Questions tagged [translation]

Translation is the process of protein synthesis. The information encoded in the mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence through the joint activity of tRNAs and ribosomes.

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What prevents non-aminoacylated tRNA from binding to mRNA on the ribosome and disrupting protein synthesis?

Specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyse a reaction in which a transfer RNA molecule with a given anticodon is covalently attached to its cognate amino acid (aminoacylated). What factors favor the ...
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What happens to mRNA after translation?

During translation, a messenger RNA strand is "read" by a ribosome to produce a protein. In this picture the mRNA is coming from the bottom and is output to the left. The created protein is ...
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Can different proteins be produced during translation of a single mRNA in eukaryotes?

Is there a translational mechanism that eukaryotes can use to produce different proteins from a single transcribed mRNA?
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RNA or ribosome, which one moves during translation?

During translation ribosomes decode the genetic information present in the mRNA and protein synthesis takes place. During this process which of those two does move, the ribosome or the mRNA?
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why does translation occur more frequently than transcription?

In our textbook it says that translation occurs more in a cell than transcription but I couldn't find anything that explains why it happens
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Can mRNA be used by ribosomes more than once?

Can mRNA be used by ribosomes more than once? I mean can mRNA be translated more than one time? If not what will happen to it after translation?
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How to memorize Transcription and Translation? [closed]

I often get confused between transcription and translation. Is there any way to memorize them easily like a mnemonic??
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Do transcription factors need to undergo extensive post-translational modification?

Some proteins need additional processing to become fully functional, for example NiFe-hydrogenases need to be cleaved by endopeptidases for some of their subunits to be active. Is it known whether ...
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How does the phosphorylation state of 4E-BPs affect translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcripts?

A 2020 review paper about mTOR (ref. 1) says: because biomass accumulation demands vast reserves of energetic currency, mTORC1 enhances translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcripts ...
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Does an N1-methyl-pseudouridine substitution in the first codon position (in mRNA) result in a different amino acid?

Because of the possibility of ‘wobble’ in the base-pair made between the third (5’) position of the anticodon and the third (3’) base of the the mRNA codon , single tRNAs with appropriate bases in ...
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Why does miRNA not get translated?

If miRNA and mRNA are made of the same nucleotides, then why are miRNA not translated like mRNA? Is it due to miRNA lack of start codon? Or lack of promoters? Has it got anything to do with RISC?
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How does aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognize different tRNAs?

There are about 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid. Each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase has a binding site that recognizes a specific amino acid, and other binding areas that recognize ...
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Why are there two replicase proteins translated from tobacco mosaic virus RNA?

I’m trying to understand how TMV is expressed and have read (here) that there is a large and small form of the RNA-dependent RNA replicase. These are translated from the same region of the genome, the ...
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How can a good SD / Kozak sequence enhance translation efficiency?

In prokaryotes, if there is an mRNA with a good (almost the consensus sequence) Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, ribosome proteins will bind to it. In eukaryotes, ribosome binds to the 5' cap, then start ...
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dsDNA translation

Since DNA is double stranded and each strand is complementary to the other, the codons on each strand will come out to be different after transcription(depending on the reading frame). Does this mean "...
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How do mRNAs find ribosomes?

After mRNA is released from the nucleus, the next process is its translation by ribosomes. By what physical, chemical or biochemical process does the mRNA reach the ribosome in the cytoplasm?
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How is Open Reading Frame (ORF) chosen?

I understand that AUG is the "start codon", and, because of this, most proteins begin with methionine as their first amino acid. However, this ORF problem on Rosalind.info states that "...
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How do ribosomes interpret stop codons as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine?

How does the protein synthesising machinery determine that UGA and UAG in mRNA should be decoded as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively, in certain circumstances, rather than as stop codons?
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How to determine the most likely reading frame of a DNA sequence?

This question is from a past exam paper for an introductory bioinformatics module. I'm a computer scientist doing biology for the first time. "A short bacterial gene has been sequenced, giving the ...
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1answer
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How to estimate mRNA counts from Relative Promoter Units (RPU) or RNAP per second (PoPS) in E. coli?

I need a rough estimate on how to translate RPU or Polymerases Per Second (PoPS) to mRNA count (or even better protein count) in E. coli. I understand that any number we come up with will be a very ...
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From which end of mRNA does transcription start?

The book "Understanding bioinformatics", says that "RNA polymerase transcribes the anticoding strand in the direction from 3' to 5', so that the mRNA strand is produced from the 5' to the 3' end". ...
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1answer
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What prevents mRNAs that are localized to a specific part of the cell from being translated before they reach their destination?

One of the methods of mRNA localization, for example, is random diffusion of mRNAs where the mRNA binding proteins are localized to a certain part of the cell. However, I was taught that the ribosome ...
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How to find the amino acid in the DNA protein

3' A T A G T A C C G C A T G T A C G G G C G A G A C A T T C G A G C A T T C A T 5' This a Template DNA. How to find the number of amino acids amino acids ...
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The genetic code and the effect of point mutations on proteins

I was asked a question, "Considering degenerate and non ambiguous nature of genetic code, Why is that certain mutations don't disturb the protein synthesis leading to synthesis of functional proteins ...
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The shape of mRNA

I was wondering about the shapes assumed by mRNA. I have read some sources quoting that it is linear (quora, so not very reliable) and also a source that says a hairpin shape is common (nature, so I ...
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1answer
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How does a ribosome gather tRNAs at a fast enough rate for Translation?

There are many animations of the ribosome in action, and all I have seen show the correct tRNA neatly entering the ribosome and its amino acid being added to the growing protein chain. My question is ...
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Is there an Exit site (E-site) on the eukaryotic ribosome?

One of my professors mentioned something about the e-site (the exit site for the t-RNA) on a eukaryotic ribosome. There was a student in the class who objected, saying that there is no e-site on ...
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How does a ribosome move along mRNA?

I've been reading around Wikipedia recently trying to learn more about various biomechanisms. I’m intrigued by ribosomes — with how small they are, they’re basically chemical machines from what I can ...
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Could Wobble Base Pairing ultimately yield an amino acid that was originally uncalled for or not expected?

How does the cell choose which amino acid to attach to tRNA when there is wobble base pairing involved (not the other way around)? Consider the example below. For the purpose of this question I'm ...
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How much nucleoside triphosphate is required to form one peptide bond during protein synthesis?

I'm trying to find out how many molecules of nucleoside triphosphates (ATP, GTP, UTP and/or CTP) it takes to release enough energy to link two amino acid monomers together with a peptide bond, ...
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Are mitochondrial genes decoded in the same way as nuclear genes?

Mammalian mitochondrial genomes contain only 22 tRNA-coding genes, which is an insufficient number to decode mRNAs under the standard wobble rules. How is translation of mitochondrial mRNAs achieved ...
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Does every protein starts with Methionine amino acid [duplicate]

During process of protein synthesis we need AUG Codon to start translation .As we know this codon codes for Methionine amino acid so can we say that every protein starts with Methionine amino acid ?
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Why is AUG the initiation codon?

Is there any reason why AUG is the initiation codon? Can’t translation start with different codons?
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Why did translation develop a specific codon for initiation?

The translation of mRNA is initiated by a specific methionine-accepting tRNA at a specific initiation codon, usually AUG (complementary to the tRNA anticodon). However translation at suitable (albeit ...
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Why are there three stop codons but only one start codon?

I was wondering whether there is any specific reason that there are three stop codons but only one start codon in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoplasmic mRNAs.
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Relationship between the ambiguity (wobble) at codon position 3 in elongation and codon position 1 in initiation

In prokaryotes the usual observed start codon frequency is AUG > GUG > UUG. An explanation for this is that AUG is the most common initiator codon because it forms the most stable interaction with ...
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The GUG start codon in E. coli: identity of initiating tRNA and efficiency of translation

Translation in E. coli is usually initiated at an AUG codon, which encodes the amino acid methionine. In some cases, however, the start codon is GUG, which normally encodes valine. If GUG is used as ...
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How did the genetic code evolve?

The genetic code is redundant, there are 20 amino acids for 64 possible nucleotide combinations (triplet codons). Therefore some amino acid are coded by several different codons. While leucine is ...
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Do ribosomes read mRNA?

So I understand that tRNA bonds to a codon (with an anticodon) in the translation process. I read in my biology textbook that the ribosomes "read" the mRNA strand. Why do the ribosomes need to read ...
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Are codons that map to the same amino acids interchangeable?

From wikipedia, in the section on the RNA codon table, I see a mapping between codons and amino acids. There, Valine is related to GUU, GUA, GUG, GUC. Does it mean in the same context that these ...
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Can ribosomes read ssDNA?

My question is whether translation can be done, either naturally or artificially, through a ribosome reading (single-stranded) DNA directly. If not, I would like to know what allows ssRNA to be ...
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How does translational coupling work in prokaryotes?

Today I heard about a phenomenon called "translational coupling", where the translation of one protein influences the translation of another protein. The messenger RNA levels don't seem influenced. ...
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About Frameshift Mutation

I am coding a DNA translater, based on the homosapiens genome, & i knowing that the data provided from NCBI is surely not 100% precise (there may be some base changes / removes etc...) , & i ...
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Do all proteins start with methionine?

Start codon AUG also codes for methionine and without start codon translation does not happen. And even the ambiguous codon GUG codes for methionine when it is first. So does this mean that all ...
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How to interpret the relationships of PTMs from BioGRID's data

On BioGRID Database, PTMREL is a file that describes relationships of the PTMs (Post Translation Modification) tabulated in a PTMTAB file. I have several issues with this file. Foremost, I am not ...
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Why do bacteria use formylated methionine in the initiator tRNA, while eukaryotes do not?

Could anyone suggest an explanation for the evolution of this trait in bacteria? Does it confer any advantage? It is also exploited by immunity receptors of some eukaryotes for the recognition of ...
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Is this sentence about RER correct on Wikipedia?

While studying about Endoplasmic Reticulum on Wikipedia, I came across this sentence A ribosome only binds to the RER once a specific protein-nucleic acid complex forms in the cytosol. This special ...
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Insertion of an additional base at start codon make the protein still functional?

So the question is if: a deletion of a codon for the amino acid lysine (AAG) is more or less likely to cause nonfunctionality of the protein than: Insertion of an additional base (C) within the ...
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Eukaryotic equivalent of bacterial tmRNA

According to this Wikipedia article, tmRNA is only found in bacteria, with its purpose being to “rescue stalled ribosomes”. This brings me to the question of is there a eukaryotic equivalent of this ...
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Do tRNAs that recognize multiple codons have any preference for one over another?

What are the effects of the different binding strength/affinity between the synonymous codons corresponding to a single tRNA ?