Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [toxicology]

The branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

0
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the consensus, if it exists, on the (absence of) biological effects of artificial sweeteners?

I tried to Google (and PubMed) the question, but it seems to be fairly polarized debate and there does not seem to be a consensus as to whether sweeteners like asparatme, acesulfame etc. have ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Is there any example of genetic mechanism of delayed onset toxic effects?

We know that exposure to many toxic chemicals during embryonic development may show toxic effects later in life. It is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHAD). Most of the ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How to correctly interpret the regulatory levels of toxic substances?

I guess we all have seen a lot, e.g. according to WHO, NO2 level below xxx ppm in the atmosphere generates no human health concern, pesticide X found in food below mg/kg dry mass food presents no harm ...
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Is too much CO2 in the air toxic?

I know that if there is too much CO2 in the air we will have too much greenhouse effect. I would like to know if there is too much CO2 in the room, something like 3% while there is also more that ...
3
votes
1answer
106 views

Are turkish hazelnuts edible?

The title of this question is Google suggestion verbatim, when I tried to write it. Yet, I found no answer specifically for Turkish hazelnuts. Turkish hazelnut is a tree and it's fruit looks ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Can you gain valid toxicological data about a detergent in cell cultures?

I just looked at a paper that in one assay tested a variety of chemicals and chemical mixtures against human cell cultures. They exposed HEK 293 cell cultures for 24 hours to the various chemicals. ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

Why don't macaws get selenium poisoning from brazil nuts

Google research has indicated macaws love or eat a lot of Brazil nut. These are highly toxic to humans in somewhat small quantities due to their selenium content. Given the mass difference between a ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Why and how does falsifying sensory information work? [closed]

Some context, before the question: Whenever I have a craving to binge on something sugary, I just prepare a cup of extremely bitter green tea (with 3 bags of tea) and I imagine myself binging on ...
4
votes
1answer
99 views

Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
15
votes
2answers
5k views

Is antivenom fatal?

Antivenom is used for curing snake bites. Is it fatal when used without being bitten by a snake?
3
votes
1answer
60 views

How is it possible to breathe perflurocarbon?

I have heard of liquid breathing, where an organism, usually a person, would be breathing in perflurocarbon. Now I looked up perflourocarbon on wikipedia and I noticed, no oxygen at all, but fluorine ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
9
votes
1answer
902 views

How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
4
votes
1answer
112 views

How is a very small quantity of poison able to kill a large organism?

Take cyanide for example: it prevents mitochondria from producing energy in form of ATP but, in the process, it binds with it and hence it's spent. It's theorized that half a gram of cyanide can ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Why does botulinum toxin cause only NMJ symptoms?

Botulinum toxin acts by preventing release of ACh by cleaving SNARE proteins. But if it is acting on snare proteins shouldn't all vesicle releases be effected? Why is it limited only to the ...
6
votes
1answer
259 views

What makes white phosphorus toxic?

What makes white phosphorous toxic? I mean it causes liver and kidney damage, and altered blood coagulation, but it is hard to find anything about what biochemical mechanism this poison uses to kill ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

Are any arthropods poisonous to the touch?

I'm particularly interested in whether any insects are poisonous to the touch. Note that toxic-bristled caterpillars are actually venomous, since in all species I'm familiar with, the bristles ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

Horizontal gene transfer and Botulinum toxin

Is it theoretically possible that any aerobic bacterium becomes able to produce Botulinum toxin as a result of horizontal gene transfer from Clostridium botulinum to that bacterium?
1
vote
1answer
219 views

Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%?

Below is a table of atmospheric composition. Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%? Table 7a-1: Current Average composition of the atmosphere up to ...
0
votes
2answers
785 views

If alcohol is a depressant, why does it makes certain people more hyperactive?

Alcohol is by traditional definition a depressant from what I have been taught, ergo it shows down CNS responses. However, why does alcohol then make some people act out and be more energetic than ...
6
votes
1answer
165 views

Which extinction event killed the highest proportion of organisms?

The P-T extinction (a.k.a. the Great Dying) tends to be considered the worst - for example, Wikipedia states: It is the Earth's most severe known extinction event, with up to 96% of all marine ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Why won't this spray kill this bug (household insecticide); could it be so selective?

I have a can of bug spray. The label is in another language which I can not even type in order to do an online translation, but the ingredients are in romanized writing: ...
6
votes
0answers
67 views

Any references contradicting Hormesis from low dose studies?

I've recently read some papers on Hormesis (the stimulatory effect of low doses of substances toxic at high doses). The papers are all published in respected peer-reviewed journals, here, here, and ...
70
votes
3answers
14k views

Why shouldn't dogs eat chocolate?

I was wondering why dogs shouldn't eat chocolate. Can't dogs just excrete the indigestible component in their droppings? It's common knowledge that dogs shouldn't eat chocolate. What I don't know is ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

What is the best solvent for Mutagen X?

Many solvents can be used for mutagen X (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-one), however, long-term stability is not specified. Which would be the best solvent for long-term storage? ...
10
votes
1answer
772 views

How does methamphetamine (meth) damage neurons?

Meth is considered to be neurotoxic by forming reactive oxygen species and oxidizing the neurons. But unlike dopamine, which, by the way, is neurotoxic due to ROS induced dopaminergic stress, meth ...
1
vote
1answer
551 views

Are there venomous plants?

There certainly are poisonous plants, but I was wondering, whether there are venomous specimen, too? First, I thought the stinging nettle could be one such. After all, it's common knowledge it "...
7
votes
2answers
511 views

Identifying three species of Datura

I have found a large, wild patch, some 200m long, of mainly Datura Stramonium, in our street. I have always been keenly interested and well read on the shamanic, and - very rare - medicinal uses of ...
5
votes
1answer
259 views

Is chocolate poisonous?

I have heard that chilli peppers and coffee evolved to contain toxic chemicals which help to protect them from predators. And recently I learned that star anise, liquorice and aniseed are not ...
3
votes
1answer
138 views

Molds associated with Aflatoxin?

I've been reading how some molds may be carcinogenic. In particular, molds associated with the fungus metabolite, Aflatoxin. Are the types of mold that produce this toxin, present in buildings/...
0
votes
0answers
210 views

Does Methanol cause similar intoxication as Ethanol?

Take two average healthy adult males weighing 80 kg. Neither has, ahem, developed their alcohol tolerance to any significant degree. One imbibes 1 shot, 40 ml of 40% Methanol, and another 40 ml of 40%...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

How can fennec foxes eat scorpions?

I just watched a video of a small desert fox (fennec) that toys and eats a scorpion. Although I am unsure of the exact type of scorpion, it is apparently quite able to sting. Another online instance ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

What percentage of human excrement is toxic if ingested?

I have been considering food production, waste management and 3D food printing, particularly during space exploration. This led me to wonder if human excrement could be processed into raw materials ...
4
votes
1answer
709 views

How is phenol antiseptic?

What makes phenol an antiseptic, is it because of its acidity which may increase the proton concentration at cell membrane? I am unable to figure out the exact mechanism.
8
votes
1answer
15k views

Rust on kettle dangerous to consume?

I recently traveled to Japan, where I picked up a cast-iron kettle known as a tetsubin. When I opened it up, I found that the inside was heavily rusted. Rust is a result of various combinations of $\...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

Why is the manchineel tree so poisonous?

The machineel tree is incredibly toxic to humans. What advantage could Hippomane mancinella have for being so poisonous? It's name even apparently translates to “little apple that makes horses mad”. ...
5
votes
1answer
176 views

Is there a biological explanation for perceived deeper cognition whilst on cannabis?

Cannabis has been associated with literature, arts, and culture for centuries. There are a few features of the drugs affect on the human mind that account for this, however it remains illegal in most ...
3
votes
1answer
235 views

how to quantify toxicity

When going through this link, Table 1, what are the numbers mentioned there? How is one quantifying toxicity?
9
votes
2answers
813 views

Are all quadrupeds edible? [closed]

I wonder if all quadrupeds (or, mammals, at least), are edible? From what I have collected, even down to fish, everything is edible apart from being sick or infected, and, apart from some glands ...
7
votes
1answer
107 views

Does copper exacerbate wounds?

There is a three edged stiletto (weapon, not shoe) with a triangular cross-section that is often touted as being "extra dangerous" because of the triangular puncture it makes, and its copper ...
2
votes
0answers
62 views

Toxicity of Zinc to fungi [closed]

I would like to know what are the mechanisms and overall effects of Zinc on fungi. I know that Candida albicans is susceptible to Zinc deprivation and Zinc-infused paint is also used to repel mold.
7
votes
1answer
3k views

What will happen when humans are injected with plant growth hormones

Will plant growth hormones (PGHs), (let us consider auxins for example) poison our body or not? I do realise that when you eat a shoot, auxins get digested and are less likely to be poisonous but when ...
1
vote
1answer
952 views

Can soap kill cockroaches and/or ants? If so, how? [duplicate]

Is it possible to use dishwashing soap as an alternative insecticide? How would that and what are the components of the dishwashing soap that would kill the insect?
1
vote
1answer
264 views

How does cytochrome c oxidase inhibition cause cell death?

I realise the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase prevents the release of H+ ions into the intermembrane space, and that the ion gradient is required for ATP synthase action. However, I'm not sure how ...
2
votes
1answer
524 views

Why does heating kidney beans at a low temperature potentiate the toxicity of phytohaemagglutinin?

I recently found out that red kidney beans contain a relatively high amount of the toxic lectin, phytohaemagglutinin. An article on phytohaemagglutinin on the FDA website states: Several outbreaks ...
2
votes
1answer
186 views

Why do provitamins-A do not cause Vitamin-A toxicity?

Why do beta-carotene and other provitamins like alpha-carotene not cause vitamin-A toxicity but rather carotenosis (Orange skin) whereas retinal, retinol, and retinoic acid cause vitamin A toxicity ...
2
votes
0answers
104 views

Nail polish toxicity studies?

Are there any well-founded studies that authoritatively demonstrate negative effects from the use of nail polish, particularly in children? I've been brought into the fray of a couple of folks who ...
0
votes
3answers
3k views

Why are lipid-soluble substances harder to excrete?

I understand why water-soluble substances can be excreted. However, why are they easier to excrete than lipid-soluble substances? Why can’t lipid-soluble substance be excreted just as easily in the ...
3
votes
1answer
307 views

Needle-like crystals observed in wild-grape wine under microscope. Potentially harmful?

I recently crushed and strained about thirty pounds of wild grapes to ferment into wine. About a month in, I did a visual inspection of the wine under microscope to try and identify some yeast and ...
14
votes
1answer
4k views

Why does black and yellow indicate danger?

It is a well-known fact that combination of black and yellow indicates danger or poisonousness. In western society it seems obvious this comes from bees and wasps, but it seems like many tropical ...