Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Are lockdowns enhancing COVID-19? [duplicate]

It is well known that through natural selection organisms pass down "well-equipped" genes to their offspring. Therefore, the newer generations are better adapted to their environment. If ...
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Virus variant transmissibility: empirical data or spike protein shape?

Well first I am not in the field of Biology or Medical Sciences. Since these days we are waiting scientists to tell us if the Indian variant of SARS Cov 2 is more transmissible than the original virus,...
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Coinfecting oncolytic viruses - first virus carrying the receptor for the second

One challenge to using oncolytic viruses as a treatment for cancer is that the viruses may cause off-target effects. I'm curious to know how useful it would be to create an oncolytic virus that has ...
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Which viruses still present today caused a deadly pandemic/epidemic in the past?

The current Covid-19 pandemic and its virus Sars-Cov-2 can be dangerous, especially for vulnerable groups like the elders. But however, I have seen studies that this virus become less dangerous in the ...
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Does rabies makes humans aggressive? [closed]

In fiction, rabies has been the basis of science fiction/horror flicks and I think in Old Yeller or some such non-horror novel a man who was bitten has himself tied to a tree before rabies takes hold. ...
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SARS-CoV - relative size of the spike protein

I was given the task of determining the percentage of the S-protein of the SARS-CoV relative to the total of its proteins from the attached image. However, I have been given no explanation of the ...
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1answer
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Acquiring Covid-19 vaccination through kissing with viral vector vaccinated person

The mechanism of COVID-19 viral vector based vaccines (AstraZeneca - Vaxzevria, Johnsen, Sputnik V - Gam-COVID-Vac, Johnson & Johnson - Janssen, etc. ) is delivering the genetic information of the ...
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The effect of low pH on HIV virus

I've read a couple of articles that state that HIV is an enveloped Retrovirus that is so sensitive to the acidity of the environment and it cannot survive or will be inactivated at pH below 7. What ...
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Could vaccinating a person with a current infection potentially cause a virus to mutate and recognize the vaccine?

In the context of Covid-19, would it be dangerous to mass vaccinate a population without testing for a current infection when the virus is live in a host (body)? By introducing the vaccine while the ...
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Does the false positive covid-19 PCR % referred to by Surkova & Nikolayevskyy in The Lancet mean % of all tests, or % of positive tests?

In False-positive COVID-19 results: hidden problems and costs it is said: The current rate of operational false-positive swab tests in the UK is unknown; preliminary estimates show it could be ...
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What does T and the numbers mean in T coliphages?

I have searched a number of websites and articles relating to nomenclatures or phages but never found anything explaining what T in T-4,5,6.. Phages mean in the Coliphages. Also, what does the number ...
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Does a virus that spreads more rapidly have less chance to evolve?

Now that the COVID-19 pandemic has been going on for a while, there are reports of many new variants, which have presumably arisen in the past year through mutation and spread through natural ...
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Is a virus a living thing ? If so what Kingdom of Living things should it belong? [duplicate]

Even though viruses have some of the characteristic of living things , they cannot reproduce on their own. With the covid-19 pandemic many are suggesting ways to kill the virus. If they have now ...
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HPV. How do viruses persist outside the body?

The main route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is generally believed to be sexual. While fomites have been postulated for inexplicable infections, sexual health professionals regularly ...
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1answer
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SARS-COV-2 replication speed

What is the speed of replication of SC2? Any information, including in vitro data would be appreciated. I would be interested to know the length of SC2 eclipse period, latent period and something like ...
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Can a cell receive multiple copies of an insert when using different MOIs?

I want to transduce a cell line with virus that carries a specific insert. When using different Multiplicity of Infection (MOI), I expect to get different percentage of transduced cells, but is it ...
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Evidences supporting that coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) came from bats

I was trying to find evidence that the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) came from bats. So far I know that coronavirus shared 96.2% overall genome sequence identity with a bat coronavirus RaTG13 from ...
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How does the inactivation process of vaccines work on a cellular level? e.g. how does an inactivated virus look really?

it's very easy to find information what is an inactivated or dead virus, more or less. But I want the full detail. If you heat treat a virus, what is left of it? like chopping the virus into pieces? ...
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1answer
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How many coronavirus particles are in the body at the peak?

How many coronavirus (or other common virus) particles are in the body at the peak? How far it multiplies? Are there billions, trillions or other number of them?
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
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Covid-19 is a respiratory illness. So how could you catch it by touch?

The U.S. department of agriculture put out a statement in February 2021 in which they wished to underscore that at the time there is no epidemiologic or scientific information that COVID-19 spreads ...
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Are there phage-eating bacteria?

If phages (bacterium-eating viruses) prowl on bacteria, are there bacteria (or other micro-organisms) that hunt phages for food? They are rich in proteins anyway... Are there studies on this subject? ...
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The probability meaning of Covid variants

In the CDC webpage about Covid-19's variants the next sentence appears: This (the United Kingdom) variant spreads more easily and quickly than other variants. In the ECDC paper about Covid-19's ...
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Is there a reliable reproduction rate for adenoviruses?

I was trying to find a R0 for adenoviruses but the best I could find was a study done in a bootcamp in China that infected 375 people. This states that the R0 was found to be 5.1: The basic ...
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1answer
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What is disease risk?

I would like to find an accurate definition of disease risk for virus ecology. I am searching in articles and in none of them this term is defined, they only mention it. ...
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With an mRNA-vaccine, would it hypothetically be possible to get that sequence transcribed into their genome for people who suffer from a retrovirus?

I recently read a bit about the mRNA-vaccines for COVID-2019. I fully understand that mRNA cannot enter the genome of a healthy person as they lack the required reverse transcriptase required to ...
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Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
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How is SARS-CoV-2 'deactivated' for some Covid vaccines (for example Covaxin)? [closed]

Some Covid vaccines like Covaxin employ a 'Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell'. How is the virion 'deactivated' for the vaccine?
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When does one decide to refer to a virus as a new variant?

I've read that SARS-Cov-2 has several variants, e.g.: Can the U.S. keep Covid variants in check? Here's what it takes. Novavax’s Vaccine Works Well — Except on Variant First Found in South Africa ...
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Is viral single-stranded RNA in the absence of reverse transcriptase infectious?

In a medical microbiology textbook I'm reading (Murray et al, 1994), the authors state the following: The retrovirus genome has a 5' cap and is polyadenylated at the 3' end. Although the genome ...
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Do plant viruses attack animals? examples? [duplicate]

Do plant viruses attack animals, if yes please give an example of the virus. I feel both plant and animal viruses are different, and they cannot attack each other hosts.
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How are vaccines mass-produced?

I have a background in product design and so am familiar with with how most things are mass-produced — food, machines, etc. But I've been able to find very little information on how vaccines are mass-...
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How do plants prevent infection from retroviruses? [duplicate]

Why are plants not affected by animal viruses such as retroviruses? What prevents them from being infected?
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What is the consensus in the scientific community over COVID-19's mode of transmission?

I've read from many news and scientific sources that COVID spreads primarily through respiratory droplets, but I've also read multiple sources that have said we don't entirely know yet. Is it fomites, ...
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Can a virus infect a virus?

As far as I know a virus can infect any cellular organism from a bacteria onwards, including protists, algae, plants, and so forth. But can a virus infect a virus?
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1answer
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Sensitivity vs. Limit of Detection of rapid antigen tests

I'm comparing a bunch of SARS-CoV2 rapid antigen tests: Source Columns 4 and 6 list the values for sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD). How come that a test with a several times lower limit of ...
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1answer
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Minimum and maximum exposure to virus

Is it possible to say that there is a maximum exposure time for the virus so that even an exposure time beyond that - will leave us with the same chances of infection? If so, is there a way to ...
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How do viroids and virusoids cause infection to a specific host ? How could they indentify the host without protein?

We know, the capsule provides specific pathogenecity for the virus right ? Then , how do viroids and virusoids cause infection to a specific host ? How could they indentify the host without protein ?...
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Why do some vaccines lose their efficacy with time?

Why do some vaccines lose with time their efficacy? The two obvious examples that I have in mind are influenza and tetanus. The former case is clear, as influenza virus undergoes frequent gene ...
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How do adenoviruses interact with muscle tissue that it makes them acceptable as vector viruses?

From what I understand certain attenuated adenoviruses are popular as a vector virus, meaning a virus that is used as the active agent in a vaccine to infect cells and trigger a helpful immune ...
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What makes some viruses more infectious than others?

This week a new strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was discovered in the UK, and reports are saying that it's more infectious than the strains we've been dealing with for the past year. Which made me ...
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What is the probability of virus undergoing a specific dangerous mutation? [closed]

Non-biologist here so apologies if the question is violating too many of the community standards for asking a question in the forum. What got me thinking was imagining how much more terrifying the ...
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Coronavirus mutation: bad luck or a consequence of vaccination?

I would like to know whether a mutation within a virus (such as the new coronavirus mutation that appeared in England source) is a consequence of the vaccination program - maybe because it is ...
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Surrogate (CTL-1) for Influenza A

Can anyone please advise some possible commercially available (off the shelf) level 1 alternatives for Flu virus? The idea is to capture this virus on a special material. So the 'replacement' should ...
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How can mutation of viruses lead to loss of fit to antibodies without loss of fit to antigen of cells they infect?

Viruses are known to mutate, thereby escaping immune cells and evading vaccination. Given that there is one and the same specificity of the key to both the receptor on the infected cell causing the ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to spread vaccine through air?

I am not a biology people. But this question has been bothering me for months. I read the news that, even if an effective vaccine (for Covid-19) successfully created, the transport of the vaccine and ...
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To a population with no immunity, why is smallpox or measles more deadly compared to COVID-19?

Specifically, this is not a question asking how easily a virus spread in a population (airborne, asymptomatic spread, etc), but regarding the mechanism or the "havoc" it wreaks once inside a ...
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Why does vaccine development take so long?

The main principle behind a vaccine is to take a deactivated virus, "show" it to the immune system so it can "learn" how it looks like, so if and when the real virus does attack us,...
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What does vaccine efficacy mean?

In the last few weeks, Pfizer/BionTech, Moderna and AstraZeneca have each released preliminary estimates of the efficacy of their SARS-COV-2 vaccines. But what do their respective efficacy percentages ...
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How does HIV know to attack specific immune system cells?

I'm no biologist, but curious of the answer to which I could not find online. How are Human Immunodeficiency viruses able to detect and distinguish immune system cells with a CD4 receptor on the ...

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