would like to simply refer to them as "lotic" environments. ...
4
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1answer
80 views

How to convert a genus name to a noun or adjective

Consider the crayfish family Cambaridae. As I understand it, this familial name can be turned into an English noun or adjective by changing the first letter to lower case and dropping the "ae.&...
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36 views

Brain centers vs areas (and how they relate to nuclei)

I'm looking for a reputable source that can provide succinct definitions differentiating the following terms in the central nervous system (CNS; particularly in the brain): Area Center Nucleus ...
2
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1answer
66 views

What is intracellular retention?

On the wiki page for proto-cadherins, they write, "The cytoplasmic domain also mediates intracellular retention, a property which distinguishes the clustered protocadherins from the related ...
2
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1answer
42 views

Is there a difference between ISH and ISHH? (In Situ Hybridization, In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry)

I came across the term ISHH in my document and discovered that it stands for In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry. I's translating to Russian a document that uses this abbreviation. Example from the ...
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1answer
38 views
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3k views

Why do animal cells "mistake" rubidium ions for potassium ions?

So, I was browsing the Wikipedia article for rubidium, and came across this interesting tidbit: Rubidium is not a known nutrient for any living organisms. However, rubidium ions have the same charge ...
5
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1answer
143 views

When does one decide to refer to a virus as a new variant?

I've read that SARS-Cov-2 has several variants, e.g.: Can the U.S. keep Covid variants in check? Here's what it takes. Novavax’s Vaccine Works Well — Except on Variant First Found in South Africa ...
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1answer
37 views

Difference between a phototroph and a photosynthetic organism?

A quick search on google about the topic and the page on wikipedia did not help understanding the difference between these two related terms.
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1answer
73 views

What would be a single elegant-sounding word denoting controlled increase or decrease?

I am a biologist and frequently encounter the words 'upregulated' and 'downregulated' in the literature. Appropriately, these words are flagged by my browser spell-checker; they don't seem to be very ...
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1answer
86 views

Understanding the use of English tenses in biological journal articles

My colleague and I (second language speakers) got in an argument in understanding the sentence: " however, how this complexity and diversification have been achieved remains rather poorly ...
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2answers
51 views

Cancer: what does it mean "at presentation"?

Unclear to me what this means: "Objective The biological heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes prognosis difficult. We translate the results of a genome-wide high-throughput ...
1
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1answer
265 views

A word that includes plants and fungi, but not animals [closed]

Hello biologists and biology enthusiasts! I am working on a project which includes information about plants and fungi. It would be very helpful for me if there a word that means plants-and-fungi, but ...
4
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1answer
77 views

Structure and reactions of the cofactors of oxidoreductases such as ferredoxin

I have seen the word flavoprotein being used in place of ferredoxin in few places and vice-versa. I have not found any source that mentions them both together and explains the relation between them. ...
1
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1answer
10 views

Meaning of the word "targeted" in a description of chromatin immunoprecipitation

From a research paper: The ChIP assay demonstrated that CIC physically binds to the promoter region of FOLR1, PCFT and RFC1. Compared with IgG control antibody, CIC antibody enriched 4.1-fold more ...
3
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1answer
105 views

Is there a term for the opposite of intergenic?

I am looking for a term that describes DNA regions that overlap genes, i.e., non-intergenic DNA regions. For example, say I am writing a paper about DNA-binding sites (i.e., DNA sequences that ...
7
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2answers
46 views

Meaning of "stripped" in "stripped antibody-depleted sera"

From a research paper: FOLR1 autoantibody detection The assay for identification of the presence and relative quantification of FOLR1 autoantibodies in serum samples was performed as previously ...
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0answers
122 views

Why is the "mango fly" called a "mango fly"?

Cordylobia anthropophaga, the mango fly, tumbu fly, tumba fly, putzi fly, or skin maggot fly, is a species of blow-fly common in East and Central Africa. Wiki page Why is Cordylobia anthropophaga ...
2
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1answer
41 views

What does 21q21.1-q21.2 mean?

I am reading a journal paper about the association between NCAM2 and autism, and I have come across the following: We performed microarray analysis and identified a 1.6-Mb deletion of 21q21.1-q21.2, ...
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0answers
34 views

What is the thinnest spot on the ilium called?

Is there a specific name for the spot on the human iliac fossa where the bone is the thinnest? (Or, is there a name for the thickness measurement of that spot, e.g. the left/right _________ is 2.1mm?) ...
0
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2answers
116 views

What are the stretch of amino acids?

I found the words "stretch of amino acids" in a newspaper article. "This lipopeptide matches the stretch of amino acids in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 exactly." What is the &...
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1answer
64 views

What does allelomorph mean?

Is there any difference between allele and allelomorph since most websites call them the same. If they are same then why two different term?
1
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1answer
41 views

When there is incomplete dominance of one allele, is one allele still considered recessive?

When you have incomplete dominance between two alleles of a gene (say, on two different tail lengths blending into an intermediate tail length or two rose colours blending together), can you still ...
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0answers
31 views

Could be misleading using some terms to describe certain phenomena?

I am implementing a series of comparative analyses related to Low Complexity Regions in some organisms. Given that these regions show a wide range of length (measured in amino acids) and different ...
0
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1answer
39 views

What is meant by [protein name]+/- (ie "Myod+" and "Myod-")

I have read a paper where this notation for protein names is used: Myod+ and Myod- (or another example, Myog+, Myog-). What does this indicate? In the paper I'm reading, and some brief googling, it ...
2
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0answers
49 views

Clarification for the anatomical terminology of the cerebellum

I've been trying to find descriptions for some of the fissures found on the inferior surface of the cerebellum, and so far the only source I've been able to find that provides an adequate description ...

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