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Questions tagged [translation]

Translation is the process of protein synthesis. The information encoded in the mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence through the joint activity of tRNAs and ribosomes.

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Production of ATP Synthase [duplicate]

I have been reading about the ubiquitous use of ATP as an energy source in biology. ATP Synthase is a very complicated protein enzyme. My question is, how could this protein have arisen. To form ...
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Do ribosomes read mRNA?

So I understand that tRNA bonds to a codon (with an anticodon) in the translation process. I read in my biology textbook that the ribosomes "read" the mRNA strand. Why do the ribosomes need to read ...
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Are there E-sites on eukaryotic ribosomes?

One of my professors mentioned something about the e-site (the exit site for the t-RNA) on a eukaryotic ribosome. There was a student in the class who objected, saying that there is no e-site on ...
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About Frameshift Mutation

I am coding a DNA translater, based on the homosapiens genome, & i knowing that the data provided from NCBI is surely not 100% precise (there may be some base changes / removes etc...) , & i ...
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How to interpret the relationships of PTMs from BioGRID's data

On BioGRID Database, PTMREL is a file that describes relationships of the PTMs (Post Translation Modification) tabulated in a PTMTAB file. I have several issues with this file. Foremost, I am not ...
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Can a frameshift mutation into the open reading frame not affect the stop codon?

I'm having trouble understanding a practice test question that is as follows: https://imgur.com/a/AeXPK#yXx9W8G So they insert a nucleotide to the mRNA of an open reading frame (so it starts with ...
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Why do bacteria use formylated methionine in the initiator tRNA, while eukaryotes do not?

Could anyone suggest an explanation for the evolution of this trait in bacteria? Does it confer any advantage? It is also exploited by immunity receptors of some eukaryotes for the recognition of ...
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Is this sentence about RER correct on Wikipedia?

While studying about Endoplasmic Reticulum on Wikipedia, I came across this sentence A ribosome only binds to the RER once a specific protein-nucleic acid complex forms in the cytosol. This special ...
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Can ribosomes read ssDNA?

My question is whether translation can be done, either naturally or artificially, through a ribosome reading (single-stranded) DNA directly. If not, I would like to know what allows ssRNA to be ...
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Insertion of an additional base at start codon make the protein still functional?

So the question is if: a deletion of a codon for the amino acid lysine (AAG) is more or less likely to cause nonfunctionality of the protein than: Insertion of an additional base (C) within the ...
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Eukaryotic equivalent of bacterial tmRNA

According to this Wikipedia article, tmRNA is only found in bacteria, with its purpose being to “rescue stalled ribosomes”. This brings me to the question of is there a eukaryotic equivalent of this ...
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Do tRNAs that recognize multiple codons have any preference for one over another?

What are the effects of the different binding strength/affinity between the synonymous codons corresponding to a single tRNA ?
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How are mitochondrial ATT (Ile) start codons translated as Methionine?

In some vertebrate species, some mtDNA start codon sequences are ATT but these are translated as Methionine rather than Isoleucine. What is the mechanism for this non-standard translation? The main ...
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Why doesn’t a basic side chain (R group) of an amino acid form a peptide bond in protein biosynthesis? [closed]

Why doesn’t a basic side chain (R group) of an amino acid form a peptide bond in protein biosynthesis? Consider lysine, for example, why can’t its side-chain amino group, –(CH2)4–NH2, form a peptide ...
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Why is translation so much faster in prokaryotes than eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes perform transcription and translation much faster than eukaryotes. If memory serves, a single 70S prokaryotic ribosome can incorporate around 20 amino acids per second, whereas the 80S ...
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How is mRNA directed out of the nucleus to its ultimate cytoplasmic location?

In the process of translation, I learnt that following formation the mRNA must exit the nucleus through a nuclear pore and attach to a ribosome. My question is how does mRNA navigate itself out of ...
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Translation in prokaryotic cells

For translation to occur in the mRNAs of prokaryotic cells, the presence of ribosome binding sites (RBS) for each Open Reading Frame (ORFs) is required. How does translation occur in prokaryotic cells ...
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Why Differential equation is not a good way to model chemical reaction networks [closed]

I'm a computer scientist and mostly code and have worked with Boolean models of cell level molecule transfer. Now i'm reading about the Biological pathways and modelling chemical reaction networks / ...
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History of ideas about the form of the genetic code

In preparing a lecture on mRNA translation and the genetic code, I remembered a talk given at a symposium where they mentioned the origin of the code and how, before the code was established, various ...
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Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as “enzymatic lysates”?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...
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Does translation have a way of preventing mismatching between mRNA codons and tRNA anti-codons?

What happens in translation if a tRNA with an inappropriate (non-cognate) anti-codon binds to the A-site of the ribosome carrying mRNA? For example, what would happen if an ile tRNA with the anti-...
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How does aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognize different tRNAs?

There are about 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid. Each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase has a binding site that recognizes a specific amino acid, and other binding areas that recognize ...
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How do aminoacyl-tRNA synthases distinguish between similar amino acids?

How do aminoacyl tRNA synthases recognize the right amino acid for their tRNA? What is the structural reason behind the selective recognition? I have difficulty in seeing how, for example, leucine and ...
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Why is an initiator tRNA required, distinct from the methionine tRNA used in elongation?

I'm confused by why there is a need for different tRNA-methionine complexes for translational initiation and elongation. This paper mentions that It is important that each type of methionyl tRNA ...
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Consensus sequence for selection of initiation codon in eukaryotes

In bacteria the AUG (or other) codon at which translation of mRNA is initiated is preceded at a precise distance by a sequence known as the Shine and Dalgarno sequence, to which the 30S subunit ...
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Do all proteins start with methionine?

Start codon AUG also codes for methionine and without start codon translation does not happen. And even the ambiguous codon GUG codes for methionine when it is first. So does this mean that all ...
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What is the Shine–Dalgarno sequence?

I am trying to understand the Shine–Dalgarno sequence. I currently know it is related to ribosomal binding sites, it is only found in prokaryote cells and it is in front of the initial codon. Also, ...
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Is the start codon regarded as part of the UTR (untranslated region)?

The Wikipedia entry for Gene contains the statement: The transcribed pre-mRNA contains untranslated regions at both ends which contain a ribosome binding site, terminator and start and stop codons. ...
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How does the tRNA recognise the first methionine during translation?

The process of translation starts with the initiator tRNA identifying the codon coding for methionine (AUG). However my textbook also says that there are various untranslated regions present on the ...
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Are there any examples in nature of two polypeptides joining into a single, continuous, third polypeptide?

Are there any examples in nature of two polypeptides join into a single, continuous, third polypeptide like this: (Where all the indicated amino and carboxyl groups are on the main polypeptide ...
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Translation of Poly-U in the Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment

In the Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment the artificial mRNA, polyU, was translated into polyphenylalanine in a cell-free system, establishing that UUU was the codon for Phe. How did this work as the ...
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Division of proteins

This textbook states Proteins determined by a single gene may divide to form different proteins with various physiological actions. First how do proteins divide? Second if it's just fragmentation ...
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Can mRNA be used by ribosomes more than once?

Can mRNA be used by ribosomes more than once? I mean can mRNA be translated more than one time? If not what will happen to it after translation?
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“producer cell line” vs. “host cell line” in biopharmacology

I'm translating a text that describes the creation and testing of a cell line that produces a drug (a protein) and also procedures for creation and maintenance of cell banks. Example sentence: ...
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Transport of newly synthesized proteins to cellular organelles

In the nucleus the DNA is transcribed and processed to mRNA which is translated into proteins in the cytoplasm. What happens between the time a protein is made and that when it reaches the cellular ...
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Codon tables and the wobble hypothesis

In E. coli, there are only 47 different tRNAs but 61 potential anticodons. This is because, from what I understand, the third base of the anticodon can pair by wobble rules. However, it is known that ...
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Relationship between DNA strands and mRNA

Does the sense strand or antisense strand of DNA code for the polypeptide product? I'm confused because I know the antisense strand is the template for mRNA but it has anti codons so I do not know how ...
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Why does azithromycin not affect human mitochondria?

Drugs like tetracyclines, macrolides and aminoglycosides bind to prokaryotic ribosomes. It is interesting that our body too having mitochondria, which have prokaryotic ribosomes, there is little(?) ...
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How is oxytocin produced?

Is oxytocin (or other peptide hormones) produced from a gene through translation, or is it made some other way?
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Can a single strand of mRNA form different polypeptide chains?

My book has a statement: A single strand of mRNA is capable of forming a number of different polypeptide chains. In my opinion this statement is wrong because a single strand of mRNA will have same ...
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Multiple start and stop codons in mRNA and pre-mRNA [duplicate]

I have a main question that will lead to further questions depending upon the answer. In the process of transcription, will there be multiple start and stop codons in one sequence of pre-mRNA? If ...
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Do two compatible tRNA codons bond together?

Can two tRNA with complementary anti-codons link together? For instance UUU with AAA. If not, why not?
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Deducing amino acid sequence from a DNA sequence

The suggested answer to the question is the following: "M L S C D K S D Stop". I do not understand how they get that result. The question is as follows: An RNA polymerase transcribes the following ...
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Are there proteins that stabilize mRNA:RNA polymerase or mRNA:ribosome complex?

Actinomycetes are known for their ability to produce rich variety of natural products, and particularly, polyketides. Many of the genes that encode the biosynthetic pathways are pretty big, as they ...
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Relationship of the DNA of a eukaryotic gene to the 5'-UTR of its mRNA

In eukaryote pre-mRNA I am having a little trouble grasping exactly what the 5 prime untranslated region is defined as. It seems that it could be defined as the difference in pre-mRNA between the ...
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Identification of proteins in this animation of a ribosome translating mRNA

This gif is from this page After each aminoacyl-tRNA enters the ribosome, one blue thing comes and pushes the whole tRNAs whats that? I couldn't find it anywhere.(maybe some elongation factor?) Also ...
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HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
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How much nucleoside triphosphate is required to form one peptide bond during protein synthesis?

I'm trying to find out how many molecules of nucleoside triphosphates (ATP, GTP, UTP and/or CTP) it takes to release enough energy to link two amino acid monomers together with a peptide bond, ...
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Can a hairpin (stem loop) within a transcript stall a eukaryotic ribosome?

Is their evidence of RNA secondary structure causing a stall in translation within a eukaryotic cell?
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Effect of a doubling of the start codon in a gene

I am learning about frameshift mutations. Frameshifts can occur due to a nucleotide deletion. Suppose that due to a frameshift, because of a deletion somewhere upstream from the original start codon, ...