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Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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How to estimate MOI for a complex cell type

I am currently confused about the estimation of multiplicity of infection (MOI), here is an example in a scientific article in figure 3b, they tested the virus, and get estimated MOI based on this: ...
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Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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Do we know that PrEP actually prevents infection, rather than masking it?

Pre-exposure prophylactic treatment (PrEP) for HIV is commonly said to reduce infection rates by more than 75%. Similar treatments for already-infected patient treatments do not cure HIV, but reduce ...
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765 views

Why Can't The Immune Systems of Uncontacted Tribes Handle Our Common Colds?

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...
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Which eradicated viruses still have remaining stockpiles? [closed]

Other than smallpox, I'm curious to know if there are any other stockpiles of eradicated or nearly eradicated viruses, and if so where are they located? Thank you.
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Do influenza viruses obey a Hayflick limit similar to human cells .. or do they spread and divide forever like HeLa?

I would think the latter since they are so simple and are parasitic but even proteins break down over time .. only found a few answers on the net and it was over a decade ago but nothing in any papers ...
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Virus immunity from animal to humans

There are number of virus which have animal as reservior and jump to human to cause disease. Why dont we use antibodies of animal to cure humans? Like rabies in bats.
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How many strains of influenza can occupy a person at one time? [closed]

Could a person's immune system be built eventually to be able to inject all the known strains with in to stay immune?
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Do viruses compete with each other or even infect each other? (Virus vs Virus)

I have read on a few websites that there can be competition between the viruses in a host for replication, nutrition etc. Do viruses fight against each other, i.e. are there viruses that infect or ...
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1answer
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Catching a cold outside in winter? [duplicate]

We have all heard the typical “Put a jacket on youre going to catch a cold.” Usually stated by an older person typically a grandmother. Excuse the stereotype. Is there any evidence that colder weather ...
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131 views

What portion of America needs the Flu vaccine for herd immunity effects to become substantial?

I've been looking at the effectiveness of Flu vaccines, which are in my subjective opinion abysmal, and the concept of herd immunity. I see many articles which argue that we all need flu shots to ...
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Would it be correct to say that viruses are genotoxic? [closed]

I know it is an unconventional way to describe viruses, but would it still be technically correct?
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Can proteins from different viruses be gathered in one virus?

There is a biology project I must do with some of my classmates and we're facing a problem. We would like to choose proteins from different viruses that seem interesting to us (for example one protein ...
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48 views

Are there any bacteria, virus or mold that can withstand ozone?

Ozonation is often promoted as one of the most effective disinfection procedures. There are numerous reports on how ozone effectively kills bacteria and molds, and disarms viruses within seconds due ...
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1answer
61 views

Rabies virus mortality [duplicate]

Why rabies virus has nearly 100% fatality rate in human (see this virology blog; thanks to @iayork for the link) if not vaccinated early, even some people have survived Ebola, then why does rabies doe ...
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43 views

How are viruses isolated?

I read several different articles about virology, including the Wikipedia article on viruses and none of them explain how a virus is isolated. Some talk of injecting a virus into a chicken egg, but ...
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Viral genetic potential

A question goes: The DNA of the adenovirus carries genes. Suggest what these genes code for. It's clear that they code for several specific protein components in the virus like the capsomeres, ...
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1answer
68 views

Do microorganisms contain water?

This may sound a bit strange question, but I am very new to biology. I would like to ask that do microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, amoebas, etc also contain water, as every living thing contains ...
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1answer
39 views

Legality of doing private or scholastic virology with human pathogens? [closed]

Is it ok for a student, say a graduate student in biochemistry, to do amateur virology using potential human pathogens? For example, lets say the student gets a cold and tries to isolate the virus ...
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Are amino acids of viruses L or D enantiomers?

I read a note saying that the amino acids of viruses are D enantiomers but I can't understand how that's possible since their human host can't even recognize that type.
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Using viruses to treat altered or misconfigured DNA

Consider how a Retrovirus can modify existing cell DNA to 'execute instructions' on its behalf. I wondered: Why can we not utilize lab-generated viruses to infect sick patients with a 'healthy' ...
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1answer
114 views

Transposons, Viruses and RNA interference

My textbook says that in RNAi, a complementary double stranded RNA sequence attaches to an mRNA and silences it using a protein machinery. I Googled and read about this so now I know what siRNA and ...
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1answer
70 views

Methods for phage separation

How can a mixture of unspecified phages be separated (into singular phage strains)? I.e, what are the main methods? My research shows it can be done using CsCl centrifugation and affinity ...
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What feature of the norovirus makes it self-limiting?

Recently caught a stomach bug and began reading up on the internet. Every government health information service on the internet describes the norovirus as "self-limiting". Is this the biological ...
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Are exosomes useful as a transfection or delivery mechanism in gene editing?

The use of viruses as transfection or delivery agents for gene editing (CRISPR/cas9, etc) is well known. However, one problem with using viruses to deliver DNA into cells is the possibility of ...
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3answers
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Why do retroviruses go through a DNA stage to replicate their RNA genome?

Why do retroviruses (e.g.HIV) convert their RNA genome to DNA (using reverse transcriptase) and then transcribe it back into viral RNA (and translate that into viral proteins). Surely to replicate ...
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Why do viruses cause disease? [duplicate]

Wouldn't the most evolutionary successful virus be the one that can replicate itself without any unnatural effects on the host, to avoid detection?
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1answer
392 views

Rabies in spiders - is it possible? [closed]

What if we inject rabies virus into an insect body, like spider or a bee, will it contract rabies as humans, cats, dogs, racoons or bats do?
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565 views

Why minimum infective dose of a virus is not just 1 particle?

I've stumbled upon a term "minimum infective dose" (for example, of HIV), but don't exactly understand what is it? Why it is not always equal to 1 virus particle? I expect 1 lucky virus to be able to ...
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Can cancers caused due to viruses be contagious?

Generally, viruses are infectious in nature and there are several cancer-causing viruses that are known (i.e. oncovirus) My question is: Are these oncoviruses infectious in nature? If so, what is the ...
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47 views

How can I perform virus neutralization assay for influenza?

How can I perform a Virus Microneutralization assay for influenza virus using serum from mice vaccinated with this virus?
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1answer
86 views

How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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What factors contributed to develop so many viral diseases in Europe?

Europe was epicenter of several viral diseases, such as Plague of Athens, influenza. These viruses went to other countries and infected may people, for example smallpox in Mexico. What factors ...
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Can we detect rabies during its incubation period?

Although some diseases are almost fatal and have a near 100% mortality, their incubation period can be very long. For example, rabies' incubation period can be days to years. I wonder when the ...
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1answer
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How does the measeles virus form? [closed]

I would like to understand how (if possible) the measles virus could start to infect a population that was theoretically isolated from any other population group. Put another way, can the measles ...
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Body's response to second dengue attack

I have read in wikipedia that the first dengue virus infection is cleared by the body very easily. The second infection, however, is dangerous. How does body fight second infection, or does it has any ...
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Bacteriophages and their role in genetic editing? [closed]

I know how plasmids and restriction enzymes work to change the dna of a bacteria cell, but I do not really understand how a bacteriophage works to edit the genome of a cell. Is it related to crispr ...
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Cat herpes and behavior

We have 2 cats, aptly named "Fatty" and "Tiny". "Fatty" is a 6 year old house cat that hasn't seen the outside world in years. "Tiny" is a cat we rescued about 45 days ago and she's roughly 2.5 ...
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What chemicals will kill P1 Phage but not E. coli?

I'm working with E. coli and P1 Phage. I'm wondering if there is some chemical agent that will kill or disable P1 but leave E. coli untouched? It is not enough to just prevent infection. It must ...
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How does hypochlorous acid inactivate viruses?

I was reading how bleach was used very widely as a disinfecting agent during the 2014 West Africa ebola outbreak and am interested in the mechanisms with which hypochlorous acid inactivates viruses. ...
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1answer
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Which mRNAs enter P-bodies?

Processing bodies (P-bodies) are distinct foci within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell consisting of many enzymes involved in mRNA turnover (ref). They play a fundamental role in RNA silencing/...
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What is the Biological Mechanism by Which a Red Heifer's Skin is Colored Red?

Obviously from this picture Picture of a Red Angus Heifer it is possible for there to be a red cow. So what is the biological mechanism that makes such a cow red? And why are regular cows only ...
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Concerning Rabies can an animal feeding on rabid bat transmit right away?

Playful kitten found biting and toying with a dead bat. Lets say the kitten nips and plays rough with a human right after biting and toying with the bat. Will a potential rabies virus transmit from ...
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1answer
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Are viruses more common due to modernity?

Is there any evidence to say whether in the past viruses like the cold virus were less common? I wonder if high density living and globalisation mean that the cold virus mutates and spreads much more ...
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How did scientists discover HIV?

Imagining that we're now in 1983 (when HIV was discovered), there were no modern machines at that time to sequence massive genome extracted from blood. There was a strange disease and no one know what ...
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Bacteriophage isolation

I have environmental water sample from which i want to isolate bacteriophages. I've try to centrifugate several consecutive times. I've try with different speed (13000g and 15000g) and different ...
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What makes cardiac cells so sturdy?

We know that cardiac cells are extremely sturdy compared to pretty much any other tissue in the human body, not only because the heart as an organ beats for the entirety of the human lifespan, but ...
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2answers
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Can a virus be transmitted from a sweating person out to another person?

In the sport of Jiu-Jitsu, close contact with many partners is common. Many times these partners are sweating profusely (Yuk), which in turn drips on the other person sometimes into the eyes, nose, ...
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4answers
634 views

Why did viruses evolve in the first place?

This question might seem kind of strange, but it's something I've been chewing on for ages, and I can't really think of a good answer. Viruses just seem to be floating around passively until they ...
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Virus that can enter all cell types

As I understand, each virus type can enter a particular cell type. For example HIV can enter CD4 & CD8 cells, while HBV can enter liver cells, some other viruses can enter other cell types like ...