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Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Can someone have HSV-1 both orally and genitally?

Suppose person X has oral HSV-1. Can X get genital HSV-1 from person X' with genital HSV-1?
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Can vaccines move from person to person?

Can someone who has been given a vaccine "infect" another person with the virus used in that vaccine? For example, let's say Bill is vaccinated against tuberculosis. If Frank is exposed to Bill, is ...
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How Would I Isolate and Amplify a Viral Enzyme?

what procedures would I use to isolate and amplify integrase? If I am trying to study the integrase enzyme which is found in HIV how would I 1) destroy the viral capsule to release its contents. 2) ...
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How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
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Does the Immune System Attack Viruses Directly?

I'm aware that there are many ways for the immune system to detect and attack virus-infected cells, but is there any way for the immune system to detect and attack viruses not currently in cells yet? ...
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Virus plaque assay, pfu/ml calculation on plates with too little plaques formed

I am a student, so I hope it is okay to put this question here. I've done the virus plaque assay in a practical recently and have a few questions regarding the plaque count for pfu calculation. In ...
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Are there any viruses that integrate their DNA into organellar DNA?

It is known that many viruses (e.g. retroviridae) integrate in the nuclear genome of their host as part of their cycle. However, I'd like to know if integration can happen in organellar DNA (cpDNA and ...
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How do reoviruses manage to get nuceic acids inside their core given they stay in the host cell to replicate ?

To avoid host cell shut off and apoptosis, reoviruses produce capped mRNA internally within a core particle and the only viral genome released in the cytoplasm of the infected cells is ssRNA. Where ...
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Why do we have an immune system?

My daughter asked a question that I could not answer. If you have a cold, you have symptoms such as fever, cold and sore throat. These symptoms, however, are the reactions of the immune system to ...
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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How do antivirals function by altering the cells genetic material?

In my syllabus, it says that one mechanism of antiviral actions is that "Antiviral drugs may work by altering the cell’s genetic material so that the virus cannot use it to multiply". However, when I ...
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Is the antigenic drift of an influenza virus affected by human population size/movement?

I have data telling me that there is more antigenic drift of an Influenza A virus occurring in London than other cities in England. Would it be reasonable to assume due to London's larger size and ...
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Where can I find hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data?

I am looking for hemagglutination inhibition assay data for type A influenza virus. I've checked in databases such as fludb.com, however it seems to only have genetic data. A lot of the time, ...
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For how long would a flu-contaminated parcel be an effective disease vector?

A parcel has been delivered and contaminated by a person who has the flu. For how long would the parcel be an effective disease vector?
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Could a human become infected with rabies in such a way that even prior vaccination wouldn't stop the infection?

Given the highly persistent nature of rabies after entering the brain, I was wondering whether certain ways of exposure to this virus could be risky even for a previously vaccinated individual. I ...
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What means a vírus prototype strain?

Whats means the term (prototype vírus strain)is a first virus isolated and without mutations?
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Pox virus infection process

How does Pox virus duplicate it's genome? Does it bring DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase into the host cell?
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Is rabies virus infectious outside host?

Can rabies virus remain infectious on environment i.e on soil, grasses, leaves and water?
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Why do some viruses have only one serotype, but others have many?

Some viruses, like the virus that causes mumps, have only a single serotype, meaning that variants of the disease are immunologically identical. However, other viruses, like the influenza virus family,...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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Is it theoretically possible to safely eliminate most viruses in the atmosphere, hence preemptively cure all the viral diseases? [closed]

Could we create a genetically modified virus or bacteria (with inability to mutate into something dangerous for animals) that would quickly spread all over the planet and selectively kill most of the ...
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If virus is an inanimate(non-living) structure, why it poses tendency/intelligence to spread itself to others?

A virus has no aim, no agency but just a chemical propagation(DNAs, RNAs). Still, it accounts for millions of deaths and horrible nature. Rabies, for example, is a very deadly disease with a fatality ...
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What characteristics do living organisms (like humans or plants) have that viruses don't? [duplicate]

I am not too sure if viruses are considered living organisms. I learned that living organism: -Change their size -Reproduce -Heal themselves -Need energy (by eating) -React to the environment -...
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Why don't retroviruses kill everything? Show math? [closed]

Each retrovirus produces thousands of copies. They would spread and kill every cell in the body in a few days. I would like to see the math behind how this doesn't happen.
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Are there examples of non-pathogenic RNA viruses?

There do seem to be some non-pathogenic DNA viruses, for example Foamy virus. Non-pathogenic viruses would be great to use for gene therapy applications, except DNA viruses incorporate themselves into ...
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Do viruses go viral?

Wikipedia defines a viral phenomenon as: ... objects or patterns that are able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them. ...
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Mechanism Behind Viral Capsid Breakdown When In Cell

In the example of a retrovirus, after the lipid bilayer fuses with the membrane of the cell, the capsid dissolves releasing the viral content. What is the mechanism behind the capsid dissolving? I ...
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Is a lower wavelength UV-C more effective than higher wavelength for sanitization?

Is it more beneficial to use a lower wavelength UV-C bulb? For example, using a 180 nm UV-C bulb instead of 254 nm. I know the 180 nm bulb will produce ozone, which is very useful for filtration of ...
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Why there is no vaccine against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?

I was informed by my teacher that this retrovirus changes its RNA, so there is not a drug which can recognize the RNA and somehow inactivates it. Are there any other reasons explaining why there isn't ...
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Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
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Is there any evidence that smallpox immunity or resistance is heritable

Is any means by which smallpox would lead to genocide of the native Americans?
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What is the difference between a viral strain and a viral isolate?

Both are characterized, their genes are usually described and published, they are kept safe, they could be used as inoculum or to produce vaccine... Would it be correct to say a strain would be ...
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Do beneficial viruses exist? If so, what examples are there?

Typically, people call viruses some kind of organic compounds that cannot reproduce autonomously and which lower the fitness of their hosts. Even the word "virus" means "venom" in Latin. But from the ...
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Why are there multiple sequences for the same segment for an individual “strain” of influenza?

I am looking at the genome of the influenza virus being used in the flu vaccine 2017-2018: A/Michigan/45/2015. When I look below at the individual segments, there are 4 sequences for each segment - ...
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Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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What is the difference between a virus and virion

What is the difference between a virus and virion. Correct me if i am wrong but i think that one can simply say that " virus outside a cell is called a virion" and that this stage is used to go from ...
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Do all retroviruses evolve into dna viruses? [closed]

Since even nonprocreative sex transfers genetic material it seems redundant for viruses to destroy the host. Retroviruses are sufficiently simple to fit into DNA. So why not just become DNA viruses?
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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How long does HIV take to penetrate the mucosae?

In articles, such as this, the biology of the HIV infection is explained. However, i haven't been able to find any research explaining how long the virus takes to penetrate the cell layer. The article ...
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Rabies transmission via barking

According to CDC, non-bite exposure includes scratches, abrasion, and contamination of the mucous membrane from a rabid animal's saliva. So, is it possible to catch rabies if a rapid animal barks ...
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Eveloped virus identification

Is Hemadsorption Innhibition enough to identify all enveloped virus? Or are there cases in which Hemadsorption innhibition will not work?
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Immunofluoresence and vaccines

Can you use indirect immounofluoresence to verify if a vaccine will work against a virus? Using the vaccine antibodies against the virus, plus a second antibody with fluorophore that will join the ...
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How to dissociate a viral particle into constituent proteins?

Is it possible to take purified a virus particle and dissociate it into a mixture of its constituent proteins (and nucleic acids)? I am wondering if it would be possible to disassemble the particle ...
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largest and smallest gram positive, gram negative and fungal pathogens

As I stumbled through this question: A 16-year-old female patient presented to her family physician with a complaint of an abnormal vaginal discharge and pruritus (itching). The patient ...
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Is “Virus” a part of Acaryote?

I am just a beginner of BIOLOGY as a Grade 7 student! But the information which I got from my textbook and Internet has got me confused as MY TEXTBOOK SAID:- Viruses are part of "Akaryote" And '...
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What is the difference between operator mutant and repressor mutant lambda viruses?

I wanted to know what the difference between the operator mutant and repressor mutant lambda bacteriophages is and how do they act on E. coli cells.
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How to estimate MOI for a complex cell type

I am currently confused about the estimation of multiplicity of infection (MOI), here is an example in a scientific article in figure 3b, they tested the virus, and get estimated MOI based on this: ...
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Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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Do we know that PrEP actually prevents infection, rather than masking it?

Pre-exposure prophylactic treatment (PrEP) for HIV is commonly said to reduce infection rates by more than 75%. Similar treatments for already-infected patient treatments do not cure HIV, but reduce ...
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Shapes of Viruses

My textbook says that the Influenza Virus has helical structure. In the above image, 1) The RNA is helical. But according to many sources, the capsid determines the overall shape of the virus. So, ...