Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Is corona virus pandemic SIS, SIR or SIRS type epidemiological model model?

This question is halway between realms of Mathematics and Epidemiology. But the particular fact I am looking for is best suited here. To put simply, which of the following cases is true for corona ...
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Does covid-19 has any particular host? Can it do effect other living things

Till now I'm not heard about any other beings affected by the covid-19 of its correct then explain your thoughts
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Zinc, zinc ionophores and viruses

I see that scientist are sometimes trying to use so called "zinc ionophores" to get human cells to take up more zinc. Zinc is believed to sometimes reduce the ability of viruses to replicate, maybe ...
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What are the exact characteristics for something to be considered a novel virus? [closed]

I've heard viruses being referred to as "novel" - is there an exact definition for what this means?
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Are viruses a link between living and non-living things? [closed]

I think they are not since they evolve much later from cells .Is my reasoning right or I am wrong?
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If rabies always kills its hosts, must there be some animal that is an asymptomatic carrier?

I searched a lot on the Internet, but I am not clear about the spread of the rabies virus. As I understand, rabies kills any animal it infects—cats, dogs, foxes, bats, humans. If it kills all of its ...
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How many antibodies exist in the blood stream while the human body is fighting a virus?

Let a be an antibody of a specific virus v produced by the human body when infected. Call ...
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Are the conclusions in “The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2” legit? [duplicate]

I don't have any background in genetics and bioinformatics, so I ask you if you think that the arguments provided in the article The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2 by Andersen et al. are convincing. In ...
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Could COVID-19 have been created in a lab using the data gained from the reconstructed 1918 Spanish Flu virus? [closed]

The 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic virus (Influenza A, H1N1) was reconstructed in a CDC laboratory back in 2005. The CDC then published how their researchers were able to accomplish this and the article ...
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Does a virus survives longer on a dirty surface?

With the current COVID-19 situation, there are many conflicting information about virus survival on various surfaces. My layman understanding of the replication of a virus (or specifically the COVID-...
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Question regarding a virus injecting its genetic material into a host cell

In Mukherjee's The Emperor of All Maladies, he writes "viruses infect cells, produce more viruses, and infect more cells, but they do not directly affect the genetic makeup, the DNA of the cell." He ...
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Once a virus has attached to the host cell, how does it break the cell membrane of the host cell?

The virus has no machinery to produce proteases when it is outside the cell, then how does produce the proteases required to lyse the cell membrane of the host cell?
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How long does corona virus last on paper?

I’ve see multiple sites citing research that found the active virus particles being able to survive on cardboard for about 24 hours. I’ve seen less on clothes and more on hard surfaces like steel ...
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A poor man's COVID-19 vaccine? [closed]

If person A is infected (COVID-19) and person B is not, could the following work as a vaccination? Person A exhales (coughs?) into a a transparent bag. The bag is radiated for a long time with a ...
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Do all Viruses have the same RNA [closed]

Let's take the Influenzavirus as an example, and I have 5 of it. Would all 5 viruses have the same RNA with the same base order? Or would the RNA base order differ from eachother?
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SARS-CoV virus stability at low temperatures

For SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV1 this study published in NEJM by a NIAID team was done at a temperature of 21-23°C (see the Methods section in their supplemental material). What's known about virus ...
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CoV SARS killed/ depleted with temperature & humidity conditions - Any such R&D for Corona Covid-19 virus? [closed]

What are the environmental conditions for SARS-CoV-2 to survive? CoV SARS killed or depleted with temperature & humidity conditions - Is there any such R&D for Corona Covid-19 virus? The ...
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Have new viruses been observed in the lab?

They say bats act as mixing vessels, and if a bat has several viruses then they can recombine to create new viruses like covid19. Has this ever been observed in the lab, ie, infect a lab bat with ...
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packaging of influenza RNA segments

How can the influenza A virus package its 8 different RNA segments? Is there is a special mechanism to ensure each virus particle gets the eight different segments? I doubt it is done at random ...
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Isopropyl + ethanol as effective disinfectant/biocide

So I have 1 liter of isopropyl alcohol 99.9% and I would like to make it more effective (make it 70% concentration) and at the same time make it last longer as there's a shortage off this stuff. So I ...
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Does a virus have a well defined shape?

I assumed a virus to be something with a very specific geometry, similar to a crystal, but more complex. In an answer to What is the size (diameter) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus? some SARS-CoV-2 virus ...
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Is there software simulating virology experiments like LTspice XVII simulating electronic circuits? [closed]

I want a software if existed to simulate what happens when a virus attacks a bacteria or other organisms. It can change a parameter of the viruses.
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What is the definition of a polybasic cleavage site?

I keep coming across the term "polybasic cleavage site" which is implicated in increasing the virulence of many viruses, but I'm struggling to find a definition. Is it just a sequence of amino acids ...
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How is Covid-19 tested? If I had been infected before and recovered, will I still test positive? [closed]

I suspected I had an infection in December. Theories of its origins aside, if I had been infected and recovered (not sure how it's medically defined or after 14 days, where transmission is highly ...
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Can Covid19 cure by CRISSPR-Cas9 treatment? [closed]

My colleague assumes that COVID19 is effecting the genetics, Also I was reading about CRISPR Genetics modification, Just wondering, can wether this cure Covid19s' patients. Detection: {If they can ...
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Can virus and bacteria move on the surface? [duplicate]

Do viruses/bacteria have some motive mechanism? I mean if the virus/bacteria reach some surface by touching, can it move on that surface? Life example: suppose the cooler is not so clean and has ...
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Could a virus produce prions, leading to prion disease? [closed]

Viruses can make cells produce proteins that are not a part of the new viruses themselves, but are used to help with replication. However in the case of rotavirus, one of these proteins (NSP4) is ...
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How do the first people get infected every year of seasonal flu? [closed]

Every winter, another mutation of flu appears and spreads. In summer, people recover. And the next winter, we start over with another variety of the flu. The virus spreads from person to person. But ...
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If every person between 15-60 had an immune system equal to the healthiest people, would this affect the spread of coronavirus?

Has anyone calculated the speed or breadth of the spread of something like coronavirus (or any cold, flu, airborne pathogen) based on how well the population can master the virus with their immune ...
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Are there any documented instances of coronaviruses being directly transmitted from bats to humans?

Many human coronaviruses have ancestral host origins in species of bat. However, all instances I am aware of identified other animals as intermediary vectors: SARS-CoV: Human ← Palm Civet / Raccoon ← ...
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Would “Pox Parties” of the young/healthy (while isolating the vulnerable) be an effective method of combating the COVID-19 outbreak?

It is commonly said that most people, especially the healthiest would only develop mild syndromes. Therefore, shouldn’t we, instead of confining all the population as a whole proceed as follows : ...
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Virus viability on fabrics

According to the article How long do viruses live on surfaces: Plastic, stainless steel, fabric, and more: With fabrics, it's unclear how long viruses can last. But generally, they tend to last ...
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Can you be immune to a coronavirus?

Can one be immune to the new coronavirus? Another question is what is the exact definition of "being immune". Does it mean that even when the virus enters my system, it cannot multiply?
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How effective is spraying disinfectant on streets?

I always wondered how effective spaying disinfectant onto outdoor ground is. Source: Wikimedia I understand that viruses and bacteria will sink down to the ground. I further understand that ...
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Would symptoms differ from eating virus contaminated food versus breathing in virus?

Would symptoms differ from eating virus contaminated food versus breathing in virus? The COVID-19 causes respiratory symptoms and I guess that is because people are breathing in virus droplets in ...
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What is the formula to calculate $R_0$ (basic reproduction number)?

What is the mathematical formula for $R_0$ and what does each variable represent? I have tried searching this to no avail.
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Is Coronavirus killing by aggravating the immune system?

The widespread Covid-19 is affecting the elderly the most. The reason being given for this is that they have a weak immune system. However, what is surprising is that the virus is not affecting ...
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Can you be infected by two coronaviruses at once?

E.g. could you be infected by COVID-19 as well as a different strand of coronaviruses (e.g. those that circulate in the population every flu season)?
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How can a virus be determined to cause a disease?

How can a virus be determined to cause a disease? From other posts I have read here, humans carry hundreds of different strains of viruses. How is a study structured and carried out to determine ...
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If the covid-19 appeared once, could it reappear anytime?

Governments are imposing confinement measures on their populations, trusting that if there is no more transmission the virus will die out. But since this coronavirus appeared a first time, what could ...
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Is COVID-19 more deadly than swine flu?

I have a question about the novel coronavirus and swine flu. How do the death rates compare between the two diseases? How do the transmissions and rate of transmission compare? Was a vaccine ...
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Why does increased humidity decrease coronavirus “survival”?

All news I can see scientist telling that the SARS-CoV-2 virus survive more in cold and dry weather. I can understand cold as hot weather will desiccate virus, but why dry weather. Would not dry ...
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What's the difference between mutation and substitution rates?

The Wikipedia section on substitution rates (shown below) isn't clear to me. What's the precise definition and difference between mutation and substitution rates, and how do they relate to each other? ...
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How are Viruses Genetically Modified?

Okay everyone, so I get that you can perform lysis on a bacterium to extract the plasmid, then alter the plasmid using restriction enzymes and ligase, and re insert it back into the bacterium with ...
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Why don't anti-viral drugs “Acyclovir” work against corona viruses?

I've always used Acyclovir to treat cold sores, why doesn't it work on other viruses? how does coronavirus differ from herpes virus?
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Why are victims of Covid19 being wrapped in plastic?

Several articles describe the unique ways Covid-19 patients are being buried. For example, in this Reuters article about Israel: These included decontaminating and hermetically wrapping bodies in ...
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Is there any mechanism that prevents deadly virus with low contagion rate to mutate and increase the contagion rate?

Take for example the HIV virus. If untracted1 the HIV virus has an overall mortality rate of 90%, but fortunately for us it is relatively difficult (w.r.t an influenza, for example) to contract it. ...
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Could blood transfusions from COVID19 surviver be worth researching as a possible form of treatment

As a general viral immunology question (rather than seeking personal medical advice). Would a blood transfusion from a COVID19 surviver to a sufferer be worth researching as a possible form of ...
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Viral mutation rates and replication

TL;DR What's the relationship between the following? Mutation rates (expressed as "mutations per year" for a virus like e.g. COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). E.g. this article mentions "The rate looks to be ...
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Is Covid-19 likely to mutate into a deadlier form?

When the Spanish influenza hit in 1918, it struck in two waves. The first wave was typical for a flu virus, targetting mainly elderly people, but the second wave was far deadlier and killed far more ...

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