Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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578 views

“Air sac” and “air cell” in a chicken embryo

I need to translate the Russian term "воздушный мешок". It is part of the chicken embryo, marked by number 5 in the figure below. I found the expression air cell but also found the expression air ...
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23k views

Difference between Category, Rank and Taxon

Is there any differences between the terms Category, Rank and Taxon or they all are same? I remember an explanation which goes on like this: Category and Rank are the same and are the categories of ...
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Is the complement system a part of innate or adaptive immunity

I've been reading about the complement system, as part of the human immune system. The complement system is introduced as part of the article on innate immunity on Wikipedia. This classification makes ...
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What is a “pure odorant”?

This article about testing for Alzheimer's, via changes in the ability to smell, said: She thought of peanut butter because, she said, it is a “pure odorant” that is only detected by the ...
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1answer
4k views

Neuromediator, Neuromodulator, Neurotransmitter?

Of these three words, perhaps Neurotransmitter is the most obvious. I took a look at Wikipedia page for Neuromodulation and found that this is pretty similar to Neurotransmitter too. I guess ...
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86 views

What is the meaning of 'state of nature' in On the Origin of species by Charles Darwin?

I have started reading "On the origin of species" by Charles Darwin. The beginning paragraph is: When we look to the individuals of the same variety or sub-variety of our older cultivated ...
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233 views

Are freshwater jellyfishes really jellyfishes?

Articles from the aquaticcommunity.com and the Nature Conservancy suggest that freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyi, are more closely related to the Genus Hydra. From the Nature Conservancy ...
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137 views

What is the difference between phylogenetic tree “construction” and “reconstruction”?

When I look through papers, there are two terms Phylogenetic tree construction Phylogenetic tree "Re"construction What is the difference between phylogenetic tree "construction" and "reconstruction" ...
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Collective name for the X- and Z-chromosomes

Chromosomes are grouped as sex chromosomes or autosomes, with the X, Y, Z and W all falling in to the former category. The Z and X are present both in the homogametic and heterogametic sexes, and the ...
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What are the functions and differences between axons and dendrites?

My textbook doesn't do a very good job of pointing out what the differences between the two are. It basically mentions axons only in the same breath as the synapse (that synapses are the endings/tips ...
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990 views

What is a myotube?

If I understand correctly, the following images show the main components in a human skeletal muscle: From Life: The Science of Biology: From Human Physiology/The Muscular System in wikibooks: ...
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Hormonal terms Somatotrophin or somatotropin?

Are Somatotropin and Somatotrophin hormones the same? It's confusing because when you type in Somatotrophin in google, it says, "a growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.", but there'...
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Meaning of “U” in “Viral Protein U”

What does U mean in Viral protein U? Viral protein U (Vpu) is a unique gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) with two well-described functions... So does U in this case ...
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262 views

Can an exotic species be also endemic?

While talking about the evolution and conservation of dingoes in Australia, someone asked an interesting question: Can I define the dingo as an endemic species? That question, despite apparently ...
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282 views

Why is the ribonucleoside derived from thymine, 5-Methyluridine, abbreviated m5U and not T?

The wikipedia article about Nucleosides presents a table in which there are three columns — Base, Ribonucleoside and Deoxyribonucleoside — and structures, names and abbreviations for the nucleosides ...
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442 views

What is meant by bionomics of a vector?

What is supposed to fall under the title Bionomics (The study of an organism and its relation to its environment; ecology.)? Suppose we are dealing with a vector, Anopheles sp. are the following ...
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Is there a name for this phenomenon described in “Phylogenies and the Comparative Method”?

The figures below are from Felsenstein's paper "Phylogenies and the Comparative Method". I was wondering if there was a specific name for this effect where there is an apparant correlation that is ...
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363 views

Definition of “structural underdominance”?

In Stathos and Fishman (2014), the authors refer to the concept of structural underdominance. The first time they mention it is in the first paragraph of the second page (left column) and the term is ...
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415 views

Land recultivation? Land revegetation? Land reclamation? Land rehabilitation?

I'm translating a Russian text about the recultivation (рекультивация) of land formerly used for open-pit mining. The process of 'land recultivation' in Russia involves three general stages: ...
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Why are plant buds called 'eyes'?

I was reading the etymology of the Latinate English verb 'inoculate' which contains the following part that generated the question entitled above: [...] inoculare "graft in, implant a bud or eye of ...
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Terminology regarding cross-immunoreactivity

After reading an article, I saw expressions like "cross-immunoreactivity among epitopes", "cross-immunoreactivity among variants of virus", "immunological reactions among pairs of peptides" and so on. ...
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2answers
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What are the differences between isozymes, allozymes and isoforms? [closed]

As far as I have understood Isozymes are derived from different genes but perform similar functions Allozymes are derived from the same gene but different loci, functionally conserved Isoforms are a ...
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468 views

What is “Peripheral Dogma”?

The book, Introduction to Bioinformatics, by Arthur M. Lesk, 3rd edition; Oxford; low-price-edition; in its chapter-1 (introduction), page-no. 6 ; provided a paragraph, entitled "Dogmas: Central and ...
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Difference between dysentery and bloody diarrhea

The difference between diarrhoea and dysentery is quite clear; but the appearance of blood in stool or bloody diarrhoea is a very confusing term when compared with dysentery. Are they different in the ...
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Is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression an epigenetic process?

Is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression (for example regulation by microRNAs) a type of epigenetic gene expression regulation? I think we can categorize it as epigenetic since the DNA ...
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Terminology question: the scope of an allele in an organism

Let us consider a gene FOO with novel type foo. If I were discussing an organism that has inherited foo in every cell during classical zygote formation, then I would ordinarily just say that the ...
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What's inside the perinuclear space?

The cell proper contains the cytoplasm in general and the cytosol in particular when referring to the fluid/gel without notable organelle. Once we move inside the nucleus there is the nucleoplasm and ...
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Why plant tissues end in -enchyma?

Many plant tissue types end in the affix -enchyma. Etymology: enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" Examples are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma (meaning "to pour beside," "...
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What does “molecular” mean in the context of anatomy, for example the molecular layer of cerebral cortex

The first apical layer of the cerebral cortex is also called as the molecular layer, I could not find the exact reason of the naming. What I found: Molecular alongside its primary meaning in ...
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803 views

What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
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581 views

What is a bacterial biofilm?

Bacteria produce something called a biofilm. I have found a few definitions; some say it is a complex of live and dead bacteria and others say it is a layer on cell wall. What is it made of? What ...
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6k views

What do the names of Immunoglobulin subtypes mean?

What is the exact meaning and full form of IgM, IgG, IgA, etc? What is the rationale behind the names of the isotypes, if there is one? For example, what does "M" mean in IgM?
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Does the term “Biophysics” have two different meanings?

1. Some sources (including the current Tag-info at biology SE) state; biophysics is the adoption of techniques / methodologies from physics to study biological systems. The use of methods from the ...
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How does ecology differ from biology?

What precisely is ecology? How does it differ from biology? Because I never studied biology after high school, please explain as if I were 10 years old. I only know that ecology is a subset of biology ...
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70 views

RNA polymerase Sigma subunit: transcription factor, coenzyme, or what?

Studying prokaryotic transcription, it seems that the α2ββ′ω core enzyme + the sigma (σ) subunit comprise the ‘holoenzyme’ required for prokaryotic transcription. In traditional enzyme nomenclature, ...
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94 views

Etymology of PAX proteins

What is the reasoning behind naming proteins first found in Drosophila as paired box? All I could find on internet is that it was first found in Drosophila as a protein with paired domain, but I ...
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425 views

Abbreviations for molecules: What are CheW, CheA, CheY?

I've encountered the abbreviations such as "CheW" and "CheA" for certain organic molecules. For example: Proteins associating with the Tar complex include the autophosphorylating protein kinase ...
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What is the difference between clinical and non-clinical depression, and is there a term for different severity of the bipolar disorder?

I was looking for a term which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity. I know from experience from someone I know well, what a very severe case of the bipolar disorder looks like, when an ...
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Is episome a plasmid or a virus?

A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell. In general, in eukaryotes, episomes are closed circular DNA ...
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72 views

What does the point in the middle between two numbers mean? [closed]

[...] cells were removed to a cover glass and treated with plasma for 2 min, then returned to TS broth and centrifuged for 10 min. Cells were harvested and washed twice with PBS, then mixed with ...
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True anatomical/physiological explanation for “metaphysis” etymology

The anatomy textbook1 I use for my students states that the prefix meta- means "between:" The metaphyses (me-TAF-i-sez; meta = between; singular is metaphysis) are the regions between the diaphysis ...
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60 views

What's it called when a male seahorse gets “inseminated”?

I am looking for the scientific term for the process where a male seahorse receives eggs from the female. For example, we usually say, "the male inseminates the female with sperm." What is the correct ...
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767 views

Is spiders building webs on plants an example of mutualism or commensalism?

In one section of the GED study book I'm looking through to prepare myself for exams, they define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism, and give examples. One of the examples they give for ...
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880 views

What does the acronym ‘PIN’ stand for referring to PIN proteins in plants?

There are so called PIN proteins, or PIN-formed proteins, in plants. What does this acronym mean? Wikipedia briefly explains the function of the protein but not the origin of the name. It's not ...
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60 views

What do you call mRNAs that translate to the same protein?

For example AUAACC and AUCACG in distinct mRNAs may both be translated to the same dipeptide Ile-Thr.
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What does fluorogenic mean for fluorescent probes?

Many fluorescent probes are described as being fluorogeninc as an advantage for fluorescence microscopy but what does fluorogenic mean? Dictionary definitions state that it means generating ...
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What does “substoichiometric amounts” mean in the context of molecular biology?

Recent paper: PRC2 is composed of the histone methyltransferase EZH2, EED, SUZ12, and the histone binding proteins RBBP4 and RBBP7. JARID2, AEBP2, PHF1, MTF2, and PHF19 are also present in PRC2 ...
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Small non-coding RNA (sRNA) vs. micro RNA (miRNA)?

What are the differences between micro RNAs (miRNA) and small non-coding RNAs (sRNA)? Are these two terms used interchangeably?
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What's the difference between a simple and 1-foliolate (unifoliolate) leaf?

How is a 1-foliolate leaf (e.g., Hardenbergia) different from a simple leaf?
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Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon?

Why is the central tendon of diaphragm called a tendon when it does not connect the diaphragm to any bone?

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