Questions tagged [vaccination]

The administration of antigenic material to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity to a disease.

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108
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4answers
11k views

What is the effect of non-vaccinated people on vaccinated people?

Many times have I heard that anti-vaccine people are dangerous even to the vaccinated population. Is that true? If so, how can it be? People say that germs will attack them, and soon they would ...
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1answer
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
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Why does vaccine development take so long?

The main principle behind a vaccine is to take a deactivated virus, "show" it to the immune system so it can "learn" how it looks like, so if and when the real virus does attack us,...
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1answer
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Are the antibodies developed by differing vaccines still the same?

If one person gets an mRNA vaccine that teaches their body to deal with a specific virus, and another person gets a similar but different mRNA vaccine, and another person gets a more "classic&...
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4answers
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What does vaccine efficacy mean?

In the last few weeks, Pfizer/BionTech, Moderna and AstraZeneca have each released preliminary estimates of the efficacy of their SARS-COV-2 vaccines. But what do their respective efficacy percentages ...
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How is duration of efficacy estimated for vaccines?

Vaccines, especially those given in adulthood, usually have term limits attached, eg: 10 years for yellow fever or 3 years for typhoid. Since presumably the time course of an immune response is no ...
25
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1answer
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Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain ...
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How does the immune system “learn” from a vaccine?

According to Wikipedia: A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
23
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3answers
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Why are vaccines for polio taken orally while vaccines for TB need to be injected?

My thoughts are that maybe the TB antigens necessary to produce an immune response are proteins; therefore they can be digested in the stomach and small intestine. But I may be wrong though. I am ...
21
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2answers
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Is there a vaccine against the plague (Yersinia pestis)?

There seems to be recurrent events of infections of the plage (Yersinia pestis), from the well known Justinian plague to the Black Death and to recent years. In fact, two cases were reported in China ...
21
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2answers
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Why don't we have vaccination against all diseases caused by microbes?

People can be vaccinated against certain diseases. Principle of vaccination is to use live attenuated load or inactivated. My question is - why we dont have vaccination against all diseases which are ...
18
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Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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How are viruses weakened to be suitable for vaccination?

I understand there are two kinds of active vaccination Injecting complete viruses that are weakened to not cause the disease being vaccinated against Injecting only antigen particles of viruses that ...
14
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What are the difficulties/challenges against developing a coronavirus vaccine?

Multiple groups of scientists are trying to develop a coronavirus vaccine but they are not yet being fruitful. What challenges or difficulties are there in the process that slowing down and/or causing ...
14
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3k views

Why does the protection afforded by some vaccines last longer than for others?

After reading an answer to the question of How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?, I came to wonder something. Specifically, The effect of this is that every new B and T cell that your bone ...
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1k views

Is it possible to combine live attenuated and non-live vaccines?

There are many combination vaccines available but I've noticed that there don't seem to be any with both live and non-live components, e.g. DTaP/IPV/MMR. Such combinations could be useful in some ...
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1answer
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Why don't vaccines cause bacterial resistance?

Since bacteria can evolve to overcome antibiotic use, why wouldn't they be able to evolve to overcome antibody or cell-mediated immunity? (One possible explanation: antibiotics have only one target ...
12
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1answer
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What is the motivation behind the AAAAGCAUAU GACUAAAAAA of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine when encoding its polyadenylated ending?

The very end of mRNA is polyadenylated as usual, but the BNT162b2 vaccine ends the following sequence, as denoted in this article: ...
12
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295 views

Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
11
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Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?
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Inoculation vs. vaccination

Is there any actual difference between inoculation and vaccination or are these terms interchangeable? In case the difference exists, would it be correct to say that inoculation is purposefully ...
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Does vaccination lead to short-term secondary infection suceptibility?

For clarity, here is a summary of my question, per anongoodnurse's comment: Does a lower peripheral lymphocyte count resulting from recent immunization render us more susceptible to infection by other ...
9
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1answer
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What goes into a vaccine placebo, typically and in the specific case of Pfizer's SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials?

I am curious about what actually goes into a vaccine placebo formulation, given that there were apparently some reactions reported by trial subjects who received the Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 placebo. From ...
9
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1answer
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How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
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Does vaccination make the immune system “lazy”?

I was having this discussion with a friend over vaccination against the flu. Although he agrees that vaccination against almost all diseases is necessary, he said that flu shots are not. He argued ...
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Why does the HPV vaccine not work on already infected people?

With my limited knowledge, I understand that the vaccine works by inserting fake HPV-like material in the body, thus inducing the immune system to build up defenses against it, so when the body is ...
8
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1answer
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“The rhesus macaque is pretty much the closest thing we have to humans” — why?

Vincent Munster (researcher at Oxford) states (in the context of testing vaccines for COVID-19): The rhesus macaque is pretty much the closest thing we have to humans I thought chimpanzees and ...
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Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
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2answers
381 views

Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
7
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1answer
187 views

What is the efficacy of Pertussis booster vaccine among different age groups?

The Murray Microbiology book says that it is prefentially 10 years, similarly Estonian and Finnish health associations. However, my professor says that it can be 5-7 years. I started to think if the ...
7
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1answer
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Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
7
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1answer
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Why can human viruses that can't infect chickens be grown in embryonic chicken cells?

Embryonic chicken cells are commonly used in vaccine production. The viruses are grown in chicken eggs, or in embryonic cells taken from those eggs, and then inactivated or attenuated to produce the ...
7
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1answer
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What is cross-immunoreactivity, and how does it impact vaccine development?

What I understand about cross-immunoreactivity is that the antibody induced by one specific antigen is also fairly effective against another antigen. How would this be used for vaccine development? ...
5
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Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
5
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1answer
749 views

Where are the statistics for vaccine side effects?

My son told me that that during a discussion at school someone mentioned statistics about side effects of vaccines (I assume that the discussion was about standard vaccines in France). The numbers ...
5
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2answers
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What is the motivation behind the CCA -> CCU modification between SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine when encoding the signal peptide?

The S glycoprotein signal peptide in SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine is encoded by: ...
5
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2answers
144 views

Why can't we always create a vaccine against a virus when an ELISA test to detect it is possible?

Before precising my question, here are some facts that I presume to be true: A vaccine works by injecting the antigens of a virus into the body to train the immune system to recognize the virus and ...
5
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1answer
137 views

Why do COVID19 serology tests focus on the nucleocapsid while vaccine efforts focus on the spike?

When I look at the specification sheets for many of today's serology tests like the new Roche test or the Abbott test, they use a nucleocapsid antigen in the test, looking for anti-nucleocapsid ...
5
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1answer
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Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

There is a claim that infants gain immunoprotection from breastfeeding. I am especially interested in specific protection against pathogens the breastfeeder (not necessarily the mother) has been ...
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3answers
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What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

My idea is that passive immunity can be used to cure an individual who is infected with a certain disease. For example, for someone infected by clostridium tetani, you would inject them with an ...
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Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
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2answers
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Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
4
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1answer
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How is SARS-CoV-2 'deactivated' for some Covid vaccines (for example Covaxin)? [closed]

Some Covid vaccines like Covaxin employ a 'Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell'. How is the virion 'deactivated' for the vaccine?
4
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1answer
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How the vaccine based on “non replicating viral vector” is produced?

As I understand, this kind of vaccine is a virus that can infect the cell, start synthesis of proteins encoded by its genome, but cannot finish the replication cycle till the proper end. It can have ...
4
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1answer
114 views

Is there a Lyme disease vaccine?

Each Spring, our local health unit begins its campaign of Lyme disease and tick-bite awareness. I was wondering if there has ever been a vaccine available, and if so, what antigen does it target?
4
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1answer
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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1answer
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Manufacturing toxoids

Toxoids produced by tetanus and diphtheria bacteria are detoxified with formaldehyde, yet their antigen properties remain. Source : Biological Science by Taylor What does formaldehyde do ?
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How does injecting low doses of allergens cure allergies?

Allergy shots (aka. allergen immunotherapy) help people adapt to allergens by injecting a gradually increasing doses of one or more allergens. Does this procedure tell the body that this allergen is ...
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4answers
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Are there any papers arguing against vaccination in French? [closed]

Disclaimer: This question is NOT about challenging the safety or efficacy of vaccines. It is only asking for tips on providing credible references that may show harmful effects of vaccination, if any. ...