Questions tagged [vaccination]

The administration of antigenic material to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity to a disease.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Does a vaccine reduce the contagion “efficiency”?

Note: I am specifically interested in the question in the context of COVID, but general information is welcome as well. If someone vaccinated still catches the COVID, is their capacity to infect ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
-1
votes
1answer
65 views

How are mRNA vaccines spread across the body?

Covid mRNA vaccines are injected into the deltoid. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? Would there be a better immunization reaction if the second dose is ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

mRNA vaccine and cell mitosis

What happens with the injected mRNA when cells are in the different stages of the mitosis process? Does the mRNA enter the cell and behaves normally throughout the mitosis phases?
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Which cells do mRNA vaccines target?

mRNA vaccines instruct cells to produce spike protein that will trigger an immune response. But which types of cells will it work on? and which cells will it not work on?
1
vote
0answers
90 views

Do COVID-19 vaccines produce more spike protein than natural infection?

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been shown to be harmful on its own. However, a news article quoted an "expert" as saying The spike protein components of the vaccine are not produced in ...
1
vote
0answers
92 views

why secondary/booster vaccine shots may sometimes induce worse side effects?

Background: I had my first shot about 1.5 months ago, I just had my shot yesterday. Unmistakable fever like symptom started within 4 hours. within 10 hours the whole body started aching, accompanied ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Acquiring Covid-19 vaccination through kissing with viral vector vaccinated person

The mechanism of COVID-19 viral vector based vaccines (AstraZeneca - Vaxzevria, Johnsen, Sputnik V - Gam-COVID-Vac, Johnson & Johnson - Janssen, etc. ) is delivering the genetic information of the ...
37
votes
1answer
4k views

Are the antibodies developed by differing vaccines still the same?

If one person gets an mRNA vaccine that teaches their body to deal with a specific virus, and another person gets a similar but different mRNA vaccine, and another person gets a more "classic&...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Is covid vaccine helpful for a covid patient?

I am not a biology student and this question came in my mind out of nowhere. I read somewhere that the vaccines contain some denatured or almost dead corona viruses and when these are injected in our ...
-3
votes
1answer
119 views

Does the mRNA of the covid19 spike protein contain any nuclear localization signals

Does the covid19 spike protein amino acid sequence, as used in the covid19 vaccines, contain a nuclear localization signal. Because if they do, isn't there a chance that the RNA can find its way to ...
10
votes
0answers
163 views

Does vaccination lead to short-term secondary infection suceptibility?

For clarity, here is a summary of my question, per anongoodnurse's comment: Does a lower peripheral lymphocyte count resulting from recent immunization render us more susceptible to infection by other ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Immunological factors for the cause of headaches following SAR-CoV-2/COVID vaccination

It is generally-accepted that headaches are a common side effect from receiving the COVID vaccine. Vaccine recipients with pre-existing immunity experience systemic side effects with a significantly ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Is there any plausible biological mechanism for “universally protective vaccines” via “MHC allotype-independent immune effector memory cells”?

Geert Vanden Bossche, who has recently gained some fame for dissing all current Covid-19 vaccines (and who is also asking the WHO to meet him so they can be infused with his wisdom), has had the same ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

How difficult is it to adapt an existing vaccine to a virus variant?

There is (at least in France) an ongoing discussion about the Astra-Zeneca vaccine which is perceived as "outdated" because of the prevalence of new variants (the vaccine was designed based ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
1
vote
2answers
97 views

SARS-CoV-2 : does vaccination provide a better immunity than being sick and recover?

I recently read in the news that countries are thinking to offer a "green passport" based on the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, allowing vaccinated people to do things with less ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

With an mRNA-vaccine, would it hypothetically be possible to get that sequence transcribed into their genome for people who suffer from a retrovirus?

I recently read a bit about the mRNA-vaccines for COVID-2019. I fully understand that mRNA cannot enter the genome of a healthy person as they lack the required reverse transcriptase required to ...
8
votes
0answers
337 views

Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
4
votes
1answer
355 views

How is SARS-CoV-2 'deactivated' for some Covid vaccines (for example Covaxin)? [closed]

Some Covid vaccines like Covaxin employ a 'Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell'. How is the virion 'deactivated' for the vaccine?
-1
votes
1answer
46 views

Why are people not given every possible vaccine? [closed]

Vaccines for some diseases, like cholera, are not given in Australia because of how rare they are. Nonetheless, I don't see the harm in giving a cholera vaccine to every child like we do got Hepatitis ...
-1
votes
1answer
27 views

Could a vaccine injecting B cells theoretically work?

So I was in the car riding to school today when I was struck with genius. Each B cell is attuned to a different pathogen, am I correct? By that logic, would a vaccine injecting a dose of B cells ...
0
votes
1answer
105 views

Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

Someone asked me if SARS-COV2 mRNA vaccine could create the wrong spike protein and have a negative effect on our immune system. Since I know too little about biology I couldn't answer that and ...
0
votes
2answers
89 views

Does a critical mass of infected individuals exist after which mutations will overtake vaccination attempts?

As we know, all organisms have a probability to undergo mutations when they replicate. For every infected individual with the Covid-19 their bodies are environments in which the SARS-CoV-2 may mutate ...
1
vote
3answers
156 views

Help with understanding XKCD's “How Vaccine Failure due to Viral Vector Immunity Works” Why is this response a failure exactly?

Full disclosure; no biology since 9th grade, so please go easy on me! XKCD's 2406 shows a literal wooden Trojan Horse outside a castle, but instead of bringing it inside the castle walls, the soldiers ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

Why do some vaccines lose their efficacy with time?

Why do some vaccines lose with time their efficacy? The two obvious examples that I have in mind are influenza and tetanus. The former case is clear, as influenza virus undergoes frequent gene ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

How do adenoviruses interact with muscle tissue that it makes them acceptable as vector viruses?

From what I understand certain attenuated adenoviruses are popular as a vector virus, meaning a virus that is used as the active agent in a vaccine to infect cells and trigger a helpful immune ...
5
votes
2answers
197 views

Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the motivation behind the AAAAGCAUAU GACUAAAAAA of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine when encoding its polyadenylated ending?

The very end of mRNA is polyadenylated as usual, but the BNT162b2 vaccine ends the following sequence, as denoted in this article: ...
5
votes
2answers
262 views

What is the motivation behind the CCA -> CCU modification between SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine when encoding the signal peptide?

The S glycoprotein signal peptide in SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine is encoded by: ...
3
votes
0answers
54 views

Do mRNA vaccines encoded proteins get glycosylated?

per recent hype around the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 (or sars-ncov-2) it got me thinking about the mRNA vaccine principle. From my biochem education I've taken, that human proteins are usually ...
1
vote
2answers
195 views

Long-term efficacy and absence of side effects of anti-covid vaccines

The question is about the methodology/biostatistics of clinical trials (I state this beforehand to avoid accusations of being an anti-vaxxer). As multiple anti-COVID vaccines are offered on the market,...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

What are the advantages of mRNA vaccines?

When the mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are administered, mRNA molecules are introduced into the cells of the subject. The translation of this mRNA determines the productions of antigens, which in turn ...
44
votes
1answer
4k views

What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
9
votes
1answer
150 views

What goes into a vaccine placebo, typically and in the specific case of Pfizer's SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials?

I am curious about what actually goes into a vaccine placebo formulation, given that there were apparently some reactions reported by trial subjects who received the Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 placebo. From ...
7
votes
1answer
215 views

Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
-2
votes
1answer
146 views

Is it possible to spread vaccine through air?

I am not a biology people. But this question has been bothering me for months. I read the news that, even if an effective vaccine (for Covid-19) successfully created, the transport of the vaccine and ...
39
votes
3answers
7k views

Why does vaccine development take so long?

The main principle behind a vaccine is to take a deactivated virus, "show" it to the immune system so it can "learn" how it looks like, so if and when the real virus does attack us,...
2
votes
0answers
97 views

Why is half dose of Oxford's vaccine of covid more effective than full dose?

I recently read in a newspaper that the half dose of the Oxford's vaccine is 90% effective while the full dose is only 62% effective. Why is this the case ?
27
votes
4answers
4k views

What does vaccine efficacy mean?

In the last few weeks, Pfizer/BionTech, Moderna and AstraZeneca have each released preliminary estimates of the efficacy of their SARS-COV-2 vaccines. But what do their respective efficacy percentages ...
12
votes
3answers
295 views

Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Blood serum transfusions - could vaccines against the anti-A/anti-B etc. antibodies be derived, at least in theory?

People with the AB-positive blood type have all three of the A, B and RhD antigens present on their red blood cells, and no antibodies to these in their blood serum (aka blood plasma.) This means that ...
-4
votes
1answer
108 views

Do antigen presenting cells present only antigens they have receptors for?

Although this sounds like a good beginner's question I have found no corresponding textbook passage. It should make sense for antigen presenting cells - APCs - to present only antigen that can be used ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine

Recent news of Pfizer vaccine for corona needing -70C temperature, made me thinking why such a low temperature is needed for mRNA based vaccine? Are there other vaccine around which need such a low ...
-4
votes
1answer
131 views

Can vaccination be explained by a principle of “broad specifity” of immune cells?

In the context of Covid-19, in Denmark all ferrets/minks in farms were killed, as there is infection in humans by the ferret corona-subtype. Contrary heightened concerns, a virus transferred from ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Can a non-response to a vaccine be tested?

The BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is said to be 90% effective. Is there a test to establish the (degree of) success in individuals of a vaccine at provoking the desired immune response? ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

RNA vaccination and Autoimmune Reactions

To my knowledge we do not have any robust experience with RNA vaccination. Most likely this will change in the near future as RNA vaccines against COVID are in the pipeline. The rationale behind this ...
7
votes
1answer
100 views

Why can human viruses that can't infect chickens be grown in embryonic chicken cells?

Embryonic chicken cells are commonly used in vaccine production. The viruses are grown in chicken eggs, or in embryonic cells taken from those eggs, and then inactivated or attenuated to produce the ...
1
vote
2answers
220 views

When someone gets infected with influenza, and gains some immunity, is that immunity just as good as getting it from a vaccine?

A friend thinks that being infected with a new influenza virus means that little immunity is gained, unless you get a vaccine. But, he is forgetting that new strains can make current vaccines out-...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

QA/monitoring in recombinant vaccine manufacturing

On a16z[0] podcast on vaccines[1], an interesting tidbit came up: vaccine manufacturing in cell cultures is expected to hit a major challenge in terms of quality control due to unpredictable behaviour ...