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Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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How many genes do viruses have? [on hold]

What is the range for the number of genes any virus contains? What is the average? Are there any viruses that contain only 1 gene?
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Question Concerning Adenovirus

The question is "A 5-year-old girl arrives at her pediatrician's office with very red bloodshot eyes and a thick, yellow, and crusty discharge. Her eyes are itchy and burning. The doctor prescribes ...
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Is there a known mutation of an insertion type that prevents being infected by a virus?

Recently there was big news about the mutation CCR5 delta 32, that prevents HIV from infecting white blood cells, that was a deletion type of a mutation. Do we know of an insertion type of mutation ...
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Which cells are prefered by the HIV virus to establish an infection?

We always read that HIV infects CD4 cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. However, is it a common event for HIV to infect non-immune cells within a host? If not, why? And also if not, why are ...
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Risks of latent viruses that reside in ancient genomes under research?

Some interesting research in reactivating mammoth genetic material (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40546-1) made me wonder what risks are inherent (or are not inherent) in reviving older ...
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How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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1answer
40 views

Can CRISPR also remove DNA viruses?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Can CRISPR cut DNA ...
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1answer
106 views

How do DNA viruses keep themselves in the nucleus without inserting themselves into genome?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Then how do DNA ...
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1answer
45 views

How did sneezing evolve?

Did we develop the sneezing mechanism to get rid of pathogens like bacteria and viruses in our nose? Or did pathogens develop a way to make us sneeze to propagate themselves? Or did we develop the ...
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1answer
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Are viruses ever manufactured directly from viral DNA embedded in the genome?

Some viruses can cause their genetic material to be pemanently stored in the human genome -- even getting passed on to offspring. Endogenous Retroviruses, for example are thought to make up between 5~...
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What evolutionary advantage do viruses have in host specificity?

Warning: I have almost no knowledge of biology past the high school level. Viruses generally have three components: the DNA, the virus protein coat, and an outer membrane "decorated" with these ...
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1answer
48 views

Can (or have) antiviral drugs created drug-resistant viruses?

Evolution/emergence of antibiotic-resistance in bacteria is a known effect of extensive use of pharmaceutical antibiotics. Pharmaceutical antivirals have come into extensive use in recent decades – e....
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62 views

Why doesn't HIV spread through vectors? [duplicate]

HIV spreads only through body fluids. If a mosquito bites an HIV infected individual and then an uninfected individual, will the virus spread to the new individual?
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How did Smith et al 2004 deal with missing HI [Hemagglutination Inhibition assay] values and HI values <10?

In the scientific paper "Mapping the Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Influenza Virus's" Supporting Material, Smith et al write about determining antigenic distance Dij. However, I don't understand ...
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Learning industry skills for virology?

I am trying to learn more about virology for a tentative job I could be taking soon, as a quality control person in virology. However, I have not taken a formal virology course, nor any course work ...
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Fastest viral cycle (in eukaryotes) and theoretical limits?

I could not find any comprehensive review about this; I'm interested in comparing the duration of viral cycles from the entry in the host cell to the release of a mature virion. In particular, I am ...
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Infecting yeast with viruses

Is there any virus, either natural or engineered, known to infect yeast through mechanisms similar to phages/human viruses, that is, by horizontal contamination mediated by extracellular viral ...
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Why do -ssRNA viruses need to do intermediate positive strand (antigenome) instead of just replicate it negative strands?

I was reading about RSV replication here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3185921/, but i cannot understand what is the reason for making a antigenome instead of just replicate it negative ...
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1answer
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What does common viruses found in the body weigh?

On NPR public radio news it was said that if the bacteria that is natural that assist in body function or just present in your body was put it into a ball it would weigh more or less 7 ounces (...
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Enzyme inhibitors against common cold viruses

Would some inhibitors of viral enzymes work against common cold viruses? Are there any studies? What could a treatment look like?
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How reliable is the life cycle information on PhagesDB?

If I'm understanding this correctly, PhagesDB users choose the Cluster/Subcluster during the upload, and the life cycle type is assigned solely based on this data. How reliable is that information? ...
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1answer
36 views

Choosing viruses for influenza vaccine

When scientists choose viruses for the influenza vaccine based on biological and clinical data, what indicates that a certain strain will circulate and likely be dominant in a certain season? Does a ...
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1answer
72 views

Why can't bacteriophages survive inside the human body thus negating the possibility of using them against bacteria?

I read about the therapeutic uses of bacteriophages in Pelczar's Microbiology. It was written that it is reasonable to think that bacteriophages could be used to kill pathogenic bacteria. However, the ...
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1answer
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We know that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for at least six weeks. Maybe longer. The infectivity study ended after just six weeks; why?

Background A paper has found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for at least six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy ...
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A study found that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for six weeks. Did they end the study before the seventh week began?

A study once found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy clinicians. What happened ...
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1answer
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Can vaccines move from person to person?

Can someone who has been given a vaccine "infect" another person with the virus used in that vaccine? For example, let's say Bill is vaccinated against tuberculosis. If Frank is exposed to Bill, is ...
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1answer
29 views

How Would I Isolate and Amplify a Viral Enzyme? [closed]

what procedures would I use to isolate and amplify integrase? If I am trying to study the integrase enzyme which is found in HIV how would I 1) destroy the viral capsule to release its contents. 2) ...
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How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
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Virus plaque assay, pfu/ml calculation on plates with too little plaques formed

I am a student, so I hope it is okay to put this question here. I've done the virus plaque assay in a practical recently and have a few questions regarding the plaque count for pfu calculation. In ...
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1answer
56 views

Are there any viruses that integrate their DNA into organellar DNA?

It is known that many viruses (e.g. retroviridae) integrate in the nuclear genome of their host as part of their cycle. However, I'd like to know if integration can happen in organellar DNA (cpDNA and ...
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1answer
66 views

Why do we have an immune system?

My daughter asked a question that I could not answer. If you have a cold, you have symptoms such as fever, cold and sore throat. These symptoms, however, are the reactions of the immune system to ...
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3answers
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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1answer
40 views

Where can I find hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data?

I am looking for hemagglutination inhibition assay data for type A influenza virus. I've checked in databases such as fludb.com, however it seems to only have genetic data. A lot of the time, ...
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For how long would a flu-contaminated parcel be an effective disease vector?

A parcel has been delivered and contaminated by a person who has the flu. For how long would the parcel be an effective disease vector?
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Could a human become infected with rabies in such a way that even prior vaccination wouldn't stop the infection?

Given the highly persistent nature of rabies after entering the brain, I was wondering whether certain ways of exposure to this virus could be risky even for a previously vaccinated individual. I ...
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1answer
111 views

What means a vírus prototype strain?

Whats means the term (prototype vírus strain)is a first virus isolated and without mutations?
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2answers
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Pox virus infection process

How does Pox virus duplicate it's genome? Does it bring DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase into the host cell?
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1answer
310 views

Is rabies virus infectious outside host?

Can rabies virus remain infectious on environment i.e on soil, grasses, leaves and water?
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Why do some viruses have only one serotype, but others have many?

Some viruses, like the virus that causes mumps, have only a single serotype, meaning that variants of the disease are immunologically identical. However, other viruses, like the influenza virus family,...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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1answer
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Is it theoretically possible to safely eliminate most viruses in the atmosphere, hence preemptively cure all the viral diseases? [closed]

Could we create a genetically modified virus or bacteria (with inability to mutate into something dangerous for animals) that would quickly spread all over the planet and selectively kill most of the ...
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2answers
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If virus is an inanimate(non-living) structure, why it poses tendency/intelligence to spread itself to others?

A virus has no aim, no agency but just a chemical propagation(DNAs, RNAs). Still, it accounts for millions of deaths and horrible nature. Rabies, for example, is a very deadly disease with a fatality ...
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1answer
51 views

What characteristics do living organisms (like humans or plants) have that viruses don't? [duplicate]

I am not too sure if viruses are considered living organisms. I learned that living organism: -Change their size -Reproduce -Heal themselves -Need energy (by eating) -React to the environment -...
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1answer
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Why don't retroviruses kill everything? Show math? [closed]

Each retrovirus produces thousands of copies. They would spread and kill every cell in the body in a few days. I would like to see the math behind how this doesn't happen.
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Are there examples of non-pathogenic RNA viruses?

There do seem to be some non-pathogenic DNA viruses, for example Foamy virus. Non-pathogenic viruses would be great to use for gene therapy applications, except DNA viruses incorporate themselves into ...
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Mechanism Behind Viral Capsid Breakdown When In Cell

In the example of a retrovirus, after the lipid bilayer fuses with the membrane of the cell, the capsid dissolves releasing the viral content. What is the mechanism behind the capsid dissolving? I ...
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1answer
130 views

Why there is no vaccine against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?

I was informed by my teacher that this retrovirus changes its RNA, so there is not a drug which can recognize the RNA and somehow inactivates it. Are there any other reasons explaining why there isn't ...
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1answer
87 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
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Is there any evidence that smallpox immunity or resistance is heritable

Is any means by which smallpox would lead to genocide of the native Americans?
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143 views

What is the difference between a viral strain and a viral isolate?

Both are characterized, their genes are usually described and published, they are kept safe, they could be used as inoculum or to produce vaccine... Would it be correct to say a strain would be ...