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Questions tagged [toxicology]

The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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Do violet potatoes contain more or less solanine than normal potatoes?

What is the solanine content of the violet potatoes? Is it more or less than in the normal potatoes?
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24 views

How to prevent mold from building on food and how to kill it along with neurotoxins?

I have some food/fruits chopped in very small parts, whatever it is that needs to be conserved during long time, when it is given to me it can be somewhat wet or humid, after some time of keeping it ...
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Why does our body absorb toxic substances or toxic concentrations of a substance if it is capable of regulating gastrointestinal absorption?

Our gastrointestinal system is filled with regulatory molecules that place brakes in the absorption process. For instance, the food that we consume daily is filled with harmful substances that our ...
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Cadmium Poisoning and Toxicity Mechanisms

Is anyone aware of the toxic mechanisms of specific instances in which cadmium ions can interfere with cellular functions resulting in acute cadmium poisoning?
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15 views

Toxic Metals and Oxidative Phosphorylation

I was reviewing the toxicity of certain toxic metals, specifically cadmium and their effect on Oxidative Phosphorylation and Cellular Respiration, I have found that metals such as cadmium inhibit ...
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Why can humans tolerate eating onions but other mammals like dogs and cats cannot?

Onions are one of the many foods we shouldn't feed our pets. Looking it up, I learned that onions cause hemolytic anemia in MANY species: cattle, sheep, horses, dogs, cats, and even some primates. If ...
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What is the consensus, if it exists, on the (absence of) biological effects of artificial sweeteners?

I tried to Google (and PubMed) the question, but it seems to be fairly polarized debate and there does not seem to be a consensus as to whether sweeteners like asparatme, acesulfame etc. have ...
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61 views

Is there any example of genetic mechanism of delayed onset toxic effects?

We know that exposure to many toxic chemicals during embryonic development may show toxic effects later in life. It is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHAD). Most of the ...
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2answers
92 views

Is too much CO2 in the air toxic?

I know that if there is too much CO2 in the air we will have too much greenhouse effect. I would like to know if there is too much CO2 in the room, something like 3% while there is also more that ...
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133 views

Are turkish hazelnuts edible?

The title of this question is Google suggestion verbatim, when I tried to write it. Yet, I found no answer specifically for Turkish hazelnuts. Turkish hazelnut is a tree and it's fruit looks ...
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Can you gain valid toxicological data about a detergent in cell cultures?

I just looked at a paper that in one assay tested a variety of chemicals and chemical mixtures against human cell cultures. They exposed HEK 293 cell cultures for 24 hours to the various chemicals. ...
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103 views

Why don't macaws get selenium poisoning from brazil nuts

Google research has indicated macaws love or eat a lot of Brazil nut. These are highly toxic to humans in somewhat small quantities due to their selenium content. Given the mass difference between a ...
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1answer
55 views

Why and how does falsifying sensory information work? [closed]

Some context, before the question: Whenever I have a craving to binge on something sugary, I just prepare a cup of extremely bitter green tea (with 3 bags of tea) and I imagine myself binging on ...
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1answer
109 views

Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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Is antivenom fatal?

Antivenom is used for curing snake bites. Is it fatal when used without being bitten by a snake?
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65 views

How is it possible to breathe perflurocarbon?

I have heard of liquid breathing, where an organism, usually a person, would be breathing in perflurocarbon. Now I looked up perflourocarbon on wikipedia and I noticed, no oxygen at all, but fluorine ...
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What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
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1answer
915 views

How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
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1answer
127 views

How is a very small quantity of poison able to kill a large organism?

Take cyanide for example: it prevents mitochondria from producing energy in form of ATP but, in the process, it binds with it and hence it's spent. It's theorized that half a gram of cyanide can ...
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Why does botulinum toxin cause only NMJ symptoms?

Botulinum toxin acts by preventing release of ACh by cleaving SNARE proteins. But if it is acting on snare proteins shouldn't all vesicle releases be effected? Why is it limited only to the ...
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1answer
378 views

What makes white phosphorus toxic?

What makes white phosphorous toxic? I mean it causes liver and kidney damage, and altered blood coagulation, but it is hard to find anything about what biochemical mechanism this poison uses to kill ...
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1answer
96 views

Are any arthropods poisonous to the touch?

I'm particularly interested in whether any insects are poisonous to the touch. Note that toxic-bristled caterpillars are actually venomous, since in all species I'm familiar with, the bristles ...
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Horizontal gene transfer and Botulinum toxin

Is it theoretically possible that any aerobic bacterium becomes able to produce Botulinum toxin as a result of horizontal gene transfer from Clostridium botulinum to that bacterium?
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1answer
275 views

Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%?

Below is a table of atmospheric composition. Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%? Table 7a-1: Current Average composition of the atmosphere up to ...
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If alcohol is a depressant, why does it makes certain people more hyperactive?

Alcohol is by traditional definition a depressant from what I have been taught, ergo it shows down CNS responses. However, why does alcohol then make some people act out and be more energetic than ...
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1answer
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Which extinction event killed the highest proportion of organisms?

The P-T extinction (a.k.a. the Great Dying) tends to be considered the worst - for example, Wikipedia states: It is the Earth's most severe known extinction event, with up to 96% of all marine ...
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1answer
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Why won't this spray kill this bug (household insecticide); could it be so selective?

I have a can of bug spray. The label is in another language which I can not even type in order to do an online translation, but the ingredients are in romanized writing: ...
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Any references contradicting Hormesis from low dose studies?

I've recently read some papers on Hormesis (the stimulatory effect of low doses of substances toxic at high doses). The papers are all published in respected peer-reviewed journals, here, here, and ...
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Why shouldn't dogs eat chocolate?

I was wondering why dogs shouldn't eat chocolate. Can't dogs just excrete the indigestible component in their droppings? It's common knowledge that dogs shouldn't eat chocolate. What I don't know is ...
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What is the best solvent for Mutagen X?

Many solvents can be used for mutagen X (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-one), however, long-term stability is not specified. Which would be the best solvent for long-term storage? ...
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887 views

How does methamphetamine (meth) damage neurons?

Meth is considered to be neurotoxic by forming reactive oxygen species and oxidizing the neurons. But unlike dopamine, which, by the way, is neurotoxic due to ROS induced dopaminergic stress, meth ...
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1answer
692 views

Are there venomous plants?

There certainly are poisonous plants, but I was wondering, whether there are venomous specimen, too? First, I thought the stinging nettle could be one such. After all, it's common knowledge it "...
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3answers
584 views

Identifying three species of Datura

I have found a large, wild patch, some 200m long, of mainly Datura Stramonium, in our street. I have always been keenly interested and well read on the shamanic, and - very rare - medicinal uses of ...
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289 views

Is chocolate poisonous?

I have heard that chilli peppers and coffee evolved to contain toxic chemicals which help to protect them from predators. And recently I learned that star anise, liquorice and aniseed are not ...
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217 views

Molds associated with Aflatoxin?

I've been reading how some molds may be carcinogenic. In particular, molds associated with the fungus metabolite, Aflatoxin. Are the types of mold that produce this toxin, present in buildings/...
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Does Methanol cause similar intoxication as Ethanol?

Take two average healthy adult males weighing 80 kg. Neither has, ahem, developed their alcohol tolerance to any significant degree. One imbibes 1 shot, 40 ml of 40% Methanol, and another 40 ml of 40%...
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1answer
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How can fennec foxes eat scorpions?

I just watched a video of a small desert fox (fennec) that toys and eats a scorpion. Although I am unsure of the exact type of scorpion, it is apparently quite able to sting. Another online instance ...
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What percentage of human excrement is toxic if ingested?

I have been considering food production, waste management and 3D food printing, particularly during space exploration. This led me to wonder if human excrement could be processed into raw materials ...
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1answer
832 views

How is phenol antiseptic?

What makes phenol an antiseptic, is it because of its acidity which may increase the proton concentration at cell membrane? I am unable to figure out the exact mechanism.
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19k views

Rust on kettle dangerous to consume?

I recently traveled to Japan, where I picked up a cast-iron kettle known as a tetsubin. When I opened it up, I found that the inside was heavily rusted. Rust is a result of various combinations of $\...
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1answer
4k views

Why is the manchineel tree so poisonous?

The machineel tree is incredibly toxic to humans. What advantage could Hippomane mancinella have for being so poisonous? It's name even apparently translates to “little apple that makes horses mad”. ...
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1answer
182 views

Is there a biological explanation for perceived deeper cognition whilst on cannabis?

Cannabis has been associated with literature, arts, and culture for centuries. There are a few features of the drugs affect on the human mind that account for this, however it remains illegal in most ...
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1answer
248 views

how to quantify toxicity

When going through this link, Table 1, what are the numbers mentioned there? How is one quantifying toxicity?
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824 views

Are all quadrupeds edible? [closed]

I wonder if all quadrupeds (or, mammals, at least), are edible? From what I have collected, even down to fish, everything is edible apart from being sick or infected, and, apart from some glands ...
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1answer
112 views

Does copper exacerbate wounds?

There is a three edged stiletto (weapon, not shoe) with a triangular cross-section that is often touted as being "extra dangerous" because of the triangular puncture it makes, and its copper ...
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Toxicity of Zinc to fungi [closed]

I would like to know what are the mechanisms and overall effects of Zinc on fungi. I know that Candida albicans is susceptible to Zinc deprivation and Zinc-infused paint is also used to repel mold.
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1answer
3k views

What will happen when humans are injected with plant growth hormones

Will plant growth hormones (PGHs), (let us consider auxins for example) poison our body or not? I do realise that when you eat a shoot, auxins get digested and are less likely to be poisonous but when ...
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1answer
1k views

Can soap kill cockroaches and/or ants? If so, how? [duplicate]

Is it possible to use dishwashing soap as an alternative insecticide? How would that and what are the components of the dishwashing soap that would kill the insect?
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1answer
353 views

How does cytochrome c oxidase inhibition cause cell death?

I realise the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase prevents the release of H+ ions into the intermembrane space, and that the ion gradient is required for ATP synthase action. However, I'm not sure how ...
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1answer
574 views

Why does heating kidney beans at a low temperature potentiate the toxicity of phytohaemagglutinin?

I recently found out that red kidney beans contain a relatively high amount of the toxic lectin, phytohaemagglutinin. An article on phytohaemagglutinin on the FDA website states: Several outbreaks ...