Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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1answer
414 views

Land recultivation? Land revegetation? Land reclamation? Land rehabilitation?

I'm translating a Russian text about the recultivation (рекультивация) of land formerly used for open-pit mining. The process of 'land recultivation' in Russia involves three general stages: ...
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1answer
331 views

SNP vs common SNP

Wikipedia citing Nature defines SNP to be a one where each (thus the lowest frequency) allele exceeds some percentage threshold in the population. But I see a lot of papers and books calling such an ...
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Terminology for parts of the leg

Going out on a limb here (pun intended)...I'm writing a paper in which I need to refer to various sections of the human leg from upper thigh to knee to calf and ankle. However, "calf" covers a fairly ...
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1answer
954 views

What is the difference between the otolith membrane and the endolymph?

The human vestibular system contains otoliths to sense acceleration in the vertical and horizontal plane. I cannot find what the difference is between the otolith membrane and the endolymph? Can ...
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2answers
59 views

Name of neurons affecting or being affected by a neuron?

This question is about terminology: By which established and catchy terms are the sets of neurons with respect to a given neuron $N$ called which directly affect $N$ synaptically are ...
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1answer
165 views

What is functional dissection?

Reading [1] I found the sentence: Consistently, functional dissection of mouse and human wild-type and mutant RAS isogenic leukemia cells demonstrated induction of methotrexate resistance but also ...
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Is a DNA molecule a single strand of polynucleotide or two of them linked together?

Our molecular biology teacher told us that a double helix of DNA was composed of two DNA molecules linked together by hydrogen bonds. The thing is, until now, I always thought a DNA molecule was ...
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Are mutations random?

The following claim Mutations are random or just the use of the expression Random mutations are very common among lay people. The claim is very common among lay people. The claim is often ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between abundance and dominance in an ecosystem?

I was reading Hydroperiods of created and natural vernal pools in central Ohio: A comparison of depth and duration of inundation by Debra L. Gamble and William J. Mitsch (2008), and I came across this ...
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What is the difference between kingdoms protistae and protoctistae?

I understand that both kingdoms represent primitive eukaryotic organisms, and both contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms. What are the points that distinguish one kingdom from the ...
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33 views

Can you say “screening for a” in English?

I know this is not a "Correct Use of English Forum" but I'm afraid that people from outside the field won't be able to properly answer my question. Would it be correct to say "screening for a long ...
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Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as “enzymatic lysates”?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...
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Why is the prefrontal cortex called such?

Pre means before. Frontal means front. What does cortex means? Brain? Is it the front most part of the brain? Is it located at the most frontal part of the brain and that's why it's called ...
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1answer
397 views

Where did the term “vegetative nervous system” come from?

I am interested in the origin of the name. I am aware that Reil coined the term in the 1800s, but want to know why did he choose the term vegetative. I have not been able to find an answer to this ...
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1answer
902 views

Understanding the concept of a “Place Field” and the difference between place cells and grid cells

I have 3 questions that are interrelated: After reading the proper literature on the subject, my understanding of the place field is that it's a place in space to which an animal's place cell reacts ...
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what is the word origin of myelo- as in myelofibrosis or myeloma?

what is the word origin of myelo- as in myelofibrosis or myeloma? I know that these are plasma cancers originating in the bone marrow.
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How different are these terms: Phylloclade, Phyllode, Cladophyll and Cladode?

We started with Plant Morphology in class (specifically, the morphology of angiosperms). My teacher's provided us with the following terms and their definitions. Phylloclade A modified ...
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Special visceral efferent

Why are special visceral efferent nerves are named as such? They are supplying motor impulses to muscles of pharyngeal arch, which are both skeletal(facial) and visceral(laryngeal) 1, so why only ...
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267 views

Names of different cyclins

Different types of cell cyclins are designated as a to y Why are some letters like m, n, p, q.. etc. skipped? Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin
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2answers
50 views

How can I describe running a solution four times through a chromatography unit (in an instruction)?

I'm translating a document from Russian: The mean retention time for the first four injections of RNase should be (40.8± 2) min. If the mean RT is beyond this range, adjust the gradient system (...
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1answer
76 views

Electrogenic ion transporter

At the molecular level, electrical current across cell membranes flows through three unique classes of integral membrane proteins (see Chapter 2): ion channels, electrogenic ion transporters, and ...
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1answer
253 views

What is “multiple” myeloma?

Multiple myeloma, commonly referred to as myeloma, is a cancer of the plasma cells found in the bone marrow.(source) Is there any significance in calling myeloma as "MULTIPLE" myeloma?
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1answer
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What is head of a bone?

For most of the long bones head is the proximal end, but for metacarpals and Ulna, head is the distal end. Why are their distal ends called as heads? What's the criteria for calling an end as head ...
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1answer
204 views

What does “out-titration” mean?

I am reading an article on developmental biology and cannot understand (even after searching the internet) what is meant by "out-titration". For example, in this phrase: We have previously shown ...
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What is the difference between “dysregulation” and “deregulation” of miRNA?

I've started to study the role of miRNA in cancer. Wikipedia says: Just as miRNA is involved in the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells, so has dysregulation of miRNA been associated with ...
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Are 'homeothermic' and 'endothermic' synonymous?

I got this question from the comments below this answer. So, do homeothermic and poikilothermic have the same meaning as endothermic and ectothermic, respectively? A user also suggested that the ...
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1answer
441 views

What is the difference between scale vs cataphyll?

What is the difference between scale and cataphyll in botany - aren't these the same type of organ? E.g. do cycad cones have scales or cataphylls? Pine cones have scales, I understand the compound ...
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1answer
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Term for timespan between generations

Is there a terminology for the average timespan between generations, like ΔG ? I mean by that the time from the parental generation being mature to the filial generation being mature.
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1answer
137 views

What is the difference between phylogenetic tree “construction” and “reconstruction”?

When I look through papers, there are two terms Phylogenetic tree construction Phylogenetic tree "Re"construction What is the difference between phylogenetic tree "construction" and "reconstruction" ...
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1answer
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Segmentation in Platyhelminthes

My text book says: Platyhelminthes are unsegmented worms. Moreover, tape worm (Taenia solium), which is segmented, is one of the examples of Platyhelminthes. My question is: why a segmented worm ...
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1answer
97 views

Meaning of “U” in “Viral Protein U”

What does U mean in Viral protein U? Viral protein U (Vpu) is a unique gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) with two well-described functions... So does U in this case ...
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1answer
132 views

What does the word “refractory” in “refractory period” refer to? [closed]

What does the word "refractory" in "refractory period" refer to? I know what it means "refractory period" (both, absolute and relative) in the action potential graph, but I don't understand what the ...
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0answers
139 views

Exocrine system + endocrine system =?

What is the title name for endocrine system + exocrine system? In another language that I speak they are called "secretion system" but in English the term secretion system is different and it is ...
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138 views

Comprehensive biology or anatomy wordbank

I teach A&P for bio non majors. I have a special needs student whose accommodation requires a word bank for any anatomy identification questions I have on the exam. I would like to present the ...
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3answers
2k views

Is prion a term used to describe the normal form of the protein as well as the disease causing form?

I've been reading my textbook and it refers to prions as a normal protein with a helpful function but it can turn into a disease causing form. However, I look in my other textbook and it refers to the ...
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95 views

Mental Symphysis

Why dow we consider mandibular symphysis(symphysis menti) as type of Amphiarthrosis that too of symphysis variety, eventhough it lacks movement and cartilage at joint? Why don't we consider as ...
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1answer
926 views

In the NCBI Taxonomy tree what does “no rank” mean?

NCBI publish their taxonomy browser at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi While many taxa have a well defined rank (Order, Family, Genus etc..), some of them have "no rank". ...
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1answer
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What do we call this adjustable platform used to ensure that something is positioned strictly level in a lab?

This is an adjustable platform. Such a platform is used, for example, to make sure that a gel electrophoresis cassette is level relative to the earth. A passage in a procedure description which I'm ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the name for the opening in the mouth for the nasal passages?

Is there a proper anatomical name for the opening in the soft palette where the nasal passages enter the mouth?
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5k views

Was HindII the first restriction endonuclease to be extracted?

Background: Guided by wikipedia and pmc I found this paper by Hamilton O. Smith. and .Daniel Nathans. A restriction enzyme is a component of a restriction-modification ...
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Chief Sensory Cells

What makes the second order neurons of posterior grey horn of spinal cord to be called as "chief" sensory cells? Why don't we call 1st order, or third order neurons or other second order neurones in ...
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What is the difference between cytosol and cytoplasm?

I've generally seen cytosol defined as the solution inside cells minus the organelles, cytoskeleton, etc and cytoplasm as the cytosol plus the organelles, cytoskeleton, etc. This naturally leads to ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between disruptive, divergent and diversifying selection?

In our lab meeting we were chatting about divergent selection. I was confused at some point because I wasn't sure what was the meaning of this work in comparison to diversifying/disruptive and other ...
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1answer
561 views

What is the meaning of the word 'bin' in the context of RNA-Seq?

I have a question from a book about RNA-Seq. I would like to know the meaning of the word "bin" in the below cited paragraph: RseQC has several nice features not found in the other programs: (a) ...
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2answers
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What is full form of r and K in r-selection species and K-selection species?

What is full form/ meaning of 'r' and 'K' in r-selection species and K-selection species? Does this 'r' means "Random" and the 'K' means "constant"?
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1answer
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Ear ossicles a part of Skull?

Is there anything special about not considering ear ossicles as a part of skull? I could not understand the reasoning behind such classification.
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1answer
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Medical term for “holding urine for a long time”

Sometimes I get/feel pain in my stomach because of holding urine for long time. Is there any medical terminology describing: "holding urine for a long time", or pain associated with this activity?
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What are “primary amino acids and secondary amino acids”? Context: analysis of amino acid content using reversed-phase HPLC

In a Russian document I'm translating, an HPLC system is used to analyse the amino acid content of a substance. The detector wavelength is set at 262 nm for "secondary amino acids" and 338 nm ...
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1answer
964 views

Small vs Large neurons

What is the criteria for classifying neurons as small and large? Is this classification based on gross size or the length of axon? Do they have any physiological difference? For instance it is said ...
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170 views

Does the term “Biophysics” have two different meanings?

1. Some sources (including the current Tag-info at biology SE) state; biophysics is the adoption of techniques / methodologies from physics to study biological systems. The use of methods from the ...

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