Questions tagged [terminology]

How terms are used or the meaning of words as used in scientific literature. Questions should ideally include a link or quote as context for where the term was encountered.

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1answer
2k views

Optical density machine name

What is the name of the machine used to measure optical density? We used it in a lab but I can't remember what they called it.
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What is refractory proteinuria?

I've stumbled upon the article "Telmisartan Treatment of Refractory Proteinuria in a Dog."* What is refractory proteinuria? *Bugbee AC1, Coleman AE, Wang A, Woolcock AD, Brown SA. J Vet Intern Med. ...
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Meaning of “auto” in trans autophosphorylation?

Why this process called "auto"? Is it because each tyrosine kinase receptor subunit of the RTK dimer has the ability to phosphorylate tyrosine or other amino acid residue present in other subunit of ...
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Is there a name for the use of sunlight in metabolic processes?

"Photosynthesis" is what is used to describe how plants use sunlight to synthesize sugars, but, I also heard some animals like humans use sunlight in the process of creating vitamin D. Is there a ...
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What does 'virus prototype strain' mean?

Does the term 'prototype virus strain' mean the first virus isolated and without mutations?
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Who are Ursprungliche Eukaryoten?

The school textbook of my daughter (the textbook is written in German) describes the five kingdoms of life: prokaryota, plants, fungi, animals and "Ursprungliche Eukaryoten". These are defined as "...
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Where did the term “vegetative nervous system” come from?

I am interested in the origin of the name. I am aware that Reil coined the term in the 1800s, but want to know why did he choose the term vegetative. I have not been able to find an answer to this ...
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How can I describe running a solution four times through a chromatography unit (in an instruction)?

I'm translating a document from Russian: The mean retention time for the first four injections of RNase should be (40.8± 2) min. If the mean RT is beyond this range, adjust the gradient system (...
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326 views

Is “TATA signal” synonymous with “TATA box”?

In the text I'm translating I have a diagram of an expression vector. It has a lot of marks, and one says "TATA signal". I googled and found the expression "TATA box". Are these expressions fully ...
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What is vascular cambium?

I'm confused over the two terms vascular cambium and intrafascicular cambium. Is vascular cambium the same as intrafascicular cambium?
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How does Australia fit into 'New World' / 'Old World' dichotomy?

How are places such as Australia and New Zealand classified when differentiating geographic areas based on 'New World' and 'Old World?' My understanding is: New World = North America + South America ...
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283 views

What is the formal terminology for two species that are “close” to each other in a phylogenetic tree?

Take for example the human and the chimpanzee, they are "closely related" species since they are "close" to each other in a phylogenetic tree. However, this terminology seems pretty informal, what ...
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What is meant by “heads” and “tails” in the context of gene orientation?

I have a hard time understanding what this paper is talking about when it says: We observed maximal cleavage at sites oriented tail-to-tail and separated by -10 bp to +30 bp (Fig. 2d). Finally, ...
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285 views

What is the reason behind the subphylum name “Urochordata” for tunicates?

There are two major invertebrate subphyla of the chordates (phylum Chordata): Cephalochordata (the lancelets) Urochordata, aka Tunicata (the tunicates) My understanding is that the cephalochordates ...
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Terminology for parts of the leg

Going out on a limb here (pun intended)...I'm writing a paper in which I need to refer to various sections of the human leg from upper thigh to knee to calf and ankle. However, "calf" covers a fairly ...
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Medical term for “holding urine for a long time”

Sometimes I get/feel pain in my stomach because of holding urine for long time. Is there any medical terminology describing: "holding urine for a long time", or pain associated with this activity?
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Is there a difference between “cell line” and “cell strain”?

I'm translating one Russian text where a cell line is transfected to produce a drug. I wonder if I can sometimes use "cell strain" or simply "strain" instead of "cell line&...
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59 views

Evolution and Phenotypes.

This may be better suited for the English language SE, but When discussing evolutionary changes in species is it proper to refer to their phenotypes? In this context: "Imagine if a cow did not ...
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What does “delineate” mean in this context?

I was reading a Scientific American story, “Controversial Spewed Iron Experiment Succeeds as Carbon Sink” (by David Biello), when I came across this sentence: “The problem for scientists is that ...
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What do we call these containers used in biotechnology?

I'm translating an autoclave instruction from Russian, and it says that these containers (ванночки) (see the black circle on the below photo) are to be sterilized in the autoclave. I'm not sure what ...
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How to tell petiole apart from stem?

How to tell petiole apart from stem? Is it by the rule that there is usually a pair of stipules at the base of a petiole?
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Term for timespan between generations

Is there a terminology for the average timespan between generations, like ΔG ? I mean by that the time from the parental generation being mature to the filial generation being mature.
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What do we call this adjustable platform used to ensure that something is positioned strictly level in a lab?

This is an adjustable platform. Such a platform is used, for example, to make sure that a gel electrophoresis cassette is level relative to the earth. A passage in a procedure description which I'm ...
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Ear ossicles a part of Skull?

Is there anything special about not considering ear ossicles as a part of skull? I could not understand the reasoning behind such classification.
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Why do plants not have fat cells, and store their reserves in vacuoles instead?

Why don't plants have fat cells, but instead store reserves in vacuoles. And vice versa, why do humans feature fat cells instead of depositing storage molecules in vacuoles?
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Does gross production (P) and biomass (B) mean the same?

From fundamentals of ecology, Odum 2005: ... autogenic succession usually begins with an unbalanced community metabolism, where gross production, P, is either greater than or less than community ...
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What is a cognate enhancer sequence?

What is a cognate enhancer sequence? While reading a paper (1) presented at a journal class in graduate school, I encountered this sentence: HIF-1 binds to its cognate enhancer sequence, the ...
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Explanation of the ‘cherry red spot' in Tay Sachs disease

In Tay Sachs disease, a hallmark symptom is a cherry red spot in the macula of the eye surrounded by a halo of white. I understand that the ganglion cells, which are higher in numbers around the ...
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957 views

Are there any culinary fruits that are not botanically fruits or accessory fruits? [closed]

Many culinary vegetables are botanically fruits. For example, the tomato, bittergourd and the cucumber are generally considered culinary vegetables, but they are botanically considered fruits. Does ...
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3answers
585 views

Rhizosphere vs. Endorhiza?

In relation to microbiology and the naming of the various areas of the plant as it relates to microbial inhabitance, I am confused as to the difference between the terms endorhiza and rhizosphere. In ...
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Is there a name for this principle in biological contexts?

This is mostly a question about usage. There is a probability-related idea that has been used in at least two biological contexts. The idea is that if something happened, it was probably likely to ...
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Difference between Bioscience and Lifescience

Are bioscience and lifescience the same things? I am a little bit confused about it. If not, then what is the difference between the two?
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Confusion related to a term probe-by-background interaction

I was reading a paper related to bioinformatics where it uses the drug response on the cancer cells and the gene expression of the individual cells are studied to find any useful insights. Specially, ...
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In the context of heterotrophic theory of abiogenesis, what is an organism that eats other organisms called?

In the heterotrophic theory for the origin of life, we imagine a primordial soup that is rich in organic compounds and the first organisms emerge eating those compounds. Since these organic compounds ...
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What does substrate mean?

I have been reading some literature on measurements related to biofilms. In some articles the word "substrate" seems to stand for the material on which a biofilm is growing. In other articles, it ...
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Why is xylem a tissue and not an organ?

My textbook "CGP AS-Level Biology Exam Board: Edexcel Complete Revision & Practice" says xylem is a tissue. Then I read from this website that "[Xylem's] major components include xylem parenchyma,...
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108 views

What to call a trait that has current utility but unclear evolutionary origin?

I'm looking for a commonly used term to describe a trait that has clear current utility but an evolutionary origin that is uncertain and that we do not necessarily wish to emphasize in our description ...
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1answer
114 views

Difference between spiking and firing

In the article "A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial Map Formation Using Persistent Homology" by Y. Dabaghian, F. Mémoli, L. Frank, G. Carlsson I read some sentences with huge ...
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What is functional dissection?

Reading [1] I found the sentence: Consistently, functional dissection of mouse and human wild-type and mutant RAS isogenic leukemia cells demonstrated induction of methotrexate resistance but also ...
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What is Tandem repeat?

After reading - (wikipedia) Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of one or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. ( a paper) A tandem repeat in ...
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497 views

What is the meaning of Dimer Catastrophe?

What is the meaning of Dimer Catastrophe? I still don't understand it even I've already read the paper about it. Here's the link to the paper origin NCBI
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Is this in vivo or ex vivo?

This question has probably been asked a few times but I get the concept I just dont know how to apply it for this paticular experiment I aim to use cherry tomatoes and determine its glutamate content ...
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282 views

What's the proper term for “brain waves” read from an EEG?

An EEG records the electrical activity of the brain. An EEG shows voltage differences as a function of time and shows what have become known as "brain waves". Is there a scientific/technical word/...
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What happens when our muscle tense? [closed]

Is the tensing of muscles equivalent to stretching them? I am trying to understand what tensing of the muscles means.
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Etymology of the term monilophyte

I would like to know the origin of the term Monilophyta. I know it's from Kenrick and Crane, but where did they get monilo-? It's not in my enormous Liddell and Scott Greek dictionary, nor is there ...
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Why is stimulation of nerve tissue with a negative pulse called “cathodic” stimulation?

By definition, the cathode is defined as the terminal through which current exits a polarized device. But in the context of neuromodulation, such as spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, ...
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Is there is difference between “homozygosity” and “homozygosis”? [closed]

Are these just two terms for the same phenomenon, i.e., the state of being homozygous? Merriam-Webster says so, but I know dictionaries sometimes miss the nuance of scientific terms. If they are ...
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1answer
229 views

How are CheY, CheA, CheW, CheZ pronounced in speech?

This is a quick followup question to this question about proteins that play important roles in chemotaxis: How does one pronounce the protein names "CheY", "CheW", etc., in English? My guess would ...
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439 views

What is the difference between Ostracodermi and Placodermi

I looked the word origin and found Placodermi is PLATE SKINNED while Ostracodermi is Shell Skinned. Can someone please explain the difference between being Plate skinned and Shell skinned?
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Currency metabolites vs. current metabolites: What's the right term?

I have seen the two terms currency metabolite and current metabolite used interchangeably. Is there a consensus on which is the ...

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