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Questions tagged [vaccination]

The administration of antigenic material to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity to a disease.

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How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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How are Cytotoxic T cells transfered?

We learned that Cytotoxic T cells are MHC dependent, and if CMH matchup doesn't occur between the T cell and the cancer cell for example, the former won't attack the latter. If this is the case then ...
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Where are the statistics for vaccine side effects?

My son told me that that during a discussion at school someone mentioned statistics about side effects of vaccines (I assume that the discussion was about standard vaccines in France). The numbers ...
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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Could a human become infected with rabies in such a way that even prior vaccination wouldn't stop the infection?

Given the highly persistent nature of rabies after entering the brain, I was wondering whether certain ways of exposure to this virus could be risky even for a previously vaccinated individual. I ...
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How similar do proteins have to be to trigger the same immune response?

The title really says it all. How precise or vague is the immunity we get from vaccination or from having encountered a germ before? Is it about protein parts that are recognised if they are ...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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Which vaccines are damaged by freezing? [closed]

I have noticed that many of the freeze-sensitive vaccines are antigen only vaccines, for example Hib, pneumococcus, and tetanus vaccines. Why are these vaccines damaged by freezing? Are inactivated or ...
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What is the effect of non-vaccinated people on vaccinated people?

Many times have I heard that anti-vaccine people are dangerous even to the vaccinated population. Is that true? If so, how can it be? People say that germs will attack them, and soon they would ...
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Maternal immunity without prenatal vaccination?

It is recognized that antibodies from the mother provide a level of protection to infants. This is why mothers are often advised to get vaccinated when they're pregnant. However, does the vaccine have ...
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Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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Which infectious disease would increase global life expectancy the most if eradicated [closed]

In the 1700s it was estimated, by Daniel Bernoulli, that wiping out smallpox would increase global life expectancy by over three years. If we could wipe out one infectious disease today, which would ...
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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Is it possible to vaccinate an adult with whole-cell pertussis vaccine?

Some time ago a "vaccine-resistant" strain of pertussis has been discovered. As I understand, the strain lacks one of the antigens targetted by the acellular vaccines. An obvious remedy is to use ...
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How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
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Can disease resistance from vaccination be inherited?

If a person has taken a vaccine against a particular disease and is resistant to that disease, will his/her children will be resistant to that disease??
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Why is full cell/high antigen dose pertussis vaccine dangerous for adults?

I do remember that I have read (or heard) somewhere that as a human is older, the whole cell vaccine (and high antigen dose one) has more and more adverse effects. As it is consistent with the target ...
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What happened to pertussis incidence in the US between 1955 and 1974 and why?

The Wall Street Journal ran a great collection of infographics in 2015 superimposing the dates on which vaccination was introduced for various childhood diseases on their incidence: http://graphics....
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Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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IgA-s in an immune system vaccined intramuscularly against Hepatisis A

As IgA are immunoglobulins associated with secretion and mucosis membranes, I am interested whether after intramuscular vaccination with Hepatitis A vaccine IgA antibodies will be produced by the ...
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Vaccines against bacterial endotoxins

Today in class, there was a discussion going on about what part of pathogens(which can act as an antigen) can be used to make vaccines. There was this point where our teacher said that bacterial ...
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Why does no one get vaccinated against plague in Europe?

I've read on Wikipedia that only people who work with Y. pestis and people in 3rd world countries get vaccinated against it: Since human plague is rare in most parts of the world, routine ...
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How can I perform virus neutralization assay for influenza?

How can I perform a Virus Microneutralization assay for influenza virus using serum from mice vaccinated with this virus?
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How does adjuvant enhance the immunogenicity of antigen? [closed]

My question is, How does adjuvant enhance immunogenicity of antigen? I just want to know deeply about it , Any suggestions will be helpful!
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What determines the courses of multi-dose vaccines?

I understand that some proportion of individuals will fail to develop immunity from a single dose of a vaccine. Rather than test every member of the target population following each vaccination, it ...
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What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

My idea is that passive immunity can be used to cure an individual who is infected with a certain disease. For example, for someone infected by clostridium tetani, you would inject them with an ...
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Does vaccination make the immune system “lazy”?

I was having this discussion with a friend over vaccination against the flu. Although he agrees that vaccination against almost all diseases is necessary, he said that flu shots are not. He argued ...
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Why does the HPV vaccine not work on already infected people?

With my limited knowledge, I understand that the vaccine works by inserting fake HPV-like material in the body, thus inducing the immune system to build up defenses against it, so when the body is ...
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Why is the origin (patient zero) required to cure a virus?

I'm not sure if it's just a movies thing but I always notice that the original strain of a virus is required to cure a virus, why is this? is this even true?
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Vaccination and Immunisation

Why are oral polio vaccines advantageous over the killed ones? I was told that the orally given polio vaccine prevents infection by causing intestinal immunity. How does it do that? Also, how does ...
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Is it feasible to eradicate a virus without vaccines?

Although a vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains elusive, new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs can cure HCV effectively and conveniently. The latest DAA, Epclusa, can cure 95-99% of chronic ...
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Oral Administration of Immunizations

Small children and people in developing countries may take oral dosage forms of vaccines. Antigens passing through the GI tract will come into contact with Peyer's patches and be absorbed by microfold ...
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Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
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How is the site of administration of a vaccine decided?

Vaccines can either be given intramuscular or subcutaneous or intradermal. I know the technique used is specific for each organism. What decides this? I understand the reason for oral vaccines in ...
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can a protein recognized by antibodies not be immunogenic?

I have a protein that is produced with the baculovirus system that is recognized by antibodies generated by immunization of rabbits with the same protein produced in E. coli. However the baculovirus ...
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Can an attenuated virus cause infection in some rare cases?

I just read in some comments, that some children got measles one week after getting the MMR shot. Afaik. MMR contains attenuated live virus, and the incubation period of measles is 10 days (+/- ? days)...
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After getting fully vaccinated for HBV why does the antiHBs titer last for so long?

When a newborn child is fully vaccinated with HBV and let's assume he's responsive, his antiHBs titers will be high. But since the antigenic stimulus is withdrawn, shouldn't the titre fall to nill in ...
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Why are vaccines for polio taken orally while vaccines for TB need to be injected?

My thoughts are that maybe the TB antigens necessary to produce an immune response are proteins; therefore they can be digested in the stomach and small intestine. But I may be wrong though. I am ...
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Do we vaccinate sick people?

As I understand, vaccination helps the human body to create antibodies and stimulate immune system to react against specific antigens. If someone gets sick, do vaccines help to stimulate immune system?...
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What is the number of influenza strains occurring at a given time?

My question was initiated by reading on mock-up influenza vaccines. I understand that the manufacturer pre-prepares a certain vaccine and tries to get it tested and ready before it is actually needed, ...
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Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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How are vaccines and inoculations different? [closed]

If so are vaccinations more safe? If so how? And how is the vaccine a magical invention?
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Why are some human injections intraperitoneal?

In humans, what benefit do intraperitoneal (IP) injections(old/cheap rabies vaccines, or cancer related injections) offer versus traditional intramuscular injections? For example, where I live, the ...
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how body doesn't make antibodies against adjuvants of vaccine?

we know that all antigenic molecules don't have PRR on phagocytes and so they use an adjuvant that has a receptor for pattern recognation and fuse it with in order to phagocyte the antigen-adjuvant ...
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Do oral vaccines exist?

Do edible vaccines exist, and if yes, what is their mode of action? Are there any edible vaccines commercially available now?
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use of adjuvants and peptides in modern vaccines?

when preparation of modern vaccines we generally use a part of the microbe or the antigen such as polysaccharides to create an effective vaccine against the vaccine. so when the preparation of sub ...
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Are there any papers arguing against vaccination in French? [closed]

Disclaimer: This question is NOT about challenging the safety or efficacy of vaccines. It is only asking for tips on providing credible references that may show harmful effects of vaccination, if any. ...
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What is cross-immunoreactivity, and how does it impact vaccine development?

What I understand about cross-immunoreactivity is that the antibody induced by one specific antigen is also fairly effective against another antigen. How would this be used for vaccine development? ...
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Inoculation vs. vaccination

Is there any actual difference between inoculation and vaccination or are these terms interchangeable? In case the difference exists, would it be correct to say that inoculation is purposefully ...
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Downstream analysis after in vivo pathogen RNAseq

We performed RNA-Seq of in vivo bacterial samples and identified some key up- and down-regulated pathways. We compared bacteria during infection with conventional agar plate. Which could be the next ...