Questions tagged [vaccination]

The administration of antigenic material to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity to a disease.

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Testing a COVID-19 vaccine on a large sample space of population from different nationalities

I came across an article few days ago, while checking the number of canditates for vaccines about COVID-19 where Sinopharm's vaccine development's trial phase caught my eye. The article says that: In ...
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Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
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Where can we see professional discussions about vaccine development of the covid-19?

Is there any place where people keep talking about the vaccine development professionally? I need the latest news.
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If Covid antibodies disappear after 2-3 months, will a vaccine still be effective?

It looks like there have been studies in China and also in Spain that suggest antibodies don't last very long or could disappear after some time. What does this mean for the effectiveness of a ...
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Why do COVID19 serology tests focus on the nucleocapsid while vaccine efforts focus on the spike?

When I look at the specification sheets for many of today's serology tests like the new Roche test or the Abbott test, they use a nucleocapsid antigen in the test, looking for anti-nucleocapsid ...
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Reasons why this protein is not suitable as an immunogen?

In a paper entitled "Progress and Prospects on Vaccine Development against SARS-CoV-2", the authors write the following in section 2.5: "Compared with S, N, and M protein, E protein is not suitable ...
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Because we don't live as closely to livestock, are we at a greater or lesser risk of plagues?

Give recent events, some people have called for the 'wet markets' in China to be shut down, (for many reasons) but largely because it is likely the source of the recent plague outbreak, due to the ...
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Why do human vaccines affect different animals differently?

Doubtless the simple answer is that these animals differ, and that the amino acids of their ACE2 receptors differ. Are there other reasons? Chan, working with his HKU colleague, microbiologist ...
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Barring Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), how else can vaccines enhance the infection?

The link to the 2007 article below was broken for me. I Googled and read it on NCBI. Decades ago, vaccines developed against another coronavirus, feline infectious peritonitis virus, increased ...
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Why's there no vaccine against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)?

RSV was discovered in 1956. Here’s why we can’t rush a COVID-19 vaccine | AAMC Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): This pervasive respiratory virus has proven resistant to vaccination. Children ...
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Can you vaccinate against bacterial diseases? Are there existing vaccines for such diseases?

I have the (maybe wrong?) preconception that we only vaccinate against viral diseases, and that there can only exist vaccines against viruses. I think the idea comes from the idea that only for viral ...
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Is there a vaccine against the plague (Yersinia pestis)?

There seems to be recurrent events of infections of the plage (Yersinia pestis), from the well known Justinian plague to the Black Death and to recent years. In fact, two cases were reported in China ...
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“The rhesus macaque is pretty much the closest thing we have to humans” — why?

Vincent Munster (researcher at Oxford) states (in the context of testing vaccines for COVID-19): The rhesus macaque is pretty much the closest thing we have to humans I thought chimpanzees and ...
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What changes would allow cutting mRNA-based vaccine safety testing to 18 Months

I see a lot of skepticism among my fellow citizens following an interview that Bill Gates gave the BBC on the topic of Corona vaccines. The Gates foundation is funding several study ventures on Corona ...
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Why can't we always create a vaccine against a virus when an ELISA test to detect it is possible?

Before precising my question, here are some facts that I presume to be true: A vaccine works by injecting the antigens of a virus into the body to train the immune system to recognize the virus and ...
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Could HIV drug treat Normal Corona Virus? [closed]

SMS Hospital of Rajasthan treated three patients of Corona virus with a combination of two anti HIV drugs. Rohit Kumar Singh, Additional chief secretary of Medical and health said:- "All this ...
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Why weren't mRNA vaccines clinically tried earlier? [closed]

As 'researchers using conventional approaches have struggled to develop effective vaccines against a number of pathogens, particularly viruses, that cause both acute (Influenza, Ebola, Zika) and ...
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Why hasnt been developed yet a COVID-19 vaccine? [duplicate]

I'm a complete noob when it comes to biology, but as far as I remember from my biology class, a vaccine is just a the viruses itself but in small amounts so that the immune system creates memory cells....
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A poor man's COVID-19 vaccine? [closed]

If person A is infected (COVID-19) and person B is not, could the following work as a vaccination? Person A exhales (coughs?) into a a transparent bag. The bag is radiated for a long time with a ...
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What are the difficulties/challenges against developing a coronavirus vaccine?

Multiple groups of scientists are trying to develop a coronavirus vaccine but they are not yet being fruitful. What challenges or difficulties are there in the process that slowing down and/or causing ...
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Could old-style “inoculation” be used against COVID-19? [closed]

Before the first vaccination was invented, for smallpox, there already was a technique called inoculation or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variolation. Unlike vaccination where dead or modified ...
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What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
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Provisional vaccine for fast spreeding new viruses?

Developing a standard vaccine for coronavirus will take at least a few months - what might be too late: However, its sequence is already known, and is nearly identical - suggesting a recent single ...
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Why do vaccines sometimes induce a fever? [closed]

How does a vaccine cause an immune response such as fever? Why do only some people experience these reactions? Why might those reactions change upon subsequent doses of the same or similar vaccines?
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Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

There is a claim that infants gain immunoprotection from breastfeeding. I am especially interested in specific protection against pathogens the breastfeeder (not necessarily the mother) has been ...
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Rabies (and maybe other diseases) - why long incubation period (in some cases) does not provide immunisation [duplicate]

On one hand vaccination is in case of Rabies effective. On the other hand the incubation period can by in some cases long (up to years says Wikipedia). Why the human does not get immunized during such ...
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Why don't we have vaccination against all diseases caused by microbes?

People can be vaccinated against certain diseases. Principle of vaccination is to use live attenuated load or inactivated. My question is - why we dont have vaccination against all diseases which are ...
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Can exposure to blood make pathogens resistant to the immune system?

If a drop of my blood is dropped into a pool of pathogens. Does that act as "reverse-vaccination" for said pathogens? I see this it as a potential risk for bacteria/viruses to compete or get ...
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Why is HPV vaccines targeted for preteens?

Why is human papillomavirus products targeted to children before sexual activeness? Could all ages benefit from this vaccine even if they may have or have not contracted a form of HPV to prevent other ...
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How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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How are Cytotoxic T cells transfered?

We learned that Cytotoxic T cells are MHC dependent, and if CMH matchup doesn't occur between the T cell and the cancer cell for example, the former won't attack the latter. If this is the case then ...
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Where are the statistics for vaccine side effects?

My son told me that that during a discussion at school someone mentioned statistics about side effects of vaccines (I assume that the discussion was about standard vaccines in France). The numbers ...
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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Could a human become infected with rabies in such a way that even prior vaccination wouldn't stop the infection?

Given the highly persistent nature of rabies after entering the brain, I was wondering whether certain ways of exposure to this virus could be risky even for a previously vaccinated individual. I ...
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How similar do proteins have to be to trigger the same immune response?

The title really says it all. How precise or vague is the immunity we get from vaccination or from having encountered a germ before? Is it about protein parts that are recognised if they are ...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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Which vaccines are damaged by freezing? [closed]

I have noticed that many of the freeze-sensitive vaccines are antigen only vaccines, for example Hib, pneumococcus, and tetanus vaccines. Why are these vaccines damaged by freezing? Are inactivated or ...
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What is the effect of non-vaccinated people on vaccinated people?

Many times have I heard that anti-vaccine people are dangerous even to the vaccinated population. Is that true? If so, how can it be? People say that germs will attack them, and soon they would ...
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Maternal immunity without prenatal vaccination?

It is recognized that antibodies from the mother provide a level of protection to infants. This is why mothers are often advised to get vaccinated when they're pregnant. However, does the vaccine have ...
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Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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Which infectious disease would increase global life expectancy the most if eradicated [closed]

In the 1700s it was estimated, by Daniel Bernoulli, that wiping out smallpox would increase global life expectancy by over three years. If we could wipe out one infectious disease today, which would ...
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
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Can disease resistance from vaccination be inherited?

If a person has taken a vaccine against a particular disease and is resistant to that disease, will his/her children will be resistant to that disease??
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Why is full cell/high antigen dose pertussis vaccine dangerous for adults?

I do remember that I have read (or heard) somewhere that as a human is older, the whole cell vaccine (and high antigen dose one) has more and more adverse effects. As it is consistent with the target ...
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What happened to pertussis incidence in the US between 1955 and 1974 and why?

The Wall Street Journal ran a great collection of infographics in 2015 superimposing the dates on which vaccination was introduced for various childhood diseases on their incidence: http://graphics....
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Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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IgA-s in an immune system vaccined intramuscularly against Hepatisis A

As IgA are immunoglobulins associated with secretion and mucosis membranes, I am interested whether after intramuscular vaccination with Hepatitis A vaccine IgA antibodies will be produced by the ...
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Vaccines against bacterial endotoxins

Today in class, there was a discussion going on about what part of pathogens(which can act as an antigen) can be used to make vaccines. There was this point where our teacher said that bacterial ...
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Why does no one get vaccinated against plague in Europe?

I've read on Wikipedia that only people who work with Y. pestis and people in 3rd world countries get vaccinated against it: Since human plague is rare in most parts of the world, routine ...