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Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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How many genes do viruses have? [on hold]

What is the range for the number of genes any virus contains? What is the average? Are there any viruses that contain only 1 gene?
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4answers
527 views

Computer Virus that infects DNA?

I have watched a talk by Mikko Hypponen (CEO of the security company F-Secure) called Silicon Plague. There, roughly at minute 51 of the talk, he mentions a computer code that is supposed to be able ...
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7answers
8k views

Why isn't a virus “alive”?

The recent news about a new supermassive virus being discovered got me thinking about how we define viruses as non-living organisms whilst they are bigger than bacteria, and much more complex than we ...
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2answers
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Risks of latent viruses that reside in ancient genomes under research?

Some interesting research in reactivating mammoth genetic material (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40546-1) made me wonder what risks are inherent (or are not inherent) in reviving older ...
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Question Concerning Adenovirus

The question is "A 5-year-old girl arrives at her pediatrician's office with very red bloodshot eyes and a thick, yellow, and crusty discharge. Her eyes are itchy and burning. The doctor prescribes ...
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0answers
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Is there a known mutation of an insertion type that prevents being infected by a virus?

Recently there was big news about the mutation CCR5 delta 32, that prevents HIV from infecting white blood cells, that was a deletion type of a mutation. Do we know of an insertion type of mutation ...
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1answer
67 views

Enzyme inhibitors against common cold viruses

Would some inhibitors of viral enzymes work against common cold viruses? Are there any studies? What could a treatment look like?
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16 views

Which cells are prefered by the HIV virus to establish an infection?

We always read that HIV infects CD4 cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. However, is it a common event for HIV to infect non-immune cells within a host? If not, why? And also if not, why are ...
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2answers
6k views

For how long would a flu-contaminated parcel be an effective disease vector?

A parcel has been delivered and contaminated by a person who has the flu. For how long would the parcel be an effective disease vector?
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1answer
63 views

How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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1answer
45 views

How did sneezing evolve?

Did we develop the sneezing mechanism to get rid of pathogens like bacteria and viruses in our nose? Or did pathogens develop a way to make us sneeze to propagate themselves? Or did we develop the ...
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1answer
106 views

How do DNA viruses keep themselves in the nucleus without inserting themselves into genome?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Then how do DNA ...
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1answer
40 views

Can CRISPR also remove DNA viruses?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Can CRISPR cut DNA ...
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1answer
50 views

Are viruses ever manufactured directly from viral DNA embedded in the genome?

Some viruses can cause their genetic material to be pemanently stored in the human genome -- even getting passed on to offspring. Endogenous Retroviruses, for example are thought to make up between 5~...
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2answers
244 views

What evolutionary advantage do viruses have in host specificity?

Warning: I have almost no knowledge of biology past the high school level. Viruses generally have three components: the DNA, the virus protein coat, and an outer membrane "decorated" with these ...
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1answer
48 views

Can (or have) antiviral drugs created drug-resistant viruses?

Evolution/emergence of antibiotic-resistance in bacteria is a known effect of extensive use of pharmaceutical antibiotics. Pharmaceutical antivirals have come into extensive use in recent decades – e....
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1answer
446 views

Why can't we find a broad spectrum antiviral drug to viruses like antibiotics to bacteria?

Antibiotics have a very broad spectrum because they attack the metabolism pathways many bacteria share. For example, penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis, which is vital for formation of cell ...
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1answer
62 views

Why doesn't HIV spread through vectors? [duplicate]

HIV spreads only through body fluids. If a mosquito bites an HIV infected individual and then an uninfected individual, will the virus spread to the new individual?
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0answers
25 views

How did Smith et al 2004 deal with missing HI [Hemagglutination Inhibition assay] values and HI values <10?

In the scientific paper "Mapping the Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Influenza Virus's" Supporting Material, Smith et al write about determining antigenic distance Dij. However, I don't understand ...
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1answer
1k views

How do I interpret this graph regarding introduced genes and virus-infected cells?

This graph appeared in a practice test for the MCAT. I am trying to interpret it, but it confuses me a bit. On the x-axis we have some introduced genes, and on the y-axis we have % of cells infected. ...
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0answers
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Learning industry skills for virology?

I am trying to learn more about virology for a tentative job I could be taking soon, as a quality control person in virology. However, I have not taken a formal virology course, nor any course work ...
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0answers
8 views

Fastest viral cycle (in eukaryotes) and theoretical limits?

I could not find any comprehensive review about this; I'm interested in comparing the duration of viral cycles from the entry in the host cell to the release of a mature virion. In particular, I am ...
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0answers
14 views

Infecting yeast with viruses

Is there any virus, either natural or engineered, known to infect yeast through mechanisms similar to phages/human viruses, that is, by horizontal contamination mediated by extracellular viral ...
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1answer
95 views

What does common viruses found in the body weigh?

On NPR public radio news it was said that if the bacteria that is natural that assist in body function or just present in your body was put it into a ball it would weigh more or less 7 ounces (...
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0answers
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Why do -ssRNA viruses need to do intermediate positive strand (antigenome) instead of just replicate it negative strands?

I was reading about RSV replication here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3185921/, but i cannot understand what is the reason for making a antigenome instead of just replicate it negative ...
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1answer
3k views

What is the chemical composition / empirical formula of Herpes Simplex 1?

Viruses such as polio are so well documented that a search for "empirical formula polio" gives you something like ...
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0answers
23 views

How reliable is the life cycle information on PhagesDB?

If I'm understanding this correctly, PhagesDB users choose the Cluster/Subcluster during the upload, and the life cycle type is assigned solely based on this data. How reliable is that information? ...
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1answer
36 views

Choosing viruses for influenza vaccine

When scientists choose viruses for the influenza vaccine based on biological and clinical data, what indicates that a certain strain will circulate and likely be dominant in a certain season? Does a ...
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1answer
2k views

Can bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells be destroyed by resonance?

Radiotherapy has been used to treat cancer. Can the resonances by coordinated electromagnetic waves (and/or other forms of waves), of various frequencies, amplitudes and pulse rates, directed from ...
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1answer
72 views

Why can't bacteriophages survive inside the human body thus negating the possibility of using them against bacteria?

I read about the therapeutic uses of bacteriophages in Pelczar's Microbiology. It was written that it is reasonable to think that bacteriophages could be used to kill pathogenic bacteria. However, the ...
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2answers
122 views

Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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1answer
29 views

How Would I Isolate and Amplify a Viral Enzyme? [closed]

what procedures would I use to isolate and amplify integrase? If I am trying to study the integrase enzyme which is found in HIV how would I 1) destroy the viral capsule to release its contents. 2) ...
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1answer
54 views

We know that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for at least six weeks. Maybe longer. The infectivity study ended after just six weeks; why?

Background A paper has found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for at least six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy ...
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1answer
27 views

A study found that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for six weeks. Did they end the study before the seventh week began?

A study once found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy clinicians. What happened ...
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1answer
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What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Cell penetrating peptides. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any ...
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2answers
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How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
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1answer
73 views

Can vaccines move from person to person?

Can someone who has been given a vaccine "infect" another person with the virus used in that vaccine? For example, let's say Bill is vaccinated against tuberculosis. If Frank is exposed to Bill, is ...
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3answers
8k views

How do viruses or bacteria survive outside the body long enough to spread?

Say I cough on my table, then someone else touches it and picks up something I've got... how is it that these things can live outside the body, how long can they manage it, and how long is generally '...
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0answers
134 views

Virus plaque assay, pfu/ml calculation on plates with too little plaques formed

I am a student, so I hope it is okay to put this question here. I've done the virus plaque assay in a practical recently and have a few questions regarding the plaque count for pfu calculation. In ...
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1answer
56 views

Are there any viruses that integrate their DNA into organellar DNA?

It is known that many viruses (e.g. retroviridae) integrate in the nuclear genome of their host as part of their cycle. However, I'd like to know if integration can happen in organellar DNA (cpDNA and ...
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3answers
867 views

Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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1answer
66 views

Why do we have an immune system?

My daughter asked a question that I could not answer. If you have a cold, you have symptoms such as fever, cold and sore throat. These symptoms, however, are the reactions of the immune system to ...
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1answer
40 views

Where can I find hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data?

I am looking for hemagglutination inhibition assay data for type A influenza virus. I've checked in databases such as fludb.com, however it seems to only have genetic data. A lot of the time, ...
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2answers
48k views

Why does rabies cause hydrophobia?

What feature of rabies pathophysiology causes hydrophobia? Why is hydrophobia unique to this one particular type of viral infection?
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4answers
569 views

Is it possible to make a contagious cure to a virus?

In a TV series I've been watching The Last Ship, - spoiler alert - a scientist develops a cure for himself for a virus, but actually continues to remain a carrier, and sort of weaponizes the virus ...
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3answers
13k views

Is it possible for a person to become “reinfected” with the same strain of a virus?

If a person contracts a virus, viral conjunctivitis for example, is it possible for the individual to become "reinfected" with the exact same strain of the virus once the person has it treated and the ...
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1answer
130 views

Why there is no vaccine against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?

I was informed by my teacher that this retrovirus changes its RNA, so there is not a drug which can recognize the RNA and somehow inactivates it. Are there any other reasons explaining why there isn't ...
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2answers
150 views

Do viruses compete with each other or even infect each other? (Virus vs Virus)

I have read on a few websites that there can be competition between the viruses in a host for replication, nutrition etc. Do viruses fight against each other, i.e. are there viruses that infect or ...