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Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Pox virus infection process

How does Pox virus duplicate it's genome? Does it bring DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase into the host cell?
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Is rabies virus infectious outside host?

Can rabies virus remain infectious on environment i.e on soil, grasses, leaves and water?
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Why do some viruses have only one serotype, but others have many?

Some viruses, like the virus that causes mumps, have only a single serotype, meaning that variants of the disease are immunologically identical. However, other viruses, like the influenza virus family,...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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Is it theoretically possible to safely eliminate most viruses in the atmosphere, hence preemptively cure all the viral diseases? [closed]

Could we create a genetically modified virus or bacteria (with inability to mutate into something dangerous for animals) that would quickly spread all over the planet and selectively kill most of the ...
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If virus is an inanimate(non-living) structure, why it poses tendency/intelligence to spread itself to others?

A virus has no aim, no agency but just a chemical propagation(DNAs, RNAs). Still, it accounts for millions of deaths and horrible nature. Rabies, for example, is a very deadly disease with a fatality ...
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What characteristics do living organisms (like humans or plants) have that viruses don't? [duplicate]

I am not too sure if viruses are considered living organisms. I learned that living organism: -Change their size -Reproduce -Heal themselves -Need energy (by eating) -React to the environment -...
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Why don't retroviruses kill everything? Show math? [closed]

Each retrovirus produces thousands of copies. They would spread and kill every cell in the body in a few days. I would like to see the math behind how this doesn't happen.
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Are there examples of non-pathogenic RNA viruses?

There do seem to be some non-pathogenic DNA viruses, for example Foamy virus. Non-pathogenic viruses would be great to use for gene therapy applications, except DNA viruses incorporate themselves into ...
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Do viruses go viral?

Wikipedia defines a viral phenomenon as: ... objects or patterns that are able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them. ...
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Mechanism Behind Viral Capsid Breakdown When In Cell

In the example of a retrovirus, after the lipid bilayer fuses with the membrane of the cell, the capsid dissolves releasing the viral content. What is the mechanism behind the capsid dissolving? I ...
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Is a lower wavelength UV-C more effective than higher wavelength for sanitization?

Is it more beneficial to use a lower wavelength UV-C bulb? For example, using a 180 nm UV-C bulb instead of 254 nm. I know the 180 nm bulb will produce ozone, which is very useful for filtration of ...
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Why there is no vaccine against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)? [duplicate]

I was informed by my teacher that this retrovirus changes its RNA, so there is not a drug which can recognize the RNA and somehow inactivates it. Are there any other reasons explaining why there isn't ...
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Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
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Is there any evidence that smallpox immunity or resistance is heritable

Is any means by which smallpox would lead to genocide of the native Americans?
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What is the difference between a viral strain and a viral isolate?

Both are characterized, their genes are usually described and published, they are kept safe, they could be used as inoculum or to produce vaccine... Would it be correct to say a strain would be ...
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Do beneficial viruses exist? If so, what examples are there?

Typically, people call viruses some kind of organic compounds that cannot reproduce autonomously and which lower the fitness of their hosts. Even the word "virus" means "venom" in Latin. But from the ...
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Why are there multiple sequences for the same segment for an individual “strain” of influenza?

I am looking at the genome of the influenza virus being used in the flu vaccine 2017-2018: A/Michigan/45/2015. When I look below at the individual segments, there are 4 sequences for each segment - ...
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Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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What is the difference between a virus and virion

What is the difference between a virus and virion. Correct me if i am wrong but i think that one can simply say that " virus outside a cell is called a virion" and that this stage is used to go from ...
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Do all retroviruses evolve into dna viruses? [closed]

Since even nonprocreative sex transfers genetic material it seems redundant for viruses to destroy the host. Retroviruses are sufficiently simple to fit into DNA. So why not just become DNA viruses?
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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How long does HIV take to penetrate the mucosae?

In articles, such as this, the biology of the HIV infection is explained. However, i haven't been able to find any research explaining how long the virus takes to penetrate the cell layer. The article ...
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Rabies transmission via barking

According to CDC, non-bite exposure includes scratches, abrasion, and contamination of the mucous membrane from a rabid animal's saliva. So, is it possible to catch rabies if a rapid animal barks ...
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Eveloped virus identification

Is Hemadsorption Innhibition enough to identify all enveloped virus? Or are there cases in which Hemadsorption innhibition will not work?
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Immunofluoresence and vaccines

Can you use indirect immounofluoresence to verify if a vaccine will work against a virus? Using the vaccine antibodies against the virus, plus a second antibody with fluorophore that will join the ...
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How to dissociate a viral particle into constituent proteins?

Is it possible to take purified a virus particle and dissociate it into a mixture of its constituent proteins (and nucleic acids)? I am wondering if it would be possible to disassemble the particle ...
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largest and smallest gram positive, gram negative and fungal pathogens

As I stumbled through this question: A 16-year-old female patient presented to her family physician with a complaint of an abnormal vaginal discharge and pruritus (itching). The patient ...
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Is “Virus” a part of Acaryote?

I am just a beginner of BIOLOGY as a Grade 7 student! But the information which I got from my textbook and Internet has got me confused as MY TEXTBOOK SAID:- Viruses are part of "Akaryote" And '...
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What is the difference between operator mutant and repressor mutant lambda viruses?

I wanted to know what the difference between the operator mutant and repressor mutant lambda bacteriophages is and how do they act on E. coli cells.
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How to estimate MOI for a complex cell type

I am currently confused about the estimation of multiplicity of infection (MOI), here is an example in a scientific article in figure 3b, they tested the virus, and get estimated MOI based on this: ...
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Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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Do we know that PrEP actually prevents infection, rather than masking it?

Pre-exposure prophylactic treatment (PrEP) for HIV is commonly said to reduce infection rates by more than 75%. Similar treatments for already-infected patient treatments do not cure HIV, but reduce ...
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Shapes of Viruses

My textbook says that the Influenza Virus has helical structure. In the above image, 1) The RNA is helical. But according to many sources, the capsid determines the overall shape of the virus. So, ...
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Why Can't The Immune Systems of Uncontacted Tribes Handle Our Common Colds?

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...
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Which eradicated viruses still have remaining stockpiles? [closed]

Other than smallpox, I'm curious to know if there are any other stockpiles of eradicated or nearly eradicated viruses, and if so where are they located? Thank you.
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Do influenza viruses obey a Hayflick limit similar to human cells .. or do they spread and divide forever like HeLa?

I would think the latter since they are so simple and are parasitic but even proteins break down over time .. only found a few answers on the net and it was over a decade ago but nothing in any papers ...
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Virus immunity from animal to humans

There are number of virus which have animal as reservior and jump to human to cause disease. Why dont we use antibodies of animal to cure humans? Like rabies in bats.
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How many strains of influenza can occupy a person at one time? [closed]

Could a person's immune system be built eventually to be able to inject all the known strains with in to stay immune?
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Do viruses compete with each other or even infect each other? (Virus vs Virus)

I have read on a few websites that there can be competition between the viruses in a host for replication, nutrition etc. Do viruses fight against each other, i.e. are there viruses that infect or ...
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Catching a cold outside in winter? [duplicate]

We have all heard the typical “Put a jacket on youre going to catch a cold.” Usually stated by an older person typically a grandmother. Excuse the stereotype. Is there any evidence that colder weather ...
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What portion of America needs the Flu vaccine for herd immunity effects to become substantial?

I've been looking at the effectiveness of Flu vaccines, which are in my subjective opinion abysmal, and the concept of herd immunity. I see many articles which argue that we all need flu shots to ...
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Would it be correct to say that viruses are genotoxic? [closed]

I know it is an unconventional way to describe viruses, but would it still be technically correct?
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Can proteins from different viruses be gathered in one virus?

There is a biology project I must do with some of my classmates and we're facing a problem. We would like to choose proteins from different viruses that seem interesting to us (for example one protein ...
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Are there any bacteria, virus or mold that can withstand ozone?

Ozonation is often promoted as one of the most effective disinfection procedures. There are numerous reports on how ozone effectively kills bacteria and molds, and disarms viruses within seconds due ...
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Rabies virus mortality [duplicate]

Why rabies virus has nearly 100% fatality rate in human (see this virology blog; thanks to @iayork for the link) if not vaccinated early, even some people have survived Ebola, then why does rabies doe ...
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How are viruses isolated?

I read several different articles about virology, including the Wikipedia article on viruses and none of them explain how a virus is isolated. Some talk of injecting a virus into a chicken egg, but ...
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Viral genetic potential

A question goes: The DNA of the adenovirus carries genes. Suggest what these genes code for. It's clear that they code for several specific protein components in the virus like the capsomeres, ...
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Do microorganisms contain water?

This may sound a bit strange question, but I am very new to biology. I would like to ask that do microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, amoebas, etc also contain water, as every living thing contains ...
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Legality of doing private or scholastic virology with human pathogens? [closed]

Is it ok for a student, say a graduate student in biochemistry, to do amateur virology using potential human pathogens? For example, lets say the student gets a cold and tries to isolate the virus ...