Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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COVID-19 deaths by year of birth?

Are there (global, country, etc.) data of COVID-19 deaths (or hospitalization) by year of birth? I was able to found them only by "age group", the meaning of this being usually an interval ...
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Biosafety Level 1 (BSL-1) surrogate viruses that show greatest similarity to SARS-CoV-2

I would like to know if there are any viruses that show high similarity to SARS-CoV-2 (particularly in terms of structure) that are very safe to use (i.e., classified as BSL-1). For example, an avian ...
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How can a virus denature in a room? [duplicate]

Articles cite day counts for various surfaces over which COVID-19 may last after infecting. What factors, exactly, influence the rate of denaturing of a virus in a "typical" room setting - ...
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instances of virus transmission-enhancing research approvals

In February 2019 this article by epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch and professor Tom Inglesby raised concern about secret virus research. Washington Post article link. In 2014, U.S. officials imposed a ...
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Is a virus a poison?

I've understood that a virus is not a living organism (like e.g. a bacterium). From Wikipedia I get that a poison is a substance that reacts physically or chemically with molecules in the human body. ...
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Can viruses be deformed?

Viruses are created in their fully-formed state and do not grow. But one thing has been bugging me lately: can a virus be deformed, e.g. in order to fit into an opening slightly smaller than itself? ...
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Killing enveloped viruses with soap

Unlike non-enveloped viruses, enveloped viruses can be killed with soap, alcohol, etc. Why? Why does just having an envelope make it susceptible to soap and alcohol?
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What specific markers does a Covid-19 PCR test look for?

I've done a search and can't find anything as to what specifically makes a Covid-19 positive that identifies it as unique. I would expect to see something like this: https://madridge.org/journals-...
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Hepatitis Lab diagnosis based on serology

HBcAg which can't be detected in serum can be detected in hepatocytes , why is it so that they become detectable in hepatocytes?
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What types of cells HPV can infect? [closed]

I am wondering if there is any new information on which cells HPV is able to infect. Is it still limited to squamous cells or are there other cells such as columnar cells it is able to infect?
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How the vaccine based on “non replicating viral vector” is produced?

As I understand, this kind of vaccine is a virus that can infect the cell, start synthesis of proteins encoded by its genome, but cannot finish the replication cycle till the proper end. It can have ...
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The Proofreading Function of Coronavirus Polymerases

I have heard that the Coronavirus family have a proofreading and editing function in their polymerase enzymes which can recognize and excise mutations. This is obviously disastrous for the population ...
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Testing a COVID-19 vaccine on a large sample space of population from different nationalities

I came across an article few days ago, while checking the number of canditates for vaccines about COVID-19 where Sinopharm's vaccine development's trial phase caught my eye. The article says that: In ...
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Can viruses be reintroduced to humans from ice sheets?

A comment on reddit mockingly say because the ice is melting away due to global warming, this new virus came out of the melted ice sheets It has 60+ upvotes and no one replied Is it possible for ...
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Coronavirus: Why does soap inactivate the virus on skin, but not on surfaces?

In a comment on "Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions", published today in The Lancet Microbe, it is stated that household soap is highly effective on the skin. Not ...
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What prevents the translation of the negative strand of negative-sense viral genomic RNA?

Some RNA viruses contain negative-sense RNA. Then they use this negative-sense RNA to make positive-sense RNA that is then translated into protein. My question is what prevents the translational ...
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Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
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What is a subgenomic promotor? [closed]

I am looking for a good definition of the term "subgenomic promotor". Can someone help me out?
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What kind of people are more likely to catch COVID-19?

It is well known that people of old age or with respiratory problems are more vulnerable by the effects of COVID-19. However, I wasn't able to find information on any similar trends on catching the ...
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How can I separate the abundance of the incidence results?

I must calculate the incidence values for Watermelon Mosaic Virus in different seasons within of habitat factor. This incidence data comes from infection detection of some plant sampled in different ...
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How can viruses spread so fast in a plaque assay?

I understand the basic idea of viral plaque assay, but I don't understand how the virus spreads so quickly in the culture. For example, at 1:30 in an educational video about the subject, you can see ...
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Can we develop a virus which is amicable for us but deadly for SARS-CoV-2 and HIV?

I am not biologist and do not have special education in it etc. It is know that in the wild, some species have their deadly enemies. What I am suggesting is can we humans find/create virus that is ...
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What is meant by 'proteolytic activation' of a virus?

Noob biologist here. I suspect that at the first stage this means 'activating the virus by lysis of a surface/spike protein'? Seems kind of obvious, but I put it here in case 'proteolytic activation' ...
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Do DNA viroids exist?

Viroids are described as short circular ssRNA with no protein coating. Are there any analogous infectious particles that contain DNA instead of RNA? If DNA viroids do not exist, is there an obvious ...
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Eradication of HIV

If the last person with AIDS dies, does that mean the disease/virus has been eradicated forever? Since the disease can ever only be transmitted, shouldn't it be possible to completely remove it from ...
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Is there any description about how microbes spread from a small place to a very large place?

Is there any materials (such as books, papers or others) about how microbes (such as the bacteria or virus) or a special kind of microbe spread from a small place to a very large area (such as the ...
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For how long viruses survive in non-air moisture environments?

On the Internet there are plenty of information that viruses don't live long after they were exposed to air, after they starting to dry out. But it's hard to find an information on how long viruses ...
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Why is there no herd immunity against common cold coronaviruses?

In discussions of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 the underlying assumption usually appears to be that the virus basically stops spreading once a sufficient percentage of the population has overcome ...
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Examples of things that are undefined in terms of living and non-living

I'm putting together a class on basic biology for kids and I will discuss living and non-living. I'm looking for examples of things which are undefined in terms of living and non-living, if there are ...
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Coronavirus and temperatures

An article on bioRxiv, Evaluation of heating and chemical protocols for inactivating SARS-CoV-2, recommends certain treatments to inactivate SARS-Cov-2 for lab work. The abstract notes: "Although ...
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Are there any DNA viruses with junk DNA in them?

I know mimiviruses and pandoraviruses have orphan DNA - DNA that is not found in other species - but this is DNA that codes for proteins. I am not able to find out if they contain junk DNA. By junk I ...
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What is the Icosahedral Matrices?

This website introduces the "Icosahedral Matrices". What are the locations of the other half? It only shows around 30 numbers of the 60 facets. So how to know the other 30 numbers on the back? The ...
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Do viruses pickup new genetic sequences from the host cell?

Virus replication does not involve meiosis so the virus genome does not gain diversity from having two parents , so other than from mutation, do viruses obtain new genetic sequences from the host cell ...
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How much heat for how long to Kill RHDV?

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by the Virus RHDV. There are two verisions V1 & V2. It is extremely devastating to both pet and wild rabbits. With fatality rates reports of 75%+. It is ...
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Do viruses or bacteria have a flavour?

My 9 year old niece asked me this when I was explaining some stuff to her about the coronavirus. She asked "What does this virus taste like? Can I tell whether my sandwich is contaminated for ...
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Can human pathogens present on plants become plant pathogens?

Since human pathogens sometimes live on the surface of plant leaves(read here and and here), and there are plant-pathogen microbes also living on leaf surfaces, is it possible for plant virulence ...
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Are the social-distancing measures implemented against SARS-CoV-2 also suppressing the spread of other viruses?

With social-distancing measures being implemented in many countries I would expect other viruses, like the ones that cause seasonal flus, to have also a hard time propagating in these circumstances. ...
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VPg priming of the replication of RNA viruses

I'm doing a presentation on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 for my chemistry class, and I found that to replicate its RNA, the virus uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is primed by a VPg primer. ...
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How do viruses such as COVID-9 and flu return in the winter if they disappear in the summer?

COVID-19 is gone from the body after a short time, and the maximum time of exposure to showing the symptoms is two weeks. So if no one gets sick for two or three months, how would it return in the ...
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Effect of soap on the survival of non-enveloped viruses

As I understand it, non-enveloped viruses are not annihilated by alcohol or have lipid layers to get soluble in soap micelle. Does soap remove non-enveloped viruses and does hand wash help in their ...
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What fraction of human cells gets infected during a viral infection?

As I understand, if a cell gets infected during a viral infection then it eventually dies. If an individual does not die of an infection, the percentage of cells that gets infected in the course of ...
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Why viruses “die” outside the host? [duplicate]

Why viruses "die" outside the host after sufficient time? I want to know the biological process behind it. What role being exposed to air plays in virus destruction? What role sunlight plays in the ...
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Why all negative ssRNA viruses have helical capsids?

You can always say it's a coincidence, but is there particular need to have a helical capsid? Do they need their RNA to be more protected than +ssRNA? Is it better for RdRp attachment? This paper ...
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How effective is rinsing in removing microbes from surfaces

Microbes including viruses stay alive on surfaces depending upon the type of the surface like steel, wood, plastic, glass, marble etc. How effective is rinsing these surfaces with tap water in ...
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How is minimum infectious dose defined?

I'm a bit confused by the concept of a minimum infectious dose (MID). It seems from what my research so far has turned up, that while any dose greater than 0 could potentially cause an infection, for ...
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Triangulation number of the SARS CoV-19 virus

Is the triangulation number of the SARS CoV-19 virus capsid, in the sense of the Caspar-Klug theory, known? In case the Caspar-Klug theory does not apply to it, is it known what is its tiling, in ...
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Why do viruses cause different symptoms?

If the sole purpose of a virus is to hijack the nucleus of a cell to replicate, why do we have different symptoms for different viruses? I can think of the following comming into play: immune ...
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Does the cell release the empty capsids?

The virus via the spike of the capsid connects to a receptor in a cell, then the DNA enters the cell wall. My question is what happens to the capsid - does it stay connected to the receptor or is ...
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Do we know if dogs are asymptomatic transmiters of sars-cov-2?

Dogs do not use mask when going for a walk nor they observe the security distance. On the contrary, they frequently join their noses, and put their noses where other dogs had put them before or had ...
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Can/have bacteria been engineered to express ACE 2 receptors?

In light of SARS-COV-2 binding to the ACE 2 protein in human cells, I was wondering if any bacteria exist or could exist that possess this membrane protein. If not, do you believe that an ACE 2 like ...

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