Questions tagged [vaccination]

The administration of antigenic material to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity to a disease.

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103
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What is the effect of non-vaccinated people on vaccinated people?

Many times have I heard that anti-vaccine people are dangerous even to the vaccinated population. Is that true? If so, how can it be? People say that germs will attack them, and soon they would ...
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1answer
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Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain ...
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How is duration of efficacy estimated for vaccines?

Vaccines, especially those given in adulthood, usually have term limits attached, eg: 10 years for yellow fever or 3 years for typhoid. Since presumably the time course of an immune response is no ...
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4answers
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How does the immune system “learn” from a vaccine?

According to Wikipedia: A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
21
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3answers
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Why are vaccines for polio taken orally while vaccines for TB need to be injected?

My thoughts are that maybe the TB antigens necessary to produce an immune response are proteins; therefore they can be digested in the stomach and small intestine. But I may be wrong though. I am ...
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Why we don't have vaccination against all diseases which are caused by microbes?

People can be vaccinated against certain diseases. Principle of vaccination is to use live attenuated load or inactivated. My question is - why we dont have vaccination against all diseases which are ...
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Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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2answers
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How are viruses weakened to be suitable for vaccination?

I understand there are two kinds of active vaccination Injecting complete viruses that are weakened to not cause the disease being vaccinated against Injecting only antigen particles of viruses that ...
13
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Why does the protection afforded by some vaccines last longer than for others?

After reading an answer to the question of How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?, I came to wonder something. Specifically, The effect of this is that every new B and T cell that your bone ...
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2answers
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Is it possible to combine live attenuated and non-live vaccines?

There are many combination vaccines available but I've noticed that there don't seem to be any with both live and non-live components, e.g. DTaP/IPV/MMR. Such combinations could be useful in some ...
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1answer
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Why don't vaccines cause bacterial resistance?

Since bacteria can evolve to overcome antibiotic use, why wouldn't they be able to evolve to overcome antibody or cell-mediated immunity? (One possible explanation: antibiotics have only one target ...
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Inoculation vs. vaccination

Is there any actual difference between inoculation and vaccination or are these terms interchangeable? In case the difference exists, would it be correct to say that inoculation is purposefully ...
9
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Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?
9
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1answer
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How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
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Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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Why does the HPV vaccine not work on already infected people?

With my limited knowledge, I understand that the vaccine works by inserting fake HPV-like material in the body, thus inducing the immune system to build up defenses against it, so when the body is ...
7
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1answer
282 views

What is cross-immunoreactivity, and how does it impact vaccine development?

What I understand about cross-immunoreactivity is that the antibody induced by one specific antigen is also fairly effective against another antigen. How would this be used for vaccine development? ...
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3answers
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
6
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1answer
425 views

Does vaccination make the immune system “lazy”?

I was having this discussion with a friend over vaccination against the flu. Although he agrees that vaccination against almost all diseases is necessary, he said that flu shots are not. He argued ...
6
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1answer
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What is the efficacy of Pertussis booster vaccine among different age groups?

The Murray Microbiology book says that it is prefentially 10 years, similarly Estonian and Finnish health associations. However, my professor says that it can be 5-7 years. I started to think if the ...
5
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1answer
487 views

Where are the statistics for vaccine side effects?

My son told me that that during a discussion at school someone mentioned statistics about side effects of vaccines (I assume that the discussion was about standard vaccines in France). The numbers ...
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What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

My idea is that passive immunity can be used to cure an individual who is infected with a certain disease. For example, for someone infected by clostridium tetani, you would inject them with an ...
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Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
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Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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1answer
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Manufacturing toxoids

Toxoids produced by tetanus and diphtheria bacteria are detoxified with formaldehyde, yet their antigen properties remain. Source : Biological Science by Taylor What does formaldehyde do ?
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Are there any papers arguing against vaccination in French? [closed]

Disclaimer: This question is NOT about challenging the safety or efficacy of vaccines. It is only asking for tips on providing credible references that may show harmful effects of vaccination, if any. ...
3
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1answer
39 views

After getting fully vaccinated for HBV why does the antiHBs titer last for so long?

When a newborn child is fully vaccinated with HBV and let's assume he's responsive, his antiHBs titers will be high. But since the antigenic stimulus is withdrawn, shouldn't the titre fall to nill in ...
3
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1answer
139 views

How does adjuvant enhance the immunogenicity of antigen? [closed]

My question is, How does adjuvant enhance immunogenicity of antigen? I just want to know deeply about it , Any suggestions will be helpful!
3
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1answer
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What is the number of influenza strains occurring at a given time?

My question was initiated by reading on mock-up influenza vaccines. I understand that the manufacturer pre-prepares a certain vaccine and tries to get it tested and ready before it is actually needed, ...
3
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1answer
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Why are some human injections intraperitoneal?

In humans, what benefit do intraperitoneal (IP) injections(old/cheap rabies vaccines, or cancer related injections) offer versus traditional intramuscular injections? For example, where I live, the ...
3
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1answer
387 views

Allergic rhinitis vaccine

Note : Any answer to this question will not be (and should not be) taken as medical advice. One of my friends has allergic rhinitis and has been prescribed an oral vaccine. He is allergic to 3 ...
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1answer
615 views

Can you cure allergies?

A common solution is allergy shots, which helps you adapt to the allergy. But are there ways to tell the body that this allergy is safe and there is no need to amount a response to it? So that there ...
3
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1answer
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Oral Administration of Immunizations

Small children and people in developing countries may take oral dosage forms of vaccines. Antigens passing through the GI tract will come into contact with Peyer's patches and be absorbed by microfold ...
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Why is HPV vaccines targeted for preteens?

Why is human papillomavirus products targeted to children before sexual activeness? Could all ages benefit from this vaccine even if they may have or have not contracted a form of HPV to prevent other ...
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2answers
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Why is the origin (patient zero) required to cure a virus?

I'm not sure if it's just a movies thing but I always notice that the original strain of a virus is required to cure a virus, why is this? is this even true?
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Is it feasible to eradicate a virus without vaccines?

Although a vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains elusive, new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs can cure HCV effectively and conveniently. The latest DAA, Epclusa, can cure 95-99% of chronic ...
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2answers
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Are B Cells unique to an individual's immune system?

I was wondering how the body "remembers" viruses after having once overcome them, and while reading this article on the immune system (page 14, Vaccinations), I read: There are many diseases that, ...
2
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1answer
109 views

Do oral vaccines exist?

Do edible vaccines exist, and if yes, what is their mode of action? Are there any edible vaccines commercially available now?
2
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1answer
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Can an attenuated virus cause infection in some rare cases?

I just read in some comments, that some children got measles one week after getting the MMR shot. Afaik. MMR contains attenuated live virus, and the incubation period of measles is 10 days (+/- ? days)...
2
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1answer
527 views

Difficulty in developing certain vaccines

I have a college level background in Biology, say at the level of Campbell. I am very curious to know why it's extremely difficult to develop vaccines for certain diseases. Two cases which I am really ...
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1answer
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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2answers
105 views

Do we vaccinate sick people?

As I understand, vaccination helps the human body to create antibodies and stimulate immune system to react against specific antigens. If someone gets sick, do vaccines help to stimulate immune system?...
2
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1answer
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how body doesn't make antibodies against adjuvants of vaccine?

we know that all antigenic molecules don't have PRR on phagocytes and so they use an adjuvant that has a receptor for pattern recognation and fuse it with in order to phagocyte the antigen-adjuvant ...
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What happened to pertussis incidence in the US between 1955 and 1974 and why?

The Wall Street Journal ran a great collection of infographics in 2015 superimposing the dates on which vaccination was introduced for various childhood diseases on their incidence: http://graphics....
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Why is post-vaccination fever for 4CMenB so frequent?

When considering the introduction of 4CMenB vaccine, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation said: The sub-committee noted that the clinical trials data suggest that when 4CMenB ...
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Might a previously administered MPSV4 vaccine react with a newly administered MCV-4 vaccine?

This is a hypothetical situation. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) is a vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis. MCV4 is a conjugate vaccine. I would like to know if the polysaccharide ...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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True or False: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely, not all the time

I read the following statement in this article: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely - not all the time Is it true? If yes, why?
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Why does no one get vaccinated against plague in Europe?

I've read on Wikipedia that only people who work with Y. pestis and people in 3rd world countries get vaccinated against it: Since human plague is rare in most parts of the world, routine ...