Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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1answer
72 views

What does the point in the middle between two numbers mean? [closed]

[...] cells were removed to a cover glass and treated with plasma for 2 min, then returned to TS broth and centrifuged for 10 min. Cells were harvested and washed twice with PBS, then mixed with ...
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3answers
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Origin of term ‘confluency’ in cell culture

Since as long as I have been doing cell culture, the word confluency has been used to describe the percentage growth of cells or area covered by them. However, no dictionary that I have found uses ...
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1answer
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What is the name of this part in plants, fruits, vegetables?

What is the name of this part of the plant, fruit, vegetable? The thing that the plant is connected with the tree and gets nutrients with? The part we usually cut out when eat fruit. Examples below ...
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1answer
33 views

What does 'stereotype' mean for a disease? [closed]

I see no definition relevant to vaccination for 'stereotype' on the OED. What does it mean below? Here’s why we can’t rush a COVID-19 vaccine | AAMC Dengue fever: The Philippines halted a school-...
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3answers
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What is a synonym of the word design that can be used in context of evolution?

For example let's take two sentences; "engineer made a design for camera", "evolution made an X for eye". What is the best X that could be used? I need it for an essay about evolution.
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Special visceral efferent

Why are special visceral efferent nerves are named as such? They are supplying motor impulses to muscles of pharyngeal arch, which are both skeletal(facial) and visceral(laryngeal) 1, so why only ...
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1answer
356 views

What is the reason behind the subphylum name “Urochordata” for tunicates?

There are two major invertebrate subphyla of the chordates (phylum Chordata): Cephalochordata (the lancelets) Urochordata, aka Tunicata (the tunicates) My understanding is that the cephalochordates ...
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2answers
273 views

What is 'noise'?

In both my psychology, biology and neuroscience classes, professors are constantly talking about 'noise'. For instance, our perception is limited due to 'sensory noise' in our neurons. I am utterly ...
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1answer
117 views

Fever vs Inflammation

What's the difference between inflammation and fever? And why is fever called an inflammatory response? Does the word inflammation have both a general and a specific meaning?
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What is a “pure odorant”?

This article about testing for Alzheimer's, via changes in the ability to smell, said: She thought of peanut butter because, she said, it is a “pure odorant” that is only detected by the ...
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2answers
543 views

Why is photosynthesis described as a “physico-chemical” process? [closed]

In my textbook it is given that photosynthesis is a physico-chemical process. How can it be a physical process?
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2answers
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What does “delineate” mean in this context?

I was reading a Scientific American story, “Controversial Spewed Iron Experiment Succeeds as Carbon Sink” (by David Biello), when I came across this sentence: “The problem for scientists is that ...
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0answers
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What does “molecular” mean in the context of anatomy, for example the molecular layer of cerebral cortex

The first apical layer of the cerebral cortex is also called as the molecular layer, I could not find the exact reason of the naming. What I found: Molecular alongside its primary meaning in ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between disruptive, divergent and diversifying selection?

In our lab meeting we were chatting about divergent selection. I was confused at some point because I wasn't sure what was the meaning of this work in comparison to diversifying/disruptive and other ...
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1answer
134 views

What does the word “refractory” in “refractory period” refer to? [closed]

What does the word "refractory" in "refractory period" refer to? I know what it means "refractory period" (both, absolute and relative) in the action potential graph, but I don't understand what the ...
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What is the meaning of multicellularity?

I can't understand what multicellularity is. Wikipedia states that any organism having many cells is multicellular. By this definition bacteria can also be multicellular. For example, cyanobacteria ...
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2answers
410 views

Exact meaning of the term “clutch”

When reading a Wikipedia article to do with chickens, I have come across the term "clutch", but I was not able to entirely figure out what this word means. I was wondering whether the term clutch can ...
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1answer
2k views

Meaning of “auto” in trans autophosphorylation?

Why this process called "auto"? Is it because each tyrosine kinase receptor subunit of the RTK dimer has the ability to phosphorylate tyrosine or other amino acid residue present in other subunit of ...
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1answer
292 views

What is the meaning of pygo and pagus in the word pygopagus? [closed]

I know definition of the disease pygopagus but I want to know the meaning of separate parts of it, in fact what's the meaning of pygo- and -pagus in terminology?
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1answer
552 views

What is the meaning of “gap” in G1 phase?

The full form of G1 phase is Gap one phase. G1 os also called first gap phase. Is there any specific meaning of " gap" here ?
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1answer
527 views

What's the meaning of 'plasma' in 'plasma membrane'?

I wonder why is it called plasma membrane - what's the biological meaning of the word 'plasma'?
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2answers
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Are 'homeothermic' and 'endothermic' synonymous?

I got this question from the comments below this answer. So, do homeothermic and poikilothermic have the same meaning as endothermic and ectothermic, respectively? A user also suggested that the ...
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1answer
1k views

Understanding the concept of a “Place Field” and the difference between place cells and grid cells

I have 3 questions that are interrelated: After reading the proper literature on the subject, my understanding of the place field is that it's a place in space to which an animal's place cell reacts ...
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3answers
609 views

Rhizosphere vs. Endorhiza?

In relation to microbiology and the naming of the various areas of the plant as it relates to microbial inhabitance, I am confused as to the difference between the terms endorhiza and rhizosphere. In ...
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1answer
55 views

What are cells not affected by hormones called?

Cells that are affected by hormones are called target cells which have their own receptors that listen to signals. I'm unsure of the actual name of cells that are not affected by hormones, I tried ...
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1answer
120 views

Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
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2answers
26 views

What is the meaning of a selection regime in this context?

"Our second approach was based on modeling adaptive regimes across a phylogeny for each of the groups in our study using an OU model. We especially focused on the lineage leading to humans, and tested ...
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2answers
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What is the name of the groove down the middle of an anther?

I thought it had a name along the lines of interlocular groove, but I haven't been able to find that term anywhere.
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1answer
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What is the difference between taxonomical aids Flora, Manual and Catalogue?

The three type of books mentioned above are taxonomical aids that offer information about species found in an area. However, the exact difference between them is not clear to me. Please explain.
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1answer
303 views

What's a “constitutionally small penis”?

I'm reading some urology papers and came across one involving penis growth (Kim & Song, 2008); here's an intro passage that I'm confused about: A total of 58 patients with constitutionally small ...
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1answer
72 views

How does species diversity vs Earth total biomass relate?

Are there any laws/theoretical foundations about how diversity of species relate with total biomass on Earth? While there is a lot of esoteric sort of talk "humanity dis-balances the live on the ...
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1answer
149 views

What is the term for being younger than the body age?

I remember that I once attended a seminar in which the speaker talked about the heart rate of different kinds of butterflies. Normally, the heart rate of the adult butterfly will be more complex than ...
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1answer
66 views

Where does the “para” in parasitism come from

He there. So in biology there is the concept of parabiosis, that describes a relationship where one part experiences a positive side effect and the other one has no disadvantages because of that. The ...
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1answer
254 views

What are an internal and external exons?

I read the book: Essential Genetics and Genomics It has a table summarizing the properties of the "typical" human gene: It has a gene feature Size of internal exon,...
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2answers
187 views

GEN file format, SNPs and alleles

I have a few questions I can't seem to get a straight answer to, regarding the .gen file format and also biology in general. The ...
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1answer
98 views

True anatomical/physiological explanation for “metaphysis” etymology

The anatomy textbook1 I use for my students states that the prefix meta- means "between:" The metaphyses (me-TAF-i-sez; meta = between; singular is metaphysis) are the regions between the diaphysis ...
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1answer
45 views

Does parasitism, one of Bacteria's lifestyle?

The parasite is an organism that lives in or on a host. It depends on its host for survival. Bacteria lives in decaying organic matter, within human organism (colon, oral cavity). It can be a ...
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2answers
1k views

What is synaptic clearance?

Please explain what the term synaptic clearance means. For example, what would dopamine synaptic clearance be? It is important to me in context of dopamine signaling variation due to difference in ...
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1answer
895 views

Is “cell proper” considered a biology term / well defined concept?

I am asking this question after writing an answer on English Language & Usage sent me on an expedition through the internet. The originating question asked about the meaning of the word proper ...
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1answer
24 views

Which parts of the cerebral cortex don't belong to the neocortex?

In the Wikipedia article on the cerebral cortex one reads: »Most of the cerebral cortex consists of the six-layered neocortex.« Accordingly, in the Wikipedia list of regions in the human brain, ...
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1answer
572 views

What are the main differences between tubers and taproots?

From reading accessible information about tubers and taproots I recognize that the main differences between tubers and taproots (as well as a fibrous root system) are: Shape Different nutrient ...
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2answers
8k views

Are all mutagens carcinogens?

Not all carcinogens are mutagens. Alcohol and estrogen, for example, does not damage DNA. It's one of the assumptions of the Ames test that mutagenicity implies carcinogenicity, but is this always ...
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1answer
57 views

Why are Excavata called “Excavata”?

The explanation given in my textbook is: Some members of this diverse group also have an “excavated” feeding groove on one side of the cell body. (Campbell Biology) This still isn't clear, ...
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2answers
93 views

Functional unit

What is meant by functional unit of a system? like when we say that the neuron is the basic unit of neural system do we mean that all those things that are performed by neural system can be performed ...
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2answers
4k views

Definitions of hermaphroditism, dioecious and monoecious?

What is the difference between these terms "monoecious","Hermaphrodite". my lecturer says hermaphrodite is a zoological term and monoecious is botanical term, but in contrary to it, in my textbook ...
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1answer
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Can the word phalanx also be used to describe the finger bone plus the soft parts around the bone?

I was talking in an SE chatroom about fingers, and not being a native English speaker, I had to look up the word used for the part of a finger from the tip to the closest knuckle. I came across the ...
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2answers
2k views

Are there venomous plants?

There certainly are poisonous plants, but I was wondering, whether there are venomous specimen, too? First, I thought the stinging nettle could be one such. After all, it's common knowledge it "...
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1answer
125 views

What is the difference between sieve cells and sieve-tube elements?

I looked it up and I'm still confused. Apparently, sieve cells lack sieve plates? What does that really mean? It's difficult to find a good picture of either.
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1answer
109 views

What are the appendeges behind a crane fly's wings?

I noticed that crane flies have strange appendages behind their wings. The appendages look like a pair of antenna or a pair of vestigial wings. In the following picture I marked these appendages with ...
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2answers
82 views

Are neurotransmitters part of the endocrine system?

I was speaking with a substitute teacher of mine, and we were discussing whether neurotransmitters are part of the endocrine system or not. My class just spent an entire semester on the topic of the ...

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