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Questions tagged [translation]

Translation is the process of protein synthesis. The information encoded in the mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence through the joint activity of tRNAs and ribosomes.

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How to interpret the relationships of PTMs from BioGRID's data

On BioGRID Database, PTMREL is a file that describes relationships of the PTMs (Post Translation Modification) tabulated in a PTMTAB file. I have several issues with this file. Foremost, I am not ...
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How does the phosphorylation state of 4E-BPs affect translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcripts?

A 2020 review paper about mTOR (ref. 1) says: because biomass accumulation demands vast reserves of energetic currency, mTORC1 enhances translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcripts ...
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Consensus sequence for selection of initiation codon in eukaryotes

In bacteria the AUG (or other) codon at which translation of mRNA is initiated is preceded at a precise distance by a sequence known as the Shine and Dalgarno sequence, to which the 30S subunit ...
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HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
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If the very first codon of an mRNA strand is a start codon (ie, AUG) does no 5' UTR exist?

Apologies if this is too basic of a question, but from what I've learned all mature mRNA strands have both a 5' and 3' UTR. Normally this is just because the start codon has not appeared yet. However, ...
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Eukaryotic equivalent of bacterial tmRNA

According to this Wikipedia article, tmRNA is only found in bacteria, with its purpose being to “rescue stalled ribosomes”. This brings me to the question of is there a eukaryotic equivalent of this ...
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Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as "enzymatic lysates"?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...
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Speed of cell signal to protein production

How long does a cell take to make a protein from the point of receiving the signal to produce the protein? Does the cell have stores of the protein ready to release or is the protein created in real-...
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Are all proteins translated by the RER ribosomes destined for the Golgi apparatus?

The proteins translated by the free ribosomes can fold in the cytoplasm and never go through the endomembrane system. But when the endomembrane system is described, it is always stated that the ...
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Do transcription factors need to undergo extensive post-translational modification?

Some proteins need additional processing to become fully functional, for example NiFe-hydrogenases need to be cleaved by endopeptidases for some of their subunits to be active. Is it known whether ...
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Could Wobble Base Pairing ultimately yield an amino acid that was originally uncalled for or not expected?

How does the cell choose which amino acid to attach to tRNA when there is wobble base pairing involved (not the other way around)? Consider the example below. For the purpose of this question I'm ...
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