Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

The process that produces a complementary strand of RNA from a section of DNA or (rarely) other RNA.

-1
votes
0answers
16 views

What is the correct answer for this question? [on hold]

the answer was given as optionb.if it is true what could be the explaining?
2
votes
2answers
120 views

What makes/breaks the hydrogen bonds between DNA and RNA during transcription?

So I know that RNA polymerase catalyzes the phosphodiester bonds that hold the sugar backbones of a growing mRNA molecule together during transcription. However, I'm less sure about the hydrogen bonds ...
-1
votes
1answer
24 views

Control of gene expression

Eukaryotes have many genes, so how does RNA polymerase recognize a gene needed to be transcripted?
-1
votes
1answer
36 views

Are there any particular chemicals that initiate either DNA replication or Transcription ? [closed]

When does the nucleus of a cell "know" when to bind DNA nucleotides ( for Replication ) or RNA nucleotides ( for Transcription ). From what i read, they're both structurally different and free ...
4
votes
5answers
128 views

Why analyse transcriptome instead of proteome?

Analysing the transcriptome (RNA-Seq, microarrays, qPCR etc) is probably the most widely used technology to assess gene expression and dynamic cellular processes. The results are then extrapolated (...
4
votes
2answers
144 views

How does transcription end?

In rho-dependent termination in prokaryotes, how does RNA polymerase “know” that it has reached the end of a gene and that it has to stop so that the rho-factor can bind mRNA’s rut site? Is there a ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Functional Difference between the Distal Promoter and Enhancer Region

According to the Wikipedia article on eukaryotic promoter regions, the distal promoter is: Anything further upstream (but not an enhancer or other regulatory region whose influence is positional/...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Sequence between PolyA signal and PolyA tail

Between the polyadenylation (PolyA) signal (AAUAAA in humans) and the start of the polyA tail, there is a short sequence of about 10~20 (G/U rich) bases, is there a special term for it? Image credit: ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Difference between TRN and GRN

I am little bit confused about what is the difference between Transcriptional Regulatory Networks (TRNs) vs Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs). As far as know, both involve interactions of transcription ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How are siRNAs introduced to cells for RNAi experiments?

Specifically, can somebody explain how in-vitro transcription can synthesize siRNAs to conduct RNAi? I have been reading a number of research papers that discuss how to use siRNA and shRNA to conduct ...
1
vote
1answer
562 views

RNA polymerase and DNA helicase

Is DNA helicase or RNA polymerase responsible for breaking the hydrogen bond between the 2 strands during transcription for eukaryotic cells? My textbook (WJEC Biology for AS level) says it is DNA ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

The role of GC content in promoting or hindering transcription

This is quite a specific question, and I'm hoping someone might be able to assist in a literature hunt I've been engaged in for ages. I study some long bacterial operons, and have noticed that the GC%...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

What is meant by Gene Expression Level?

I am new to BioInformatics, I want to know what is gene expression level and how it is determined.. Anyone who can answer this silly question.
1
vote
1answer
43 views

How does cell detect if a RNA polymerase II is stalled during transcription and in turn deploy the proper transcription-coupled repair factors?

When a segment of the template strand of DNA is damaged due to factors such as UV radiation, a lesion is created that would effectively block the passage of RNA polymerase II during transcription. ...
5
votes
1answer
46 views

How do cells determine RNA types?

I was reading about the different types of RNA polymerases, and I am confused as to how a cell determines which type of RNA it is transcribing. According to this nature article: RNA pol I ...
2
votes
2answers
97 views

Does the complimentary base pairing of rRNA with itself play a role in its transcription?

I have read that the termination of the transcription of mRNA involves a termination sequence in the form of a stem loop. As the structure of ribosomal RNA involves extensive internal base pairing, I ...
4
votes
2answers
113 views

How do cells relocate transmembrane proteins from one side of the cell to the other? Is it possible?

Is there a process by which cells can relocate proteins residing on the cell membrane in areas of low demand to that of a high demand location somewhere else in on the cell? What's that process called?...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Why aren't 'exons' named 'introns'?

Why are introns called 'introns' when they are the actual ones who are getting spliced out from the pre-mRNA. Shouldn't exons be named introns as they are the ones that are 'in' and are not 'exiting'? ...
0
votes
1answer
131 views

Questions about RNA Polymerase

I'm confused about the terminology and directions described in processing DNA to proteins in this paragraph. RNA polymerase reads a DNA template in the 3’ to 5’ direction to synthesize RNA in the ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

Terminology of the sequences of promoters in relation to DNA strands

I'm studying molecular biology and I'm trying to understand an experiment which shows the importance of promoters in the relative transcription level (RT). The image below comes from Rolf Knippers' ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Are microRNAs transcribed from the same DNA strand as their parent messenger RNAs?

I am new to micro RNAs. I have been trying to find the answer to the question if microRNAs are transcribed from the same DNA strand as the messenger RNAs encoded by the encompassing gene? From the ...
0
votes
0answers
52 views

Downstream Promoter Element’s Role

The promoters‘ role is to bind polymerase to get started transcription. And in fact: by Wikipedia “Like all core promoters, the DPE plays an important role in the initiation of gene transcription by ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

DNA methylation in different positions

I'm trying to understand how does DNA methylation and histone methylation status of promoters differs given their position in a gene? Does position affect whether they are repressive or activating?
1
vote
0answers
22 views

response elements in transcription regulation

I'm studying eukaryotic gene regulation and I want to know whether there are some instances where transcription factors don't need to bind to response elements to initiate transcription. RNA ...
0
votes
0answers
246 views

What are the causes of abortive initiation?

I was reading more about DNA transcription, and it mentioned abortive initiation. The article gave no explanation as to why the phenomenon occurs. The only explanation I can think of is that it is ...
3
votes
0answers
44 views

What is the reason for occurence of introns in eukaryotic mRNA? [duplicate]

After transcription of the Template strand of DNA, in prokaryotes, the translation process begins immediately. But in eukaryotes the mRNA transcript has both non coding (introns) as well as coding (...
3
votes
2answers
74 views

Do all RNA polymerase in Eukaryotes share the same transcription factors?

I know that TFII proteins bind to cis elements in DNA and help initiate transcription for RNA polymerase II. But do RNA polymerase I and III also use these proteins when transcribing genes? Also, do ...
0
votes
1answer
257 views

What is the meaning of the word 'bin' in the context of RNA-Seq?

I have a question from a book about RNA-Seq. I would like to know the meaning of the word "bin" in the below cited paragraph: RseQC has several nice features not found in the other programs: (a) ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Is the transcription starting site located before or after the promoter?

It's maybe a stupid question, but I really want to know the answer. The definition of Promoter (From Wikipedia): In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Are RNA transcripts always synthesised from the same DNA strand? [duplicate]

The DNA is read 3'->5' (and RNA synthesized 5'->3'). But due to the DNA strands having to be complementary, it seems to me that the origin can only appear on the correct side of the ORF on one of the ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Sense of rotation of DNA motors [closed]

DNA motor will rotate during transcription instead of reciprocal. What others will rotate? Does it rotate in a fixed sense? Why do they rotate?
9
votes
2answers
926 views

When does histone synthesis occur in relation to DNA replication?

Do histones have to be synthesized before DNA is replicated to allow the DNA to coil around histones?
13
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is thymine not incorporated into mRNA?

I am aware that in transcription uracil bonds to adenine and not thymine. But what is it that actually prevents thymine from bonding to adenine in transcription, that is not present in replication?
0
votes
0answers
49 views

How are the coding and noncoding strands of DNA differentiated? [duplicate]

I know that DNA is made up of two complimentary strands, and that the one known as the coding strand contains the actual information used to make proteins. I also know that the noncoding strand is the ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Confusion about the role of capping and polyadenylation in nuclear transport

Before termination stage of transcription a GMP cap is added to the 5' end and poly-A tail to 3' end of mRNA. The link(http://sciencing.com/role-rna-polyadenylation-5434666.html) says: The poly(A) ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Modifications of free nucleotides

We know that RNA can get modified post transcriptionally (RNA modification). So when the RNA is degraded, is it possible for such modifications to still be present on the individual nucleotides -- ...
2
votes
2answers
79 views

How much tissue is required to do RNA-seq analysis on a single organism?

How much tissue would be required to do RNA-seq analysis on a single organism? More specifically, if a person wanted an RNA-seq analysis of expression for a single organ, how much tissue would they ...
2
votes
2answers
244 views

Is “TATA signal” synonymous with “TATA box”?

In the text I'm translating I have a diagram of an expression vector. It has a lot of marks, and one says "TATA signal". I googled and found the expression "TATA box". Are these expressions fully ...
1
vote
1answer
591 views

Hedgehog AP Bio question

Could someone please explain this AP Biology question? I know the answer is C but I do not understand why. Doesn't Smo prevent gene transcription? If you "block its activity" then wouldn't it cause ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

Division of proteins

This textbook states Proteins determined by a single gene may divide to form different proteins with various physiological actions. First how do proteins divide? Second if it's just fragmentation ...
7
votes
1answer
406 views

DNA & mRNA During Transcription

Just a simple, quick question: how are the mRNA and the template strand of the DNA structured during transcription? I've seen models and videos of them when they're both flat/straight (is that just ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Is sigma factor a transcription factor?

After I googled 'sigma TF' I stumbled upon two papers(only). From a paper: Sigma factors (sigmas) are bacterial transcription factors that bind core RNA polymerase (RNAP) and direct transcription ...
0
votes
0answers
116 views

What is regulatory promoter?

I came across this term in University question paper. What is the difference between core promoter and regulatory promoter? I have googled (Web, Scholar and Books) it but couldn't find any ...
1
vote
0answers
372 views

Usage of the terms: Enhancer, Upstream activating sequence and Downstream activating sequence

From wikipedia An upstream activating sequence or upstream activation sequence (UAS) is a cis-acting regulatory sequence. It is distinct from the promoter and increases the expression of a ...
2
votes
2answers
885 views

On which DNA strand is TATA box present?

My book (Snustard and Simmons) mentions that TATA box is present on the non-coding DNA strand but that was for the promoter of mouse thymidine kinase gene. I have tried to find out more information ...
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Transcription by RNA polymerase in absence of inducer and activator

Does the presence of activator(CAP-cAMP complex) and inducer(lactose) only increase the likelihood that a particular gene(here operon) gets transcribed, i.e increases the rate of transcription of that ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

What does it mean to protect RNA polymerase?

From this paper However, based on the strong interaction between NusA and RNAP, we propose that the chaperone activity of NusA could provide more direct and concentrated protection for RNAP under ...
3
votes
2answers
289 views

How does rho-dependent termination occur?

Rho-dependent termination is not fully understood but there’s a brief description in almost every concerned book about it. In Snustard and Instant notes-Molecular Biology it is written that, the rho ...
-1
votes
1answer
77 views

Why does RNA synthesis in E.coli begin with a Purine?

From Berg's Biochemistry: Most newly synthesized RNA chains carry a highly distinctive tag on the 5′ end: the first base at that end is either pppG or pppA. Is there a reason why the synthesis ...
-1
votes
1answer
488 views

Mechanism of RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase [closed]

I want to study the mechanism involved in RNA polymerase's catalysis in E.coli. Things like: How does it bind to the promoter? How does it unwind the DNA? How does each component of the enzyme ...