Questions tagged [vaccination]

The administration of antigenic material to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity to a disease.

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mRNA vaccines: Can a spike protein by itself have different side-effects than the virus itself? [duplicate]

I was wondering, is it possible for the isolated spike protein, as resulting from an mRNA vaccine, to cause harmful side effects in an individual, that would not have developed in that individual if ...
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What is the significance of an adjuvant to traffic vaccine antigen directly to draining lymph nodes without diffusing into the systemic circulation?

I found the following sentence in the this paper- Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial An imidazoquinoline molecule, which ...
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Any evidence that getting a covid booster works for omicron?

I've been hearing colloquially that the booster helps for immunity to Omicron, but haven't actually found any evidence supporting this. Does anyone know of any studies that look at the efficacy of the ...
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Is the response to a vaccine correlated with the reaction to the disease?

I was wondering if the response to a vaccine correlates with the reaction to the disease. For example, if someone had a strong reaction to a vaccine, this person would also have had a severe course of ...
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How much do the COVID vaccines decrease the spread of SARS-CoV-2?

The vaccines targeted at COVID-19 are measured against their ability to reduce the occurrence of the disease, COVID-19 (The Vaccine Efficiency or VE). It does not measure its effect on the underlying ...
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Why are scientists saying that the Omicron COVID-19 variant is a reason to get a booster?

I was watching Vox’s video, Big questions about the Covid booster shot, answered, which references the New York Times article Omicron Prompts Swift Reconsideration of Boosters Among Scientists. In ...
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Could Sars-CoV-2 vaccines make the immune response less effective against new variants?

Some viral diseases (e.g. influenza and dengue fever) are thought to exhibit original antigenic sin. The immune system remembers viruses that it has been previously exposed to, allowing the body to ...
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What is the upper limit for 'active' vaccinations

As far as I know the effect of vaccines is caused mainly by creating Memory Cells specific to a single pathogen. As there is obviously a lower limit of memory cells needed for immunity ( at least one),...
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Effects of mRNA vaccines on human body processes

I would like to understand the effect of an mRNA vaccine on more complex processes in the human body. To what extent does this "artificial", external addition of mRNA interfere with the body'...
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Why do veterinary vaccines have shorter effect?

In humans activated T-lymphocytes persist until end of life, and activated B-lymphocytes persist many years, so most vaccines don't need to be reapplied and the few that do are reapplied after 10 to ...
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Following mRNA vaccination, do proteins mostly exit "naked" from transfected cells or by some more indirect route (EVs etc.)?

Related to someone's elses disbeliefs in how proteins produced from a mRNA vaccine end up in B cells; in theory the process could be more complicated than "naked" egress (which arguably does ...
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Are fully vaccinated people more likely to not get infected at all with COVID-19?

I've found some papers which describe that the viral shedding does not decrease during infection (for fully vaccinated people). But the overall shedding time does decrease. Therefore it is possible to ...
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On the origin and evolution of vaccinia virus

I was browsing Wikipedia and learned that vaccinia virus, the basis of the smallpox (variola virus) vaccine, was originally thought to be derived from cowpox but was later discovered to be a separate ...
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CCTV cameras in Microbiology (Pathology) Laboratories

Isn't it highly beneficial to have CCTV cameras installed in all Microbiology Labs in the COVID-19 times? As the COVID vaccines are already developed, the research & development carried further in ...
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If you catch Covid-19 infection, does it need to become vaccinated after recovery?

When we catch a cold, influenza, or Covid-19, the body starts to produce antibody against them, So the body become immune for a period of time. That means one should not get them until the presence of ...
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How do the lipid nanoparticles in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines contain and release the mRNA payloads at the right time?

The engineering challenge with mRNA vaccines is that mRNA is fragile and degrades quickly. The solution, then, is to encapsulate the mRNA within lipid nanoparticles that carry the payload into cell. ...
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delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

In latest news, it is reported that: if vaccinated people get infected anyway, they have as much virus in their bodies as unvaccinated people. That means they're as likely to infect someone else as ...
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Can vaccines drive viruses to evolve? If so, how?

Obviously, destroying vaccine-vulnerable strains of a virus will leave the vaccine-resistant ones to represent an increased fraction of the overall viral population. I'm asking, though, whether/how ...
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Do breakthrough infections spread attenuated virus?

No vaccines are 100% effective, so it's possible that patient A catches Covid-19 even after receiving two doses of vaccine. I understand that the risk is low, and the symptoms will generally be mild. ...
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Ingredients in Pfizer vaccine

The ingredients in the Pfizer vaccine have been listed in a number of websites, including government healthcare ones. This site claims that the list includes ALL of the ingredients of the vaccine. ...
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Do mutations occur while growing virus for preparing inactivated viral vaccine?

The development of mutations in virus is reported to happen during replication, especially for an mRNA type virus like SARS-COV-2 Viruses that encode their genome in RNA, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV and ...
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Does a vaccine reduce the contagion "efficiency"?

Note: I am specifically interested in the question in the context of COVID, but general information is welcome as well. If someone vaccinated still catches the COVID, is their capacity to infect ...
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How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
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How are mRNA vaccines spread across the body?

Covid mRNA vaccines are injected into the deltoid. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? Would there be a better immunization reaction if the second dose is ...
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mRNA vaccine and cell mitosis

What happens with the injected mRNA when cells are in the different stages of the mitosis process? Does the mRNA enter the cell and behaves normally throughout the mitosis phases?
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Which cells do mRNA vaccines target?

mRNA vaccines instruct cells to produce spike protein that will trigger an immune response. But which types of cells will it work on? and which cells will it not work on?
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Do COVID-19 vaccines produce more spike protein than natural infection?

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been shown to be harmful on its own. However, a news article quoted an "expert" as saying The spike protein components of the vaccine are not produced in ...
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why secondary/booster vaccine shots may sometimes induce worse side effects?

Background: I had my first shot about 1.5 months ago, I just had my shot yesterday. Unmistakable fever like symptom started within 4 hours. within 10 hours the whole body started aching, accompanied ...
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Acquiring Covid-19 vaccination through kissing with viral vector vaccinated person

The mechanism of COVID-19 viral vector based vaccines (AstraZeneca - Vaxzevria, Johnsen, Sputnik V - Gam-COVID-Vac, Johnson & Johnson - Janssen, etc. ) is delivering the genetic information of the ...
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Are the antibodies developed by differing vaccines still the same?

If one person gets an mRNA vaccine that teaches their body to deal with a specific virus, and another person gets a similar but different mRNA vaccine, and another person gets a more "classic&...
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Is covid vaccine helpful for a covid patient?

I am not a biology student and this question came in my mind out of nowhere. I read somewhere that the vaccines contain some denatured or almost dead corona viruses and when these are injected in our ...
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Does the mRNA of the covid19 spike protein contain any nuclear localization signals

Does the covid19 spike protein amino acid sequence, as used in the covid19 vaccines, contain a nuclear localization signal. Because if they do, isn't there a chance that the RNA can find its way to ...
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Does vaccination lead to short-term secondary infection suceptibility?

For clarity, here is a summary of my question, per anongoodnurse's comment: Does a lower peripheral lymphocyte count resulting from recent immunization render us more susceptible to infection by other ...
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Immunological factors for the cause of headaches following SAR-CoV-2/COVID vaccination

It is generally-accepted that headaches are a common side effect from receiving the COVID vaccine. Vaccine recipients with pre-existing immunity experience systemic side effects with a significantly ...
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Is there any plausible biological mechanism for "universally protective vaccines" via "MHC allotype-independent immune effector memory cells"?

Geert Vanden Bossche, who has recently gained some fame for dissing all current Covid-19 vaccines (and who is also asking the WHO to meet him so they can be infused with his wisdom), has had the same ...
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How difficult is it to adapt an existing vaccine to a virus variant?

There is (at least in France) an ongoing discussion about the Astra-Zeneca vaccine which is perceived as "outdated" because of the prevalence of new variants (the vaccine was designed based ...
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Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
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SARS-CoV-2 : does vaccination provide a better immunity than being sick and recover?

I recently read in the news that countries are thinking to offer a "green passport" based on the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, allowing vaccinated people to do things with less ...
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With an mRNA-vaccine, would it hypothetically be possible to get that sequence transcribed into their genome for people who suffer from a retrovirus?

I recently read a bit about the mRNA-vaccines for COVID-2019. I fully understand that mRNA cannot enter the genome of a healthy person as they lack the required reverse transcriptase to transcribe RNA ...
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Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
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How is SARS-CoV-2 'deactivated' for some Covid vaccines (for example Covaxin)? [closed]

Some Covid vaccines like Covaxin employ a 'Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell'. How is the virion 'deactivated' for the vaccine?
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Why are people not given every possible vaccine? [closed]

Vaccines for some diseases, like cholera, are not given in Australia because of how rare they are. Nonetheless, I don't see the harm in giving a cholera vaccine to every child like we do got Hepatitis ...
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Could a vaccine injecting B cells theoretically work?

So I was in the car riding to school today when I was struck with genius. Each B cell is attuned to a different pathogen, am I correct? By that logic, would a vaccine injecting a dose of B cells ...
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Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

Someone asked me if SARS-COV2 mRNA vaccine could create the wrong spike protein and have a negative effect on our immune system. Since I know too little about biology I couldn't answer that and ...
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Does a critical mass of infected individuals exist after which mutations will overtake vaccination attempts?

As we know, all organisms have a probability to undergo mutations when they replicate. For every infected individual with the Covid-19 their bodies are environments in which the SARS-CoV-2 may mutate ...
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Help with understanding XKCD's “How Vaccine Failure due to Viral Vector Immunity Works” Why is this response a failure exactly?

Full disclosure; no biology since 9th grade, so please go easy on me! XKCD's 2406 shows a literal wooden Trojan Horse outside a castle, but instead of bringing it inside the castle walls, the soldiers ...
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Why do some vaccines lose their efficacy with time?

Why do some vaccines lose with time their efficacy? The two obvious examples that I have in mind are influenza and tetanus. The former case is clear, as influenza virus undergoes frequent gene ...
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How do adenoviruses interact with muscle tissue that it makes them acceptable as vector viruses?

From what I understand certain attenuated adenoviruses are popular as a vector virus, meaning a virus that is used as the active agent in a vaccine to infect cells and trigger a helpful immune ...
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Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
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What is the motivation behind the AAAAGCAUAU GACUAAAAAA of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine when encoding its polyadenylated ending?

The very end of mRNA is polyadenylated as usual, but the BNT162b2 vaccine ends the following sequence, as denoted in this article: ...
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