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Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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How long does immunity to influenza last when contracting the disease vs vaccination

The long term efficacy of flu vaccines are well documented, however I cannot seem to find a good source showing how long immunity lasts when contracting the disease. I suspect it can't be much longer ...
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What is the Attributable Risk of birth defects in Zika infected pregnancies?

Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016 A recent CDC report shows that ...
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What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
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Can viruses survive Super saturated salt solution?

As we know there is less evidence of biological activity in Dead Sea ( Lake full of salt water). Also, our blood cells do not survive in too much salt water as they shrink and die. So I was thinking ...
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What industry job am I qualified for with a PhD in virology? [closed]

I'm considering applying for a PhD studying innate resistance to HCV. I enjoy research but I would prefer to have a stable job, instead of moving from contract to contract and writing grants to ensure ...
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Question on Viruses [closed]

A recent study has provided evidence that two types of equine (horse) herpes viruses have an unusually broad host range. This fact supports which of the following statements? a. The lytic cylce ...
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Can HBV pseudotyped oncolytic viruses be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma?

Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may ...
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How many antigens are there in dengue virus?

I need your help to know how many antigens are there in dengue virus? If you have any good reference about the molecular biology of dengue virus, Please write it down. Thank you.
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Why is bacterial meningitis worse than viral meningitis?

My field is not biology related, but it is commonly said that bacterial meningitis is far more dangerous to the individual than the viral kind. It seems to be true even with antibiotic treatment. What ...
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Is there any way to cultivate viruses without cells? [closed]

I know what viruses are. They replicate only inside the living cells, and so on, and so on. I just interesting maybe there is some progress in this field. I don't know exactly, but I suppose before ...
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Why is the origin (patient zero) required to cure a virus?

I'm not sure if it's just a movies thing but I always notice that the original strain of a virus is required to cure a virus, why is this? is this even true?
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Mosquito vs Human: Swapping the roles

Is there a known mosquito-specific lethal (for some relevant species of mosquitos) virus that you could safely (for the humans) put into the blood of living humans? Is it technically possible to ...
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Viruses and Transformation

Would the lysogenic cycle for the reproduction of viruses be considered a form of naturally occurring transformation since DNA from the virus is being incorporated into the DNA of the host cell?
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How does taking drugs speed up the development of drug resistant or viruses?

First, here is what I know: Some infectious illnesses, such as HIV or Hepatitis B, can be treated with the help of some drugs. The problem is that the virus sometimes undergoes mutations which grant ...
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What would happen if two different viruses penetrated one cell?

I want to know what would happen if two different kinds of viruses took over one cell. Would nothing happen? Would the cell create both kinds of viruses? Would it make a fusion of the two viruses?
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Which viruses are fatal to E.Coli?

I am currently doing a bit of research into which viruses are specifically fatal to the E.Coli bacterium. Apart from the fact that this is merely interesting information for me, I would like to know ...
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Potential immunization against airborn viruses [closed]

I have had an idea based on the principals of a virus and their properties and how they enter the cell by tricking it into believing it is a protein etc. If we coated a copper particle (or another ...
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Would we know about a virus that causes no symptoms?

I've heard that there are a number of viral illnesses that humans can get from animals, which cause no symptoms in the animals. If there was such a virus in humans, which was very widespread but ...
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Question about enveloped RNA virus viral genome

I am a newbie studying campbell biology. just a quick question about virus. When viral genome(RNA) expose itself in the host cell, why does the host cell not eliminate the genome since it apparently ...
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Is it feasible to eradicate a virus without vaccines?

Although a vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains elusive, new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs can cure HCV effectively and conveniently. The latest DAA, Epclusa, can cure 95-99% of chronic ...
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Commensalism with Virus bacteria [duplicate]

Why people die of infection from microorganism, when germs can keep breeding for longer if they dont kill host? Would not millions of years of evolution make germs evolve to not to kill human but feed ...
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Do DNA viruses have their own DNA dependant DNA polymerase?

There's an exception to the rule that all DNA viruses need to get to the nucleus in order to replicate. Poxviruses do not require to get into the nucleus because they can make protein from their very ...
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Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
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Can viruses pass through sweat pores?

I have read somewhere that viruses and other microbes can not penetrate skin but what about sweat pores? Can viruses pass through these pores?
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Are there any examples of viruses that have powered motion or do they all rely on passive diffusion? [duplicate]

Swimming, or any locomotion will presumably require energy which will in turn require metabolism which viruses lack supposedly. Are they general able to direct their movement in any manner (e.g like ...
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Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
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What is the evolutionary purpose of shingles afflicting only one side of the body? [closed]

A question here asks for the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body. My question is about the evolutionary purpose of that 'affects only one side' behavior. Chicken ...
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Is there a reference for the composition of viral genomes?

First of all forgive me for the bad written question. I'm not a biologist. I'm neither a doctor nor a virologist. I am a physicist actually, and I have this question in mind since a long while. What ...
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Why are there 2 copies of RNA in the HIV virion?

There are two copies of the RNA in the HIV virion. These are retroviruses. So, they can make cDNA from even just one copy using reverse transcriptase. What is the use of the other? Are both ...
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Can we develop a nucleos(t)ide analogue to cure rabies?

Nucleos(t)ide analogues have been successfully used to treat HIV, HBV and HCV. Since rabies virus is also a RNA virus that uses RdRp to replicate. If we develop an nucleos(t)ide against its RdRp, will ...
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Can viruses replicate in a cell that's already dead?

Suppose a virus randomly lands on a cell that's just lying around. This cell may have just recently died, or died a while ago. This cell may also be part of tissue of a dead organism.* Does the virus ...
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How does sGP of Ebola virus help it to evade host humoral immunity?

During Ebola infection, the viruses secret a lot of sGP. What's its function? Since anti GP antibodies are effective at inhibiting Ebola infection, wouldn't sGP stimulate host immune system to produce ...
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What is the origin of the name “λ phage”?

The lambda bacteriophage which infects E. coli was first discovered by Esther Lederberg in 1950. However, in the earliest paper on the lambda phage that I could find, I was unable to find the ...
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Bacteriophage lysis in mammalian cells

I have read many articles on bacteriophages (like the lambda phage1) being used for transferring genes into mammalian cells, but none of them mention any sort of lysis of the cells even though in ...
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Are viruses technically organisms, or not? [duplicate]

Are viruses technically organisms or not? A quick Google search query for the term; are viruses organisms?, reveals various conflicting and somewhat inconclusive ...
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Olympic's epidemiological impact on Zika?

I've seen a lot of fear mongering, misinformation and overall general panic concerning the zika virus surrounding the Rio Olympics. However, little has been said about the actual epidemiological ...
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Can bacteria be reservoirs for animal viruses?

When people talk about reservoirs, they usually talk about bats, dogs, deer, etc. All animals. But can bacteria be reservoirs for animal viruses? Any examples? I know that bacterial viruses can at ...
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Computer Virus that infects DNA?

I have watched a talk by Mikko Hypponen (CEO of the security company F-Secure) called Silicon Plague. There, roughly at minute 51 of the talk, he mentions a computer code that is supposed to be able ...
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Can 3% hydrogen peroxide be used as effective disinfectant and antiseptic?

I was curious to see whether 3% hydrogen peroxide can be used as antimicrobial and virucidal product for daily use in home. There are several disinfecting products in the market claim that use of ...
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Viruses affecting transmission capability of mosquitoes

I've read about bacteria affecting the transmission capability of mosquitoes. For example: Wolbachia suppresses dengue transmission When mosquitoes were given antibiotics that decreased their gut ...
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Can pathogens enter the bloodstream if the epidermis has been scraped off?

Assume that the epidermis has been scraped off by a fall (not just scratched). Also assume that the dermis is completely untouched. Does this allow pathogens to enter the body more easily, or does the ...
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What is the cause of the packaging capacity limit of recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors?

I am working with recombinant AAV and I am puzzled by the limit of their packaging capacity (around 5Kb ssDNA), that is really a huge drawback for gene delivery. I have tried to look more in deep ...
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A New Antiviral Drug Strategy?

I am studying viruses and I have a question about antiviral drug strategies. Why haven't researchers tried finding small molecule drugs that will bind to receptors on the host cell, thereby preventing ...
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Why can't we find a broad spectrum antiviral drug to viruses like antibiotics to bacteria?

Antibiotics have a very broad spectrum because they attack the metabolism pathways many bacteria share. For example, penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis, which is vital for formation of cell ...