Questions tagged [transcription]

The process that produces a complementary strand of RNA from a section of DNA or (rarely) other RNA.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Can a ribosome attach to a RNA strand that is undergoing elongation by RNA polymerase, and concurrently start protein synthesize?

Is there any known mechanism (provide a concrete example) in which RNA translation can occur at the same time as DNA transcription, concerning a single RNA strand? In other words, can a ribosome ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Control of protein by DNA sequence with respect to RNA polymerase

I want to know how can a particular base sequence like the TATA box in the -10 region of a gene is able to regulate a protein's function like RNA polymerase? What kind of interaction really occurs?Is ...
4
votes
2answers
173 views

How do cells relocate transmembrane proteins from one side of the cell to the other? Is it possible?

Is there a process by which cells can relocate proteins residing on the cell membrane in areas of low demand to that of a high demand location somewhere else in on the cell? What's that process called?...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Why don't all protein sequences taken from DNA get synthesized?

Why don't all protein sequences in DNA get synthesized? The genome, and subsequently extracted proteome, is much larger than the collection of proteins for which there is any other experimental ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

How do eukaryotes terminate transcription? (clarification on Campbell Biology)

I'm having trouble understanding how eukaryotes terminate transcription. Studying Campbell Biology (pg. 342, 10th ed.), I read: In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II transcribes the polyadenylation ...
6
votes
3answers
226 views

How do DNA, enzymes, hormones etc. reach their proper cellular locations?

I was trying to understand DNA transcription from this chapter, and there seems to be no explanation on how exactly the proteins, enzymes and other molecules manage to find each other inside the cell. ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

IL18 transcription factors

Is there any database with description or listing of all interleukin 18 transcription factors? Also, is there any cycle of how transcription of interleukin 18 work? I saw in GeneCards a topic named "...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Production of ATP Synthase [duplicate]

I have been reading about the ubiquitous use of ATP as an energy source in biology. ATP Synthase is a very complicated protein enzyme. My question is, how could this protein have arisen. To form ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

Why are there inverted repeats in response elements?

The following picture shows an inverted repeat sequence in a response element. Response element sequences for glucocorticoids, estrogen, and thyroid hormone show that they all contain inverse repeats. ...
2
votes
2answers
723 views

What makes/breaks the hydrogen bonds between DNA and RNA during transcription?

So I know that RNA polymerase catalyzes the phosphodiester bonds that hold the sugar backbones of a growing mRNA molecule together during transcription. However, I'm less sure about the hydrogen bonds ...
13
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is thymine not incorporated into mRNA?

I am aware that in transcription uracil bonds to adenine and not thymine. But what is it that actually prevents thymine from bonding to adenine in transcription, that is not present in replication?
-1
votes
1answer
33 views

Control of gene expression

Eukaryotes have many genes, so how does RNA polymerase recognize a gene needed to be transcripted?
-1
votes
1answer
52 views

Are there any particular chemicals that initiate either DNA replication or Transcription ? [closed]

When does the nucleus of a cell "know" when to bind DNA nucleotides ( for Replication ) or RNA nucleotides ( for Transcription ). From what i read, they're both structurally different and free ...
4
votes
5answers
397 views

Why analyse transcriptome instead of proteome?

Analysing the transcriptome (RNA-Seq, microarrays, qPCR etc) is probably the most widely used technology to assess gene expression and dynamic cellular processes. The results are then extrapolated (...
2
votes
2answers
283 views

Does the complimentary base pairing of rRNA with itself play a role in its transcription?

I have read that the termination of the transcription of mRNA involves a termination sequence in the form of a stem loop. As the structure of ribosomal RNA involves extensive internal base pairing, I ...
4
votes
2answers
327 views

How does transcription end?

In rho-dependent termination in prokaryotes, how does RNA polymerase “know” that it has reached the end of a gene and that it has to stop so that the rho-factor can bind mRNA’s rut site? Is there a ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

On which DNA strand is TATA box present?

My book (Snustard and Simmons) mentions that TATA box is present on the non-coding DNA strand but that was for the promoter of mouse thymidine kinase gene. I have tried to find out more information ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Functional Difference between the Distal Promoter and Enhancer Region

According to the Wikipedia article on eukaryotic promoter regions, the distal promoter is: Anything further upstream (but not an enhancer or other regulatory region whose influence is positional/...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Sequence between PolyA signal and PolyA tail

Between the polyadenylation (PolyA) signal (AAUAAA in humans) and the start of the polyA tail, there is a short sequence of about 10~20 (G/U rich) bases, is there a special term for it? Image credit: ...
2
votes
1answer
5k views

RNA polymerase and DNA helicase

Is DNA helicase or RNA polymerase responsible for breaking the hydrogen bond between the 2 strands during transcription for eukaryotic cells? My textbook (WJEC Biology for AS level) says it is DNA ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

The role of GC content in promoting or hindering transcription

This is quite a specific question, and I'm hoping someone might be able to assist in a literature hunt I've been engaged in for ages. I study some long bacterial operons, and have noticed that the GC%...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

What is meant by Gene Expression Level?

I am new to BioInformatics, I want to know what is gene expression level and how it is determined.. Anyone who can answer this silly question.
1
vote
1answer
52 views

How does cell detect if a RNA polymerase II is stalled during transcription and in turn deploy the proper transcription-coupled repair factors?

When a segment of the template strand of DNA is damaged due to factors such as UV radiation, a lesion is created that would effectively block the passage of RNA polymerase II during transcription. ...
5
votes
1answer
68 views

How do cells determine RNA types?

I was reading about the different types of RNA polymerases, and I am confused as to how a cell determines which type of RNA it is transcribing. According to this nature article: RNA pol I ...
1
vote
3answers
5k views

difference between transcriptional activator and general transcription factors?

What is the difference between transcriptional activator and general transcription factors? Are they same or different, and do the transcriptional activators first attract general transcription ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

Why aren't 'exons' named 'introns'?

Why are introns called 'introns' when they are the actual ones who are getting spliced out from the pre-mRNA. Shouldn't exons be named introns as they are the ones that are 'in' and are not 'exiting'? ...
0
votes
1answer
221 views

Questions about RNA Polymerase

I'm confused about the terminology and directions described in processing DNA to proteins in this paragraph. RNA polymerase reads a DNA template in the 3’ to 5’ direction to synthesize RNA in the ...
3
votes
1answer
543 views

Terminology of the sequences of promoters in relation to DNA strands

I'm studying molecular biology and I'm trying to understand an experiment which shows the importance of promoters in the relative transcription level (RT). The image below comes from Rolf Knippers' ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

How do DNA-binding proteins recognize the correct DNA base pairs?

My professor posed this question to the class today - "How do DNA binding proteins specifically bind to base pairs?" He alluded to the different arrangements of hydrogen-bond donor and acceptors in A-...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Are microRNAs transcribed from the same DNA strand as their parent messenger RNAs?

I am new to micro RNAs. I have been trying to find the answer to the question if microRNAs are transcribed from the same DNA strand as the messenger RNAs encoded by the encompassing gene? From the ...
3
votes
2answers
352 views

How does alternative splicing work?

I am trying to find out what controls what exons are spliced out, and I keep coming across the term cis regulator, but I cannot seem to find a clear explanation of what happens... Thank you in ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

DNA methylation in different positions

I'm trying to understand how does DNA methylation and histone methylation status of promoters differs given their position in a gene? Does position affect whether they are repressive or activating?
27
votes
2answers
6k views

How does RNA transcription determine which half of the DNA to use?

I feel that I might have a complete misunderstanding here. If DNA has two strands, how does the machinery of RNA transcription determine which one to transcribe?
3
votes
2answers
1k views

DNA methylation on the forward vs reverse strand?

I'm wondering if there are meant to be differences in DNA methylation between the forward and the reverse strand of the gene? I'm wondering because in primer design for bisulfite pyrosequencing one ...
13
votes
2answers
3k views

Why and how is DNA synthesis so much faster then RNA synthesis in bacteria?

DNA synthesis in E. coli is 20x faster than RNA synthesis at 1000nt/s vs 50nt/s. (Mirkin'05) I find that perplexing since DNA polymerization has better proofreading than the RNA variety, which ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

response elements in transcription regulation

I'm studying eukaryotic gene regulation and I want to know whether there are some instances where transcription factors don't need to bind to response elements to initiate transcription. RNA ...
0
votes
0answers
362 views

What are the causes of abortive initiation?

I was reading more about DNA transcription, and it mentioned abortive initiation. The article gave no explanation as to why the phenomenon occurs. The only explanation I can think of is that it is ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

When does histone synthesis occur in relation to DNA replication?

Do histones have to be synthesized before DNA is replicated to allow the DNA to coil around histones?
3
votes
0answers
54 views

What is the reason for occurence of introns in eukaryotic mRNA? [duplicate]

After transcription of the Template strand of DNA, in prokaryotes, the translation process begins immediately. But in eukaryotes the mRNA transcript has both non coding (introns) as well as coding (...
3
votes
2answers
98 views

Do all RNA polymerase in Eukaryotes share the same transcription factors?

I know that TFII proteins bind to cis elements in DNA and help initiate transcription for RNA polymerase II. But do RNA polymerase I and III also use these proteins when transcribing genes? Also, do ...
0
votes
1answer
414 views

What is the meaning of the word 'bin' in the context of RNA-Seq?

I have a question from a book about RNA-Seq. I would like to know the meaning of the word "bin" in the below cited paragraph: RseQC has several nice features not found in the other programs: (a) ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

Is the transcription starting site located before or after the promoter?

It's maybe a stupid question, but I really want to know the answer. The definition of Promoter (From Wikipedia): In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Are RNA transcripts always synthesised from the same DNA strand? [duplicate]

The DNA is read 3'->5' (and RNA synthesized 5'->3'). But due to the DNA strands having to be complementary, it seems to me that the origin can only appear on the correct side of the ORF on one of the ...
1
vote
1answer
837 views

Hedgehog AP Bio question

Could someone please explain this AP Biology question? I know the answer is C but I do not understand why. Doesn't Smo prevent gene transcription? If you "block its activity" then wouldn't it cause ...
2
votes
0answers
22 views

Sense of rotation of DNA motors [closed]

DNA motor will rotate during transcription instead of reciprocal. What others will rotate? Does it rotate in a fixed sense? Why do they rotate?
2
votes
1answer
84 views

Finding Regulatory Elements: How Have People Been Doing This?

First up, I am NOT asking about how to search for and match regulatory elements using a database. I'm asking about how people found what to search for and match in a genome, how they built those ...
2
votes
2answers
98 views

How much tissue is required to do RNA-seq analysis on a single organism?

How much tissue would be required to do RNA-seq analysis on a single organism? More specifically, if a person wanted an RNA-seq analysis of expression for a single organ, how much tissue would they ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

Confusion about the role of capping and polyadenylation in nuclear transport

Before termination stage of transcription a GMP cap is added to the 5' end and poly-A tail to 3' end of mRNA. The link(http://sciencing.com/role-rna-polyadenylation-5434666.html) says: The poly(A) ...
2
votes
2answers
499 views

How does rho-dependent termination occur?

Rho-dependent termination is not fully understood but there’s a brief description in almost every concerned book about it. In Snustard and Instant notes-Molecular Biology it is written that, the rho ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

How do chromosome pairs get “paired up” for protein synthesis?

If my understanding is correct, during interphase a normal human cell will have 46 chromosomes scattered about in the cell nucleus. These chromosomes can be thought of as pairs: there are two copies ...