Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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flavivirus virus genome, methylated guanine

I'm looking at the sequence of a flavivirus virus genome (mRNA). Kindly see the link MH900227.1. How can I identify the Guanine nucleotide that is methylated in the capping process? Thanks,
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Structure inside Virus

I always wondered how do scientist determine internal structure of a virus or prion. A virus itself is couple of nm of size, how do they dissect it, and know what DNA, RNA or lipid lie inside it? Can ...
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What about coronaviruses that make them particularly

What about coronaviruses that make them particularly “prone” to spread between species???
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A question about viral adsorption

I know that first step of viral infection is adsorption of virus to cell surface. Does increasing blood velocity ( by exercising or increasing blood pressure ) affect adsorption rate and make it ...
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What are the environmental conditions for 2019-nCoV to survive?

What do we know about the environmental limits for nCoV to survive outside the body? For example, in: In open air On surfaces In water What are the limits for temperature, humidity and air pressure,...
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Why aren't viruses considered to be non-cellular life?

I have always thought of viruses as being non-cellular lifeforms. And no, it isn't just because of Wikipedia. I have heard that there are viruses that are so complex, that they are very close to being ...
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Why would it be dangerous to consume cooked bats even if they are linked to viruses?

(Not sure if this is the right SE for this question. I'm asking this here, because I'm looking for a biological answer, if one exists.) This (potentially very naive) question is inspired by this news ...
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small airborne microorganisms, are in many instances attached to bigger particulate substances?

From https://biology.stackexchange.com/a/90193/56476 very small airborne microorganisms, are in many instances attached to bigger particulate substances in the air, whether liquid micro droplets or ...
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Is it safe to import goods from China? [closed]

Considering the novel corona virus incident, is it safe to import goods from china? I did order few electronic items (headsets etc) from Aliexpress. before the news hits in local newslines. (few weeks ...
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IU Unit in Virology

In a paper recently I saw "Cell are infected with 50,000 IU of virus per 100ul well". I can not seem to find a defintion of this unit? Is it a functional unit or just a count? If someone is familiar ...
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How does a virus replace an expelled DNA? [closed]

If viruses dont aquire food how do they grow and does their DNA injected in a cell start reacting with the cell material and so the new virus can derive from a bare DNA?
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How does a virus stick to a non-biological surface?

Recent events has triggered an renewed interest in understanding how a virus is able to stay on a surface. For sake of argument, let's assume we are dealing with a Corona-type virus. One can then ...
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Air purifier agains bacteria and viruses?

We would buy a mobile air purifier in our home. Against the smoke of the city, etc. It would have a HEPA + activated carbon filter. They are marketing it as: "filtration process captures 99.97%...
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Rescuing a virus from naked (c)DNA

Reading the articles it seems that for several human virus strains, synthesizing the full-length genome then electroporating into vero cells and incubating a few days gave birth to living viruses that ...
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Where can I obtain Sputnik virophage samples?

I'm working on a project where I'm trying to use virophages as viral vectors in introducing CRISPR-Cas proteins into other viruses. I was wondering where I might be able to find replication-defective ...
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How does a Coronavirus “test kit” work?

A number of countries are using test kits for detecting new cases of nCoV (2019-Coronavirus) and apparently China is running low. What exactly is in a nCoV "Test Kit" — How does it work? (Surely ...
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Can virus survive dessication (and come back functional after rewetting)?

I am thinking of ideas for disinfection that can be done by the average person. So, this is one question I have: Can a material/surface be effectively disinfected (I am more interested in virus) by ...
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Coronavirus origin could be bat, why this happen while people have been eating bats for centuries? [closed]

Sorry for my lack of understanding, Why now, when people been eating bats for centuries? If bats are simply a vector, where does that virus come from?
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Coronavirus recovery [migrated]

Are there any treatments for coronavirus? Or are there any ways to recover from it?
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Why would a 2019-nCoV protein sequence in the NCBI database match a protein submitted in 2018?

There seems to be a bit of a conspiracy theory brewing over some data in the NCBI database, and I don't have the necessary knowledge to make sense of it. It basically goes like this: Go to https://...
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Virus cannot survive on surface after certain time period, but why and how?

I'm not a biology student at all, but I'm trying to get a clearer picture on what is meant by "virus cannot survive after a certain period". To my understanding, a virus cannot be killed it can only ...
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Could bacteria and phages be found in tissues?

in the literature, there are several studies of the gut virome and microbiome, for instance Reyes et al. on Nature (https://www.nature.com/articles/nature09199?error=cookies_not_supported&code=...
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Why are bats the source of dangerous coronavirus pandemics?

Why do coronaviruses come from bats? I mean, why precisely coronaviruses and not (for instance) herpesviruses? It looks like bats host more zoonotic viruses (per species) than rodents, although they ...
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Virus Mortality Selection

This question is related to the recent Wuhan outbreak. Currently, mortality rate for the virus is somewhere around 2-3%. This is much lower than say, SARS (9.5%) and MERS (34.5%). As a thought ...
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Where to find characteristics (gender and age) of victims of nCOV coronavirus in China?

Several papers have reported information about people infected with the coronavirus nCOV-2019 (e.g. Lancet_paper or BBC_paper), but when looking for the source of their data, we notice that either it ...
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How do you distinguish between “cure” and “recovery” in term of medical terminology? [migrated]

​‎I hear a lot of people using the words "cure" and "recovery" interchangeably. Are these two words interchangable in epidemiology? What's the difference between these two in terms of medical ...
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Provisional vaccine for fast spreeding new viruses?

Developing a standard vaccine for coronavirus will take at least a few months - what might be too late: However, its sequence is already known, and is nearly identical - suggesting a recent single ...
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How can a disease be transmissible animal-to-human but not human-to-human? [duplicate]

I have heard some debate about whether or not the Wuhan virus can be transmitted human-to-human, but this doesn't make sense to me. Why wouldn't it be able to? Are there diseases that can only be ...
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How do bats survive their own coronaviruses?

I split my old question because it was very messy and long, so here we are: how do bats survive their own coronaviruses (without showing any symptom)? Or, more generically, how can viruses keep ...
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What's the purpose of segregating a virus from the blood and growing it in the lab?

I heard that the scientist in Australia found a way to segregate the 2019 NovCoronovirus from the blood. Does this mean they are one step closer to the cure? Why is virus segregation crucial in ...
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Can Coronaviridae mutate into something as dangerous as Flioviridae?

A question which has been bugging me : Can coronaviruses mutate to an extent to get as dangerous as fliovirusues such as Marburg viruses, Ravn or Ebola Zaire?
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Evolution history of virus tracing

How do biologist trace evolutionary history of virus, is there any article on this issue, e.g. how scientist got to know that coronavirus evolved from bat or camel or pig?
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Why is HPV vaccines targeted for preteens?

Why is human papillomavirus products targeted to children before sexual activeness? Could all ages benefit from this vaccine even if they may have or have not contracted a form of HPV to prevent other ...
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Has there ever been an approved viral infection treatment method based on the physical/mechanical properties of virus?

I imagined that typical cells and viruses could have very different physical properties or reactions to mechanical stresses, which makes selective targetting possible. For instance, some major ...
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Is PrEP used for anything other than HIV?

In the field of HIV prevention, PrEP is an abbreviation of pre-exposure prophylaxis. This is a very generic term. Are any diseases other than HIV prevented using a similar approach? Do they use the ...
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Is the Common Cold an Immune Overreaction?

It's my understanding that the majority of symptoms associated with the common cold (runny nose, inflamed sinus, slight fever) are essentially the result of the immune system's response. I've never ...
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How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
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Body's response to second dengue attack

I have read in wikipedia that the first dengue virus infection is cleared by the body very easily. The second infection, however, is dangerous. How does body fight second infection, or does it has any ...
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Can a bacterium express a virulence gene and not produce toxins and what may be the cause of this?

I am preparing a seminar on viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in bacteria, mainly foodborne pathogens and I just saw this line in a journal article by Lothigius et al that "the expression of the ...
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What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Cell penetrating peptides. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any ...
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How do mutations of viruses lead to drug resistance?

For instance, after starting zidovudine monotherapy against HIV, resistance develops against the drug because of a point mutation in the RNA transcriptase enzyme to which the drug binds. So how does ...
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Is it possible for a parasitic wasp to alter the behaviour of its host after emerging from it?

I know that parasitic wasp larvae can live for a long time inside their live host (eg. caterpillar), but I always thought that they kill the host when they eventually get out of it. But I've seen a ...
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Example of a virus becoming symbiotic with an organism

The human gut has an indispensably beneficial ecosystem of bacteria. What are the examples of a virus that becomes symbiotic with an organism, or even incorporates beneficially into the genome of the ...
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Is there an 'anti-virus'?

A virus spreads around and usually attaches itself to the host, multiplies & causes diseases. But is there something like an anti-virus? A single celled entity that does the opposite: spreads ...
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Can you design a bacteriophage that attacks the part of the bacteria that makes them antibiotics resistant?

I read in a newspaper about a case where they had found a virus that could attack a specific form of antibiotics-resistant bacteria and managed to save a girl from a certain death by "infecting her" ...
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Viruses selected by evolution

I had a conversation with a family member who is a bio-computer-scientist and he talked to me about what his colleagues (biologist) are doing and I feel confused about it. They work in Chile and are ...
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Why is the ability of a virus to get crystallized considered as a “Non living feature of a virus”?

My book states that the fact that :"Viruses can be crystallized" is a proof of their "Non living character" Does that mean living things cannot be crystallized? If yes, why is that so?
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How are viruses isolated?

I read several different articles about virology, including the Wikipedia article on viruses and none of them explain how a virus is isolated. Some talk of injecting a virus into a chicken egg, but ...
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Can cell mediated immune response be transferred via blood transfusion

I read that human body can develop cell mediated immunity to viral infections and subsequently clear the virus. For example, people clear warts through cell mediated immune response against the wart ...

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