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Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Cell penetrating peptides. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any attached ...
Demosthenes' pars triangularis's user avatar
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Why don’t all HPV strains cause cancers?

There are roughly a dozen high risk HPV strains responsible for cervical cancer. These strains promote hyperplasia of infected cells by encoding E6 and E7, which potently antagonize tumor suppressor ...
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How does a virus stick to a non-biological surface?

Recent events has triggered an renewed interest in understanding how a virus is able to stay on a surface. For sake of argument, let's assume we are dealing with a Corona-type virus. One can then ...
not2qubit's user avatar
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What percentage of cells in the human body are infected during a non-fatal viral infection?

I understand that this would be a very rough estimate, but approximately how many cells in the human body are infected during an average non-fatal viral infection before the infection is eliminated by ...
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Are there any cases where broadening the tissue tropism decreases the virulence of viruses?

Broadening the tissue tropism often increases the virulence. For example, poliovirus normally replicates in the guts and causes minor febrile illnesses. In rare cases (1%) the virus invades neurons ...
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Reason for partially double-stranded DNA of Hepatitis B virus

According to my school biology textbook and also Wikipedia, hepatitis B is the only Hepatitis virus to possess partially double-stranded DNA. I found an image from here What is the reason for the ...
Amarylis Vaselaar's user avatar
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How was 2019-nCoV (Wuhan coronavirus) identified so quickly?

It seems that from the first few cases to identifying 2019-nCoV as a new disease happened very quickly. How were they able to identify this as a new disease and not an outbreak of a previously known ...
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Virucides - Herbal and otherwise, for HHV6 type virus or any inner-cell virus

Does anyone know where I can find a reliable list of virucides (not anti-virus) that can be used by humans? This virucide must be able to affect viruses that are already inside the cells. St John's ...
wizard Lawrence's user avatar
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Was there a flu season in paleolithic times?

In temperate climates, flu viruses rise and recede with winter. This is for a number of reasons, including lack of vitamin D production in darkness (which weakens the immune system), dry air (humidity ...
StarlightDown's user avatar
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Does the SARS-CoV2 spike protein passively diffuse through the nuclear pore complex?

I found this thread which is worth reviewing as context to my question(s) since there is some overlap in potential discussion, although it's concern is with mRNA ingress rather than spike protein. ...
Ben Shaman's user avatar
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How many of each structural component of SARS-CoV-2 are there?

I'm interested in the composition of SARS-CoV-2, including how many copies of each protein are present in an assembled virus, as well as the overall mass and density. There are a few recent papers ...
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What virus properties affect their airborne contagiousness?

What properties of a virus affect it's ability to be transmitted by air? I assume it must be able to withstand different temperatures and be smallish in size? For example why is influenza very ...
josh messitte's user avatar
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Do we know that PrEP actually prevents infection, rather than masking it?

Pre-exposure prophylactic treatment (PrEP) for HIV is commonly said to reduce infection rates by more than 75%. Similar treatments for already-infected patient treatments do not cure HIV, but reduce ...
DJG's user avatar
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Mosquito vs Human: Swapping the roles

Is there a known mosquito-specific lethal (for some relevant species of mosquitos) virus that you could safely (for the humans) put into the blood of living humans? Is it technically possible to ...
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How does taking drugs speed up the development of drug resistant or viruses?

First, here is what I know: Some infectious illnesses, such as HIV or Hepatitis B, can be treated with the help of some drugs. The problem is that the virus sometimes undergoes mutations which grant ...
Anthony's user avatar
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Can 3% hydrogen peroxide be used as effective disinfectant and antiseptic?

I was curious to see whether 3% hydrogen peroxide can be used as antimicrobial and virucidal product for daily use in home. There are several disinfecting products in the market claim that use of ...
wey273824's user avatar
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Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
Nederealm's user avatar
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How quickly new infectious viruses can be identified and isolated today?

Say, tomorrow, a previously unknown disease (with non-unique symptoms) starts spreading: With the techniques we have today, how quickly can we find out which virus might be the root cause? I am asking ...
Alice's user avatar
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I need help identifying the source of my contamination in my viral titration experiments

I am relatively new to what I'm currently working with and as the title suggests, I am currently having some issues with my experiment (viral titration). So, what I have been doing is the following: ...
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Can macrophages phagocytose viruses directly?

I've been reading that Macrophages, members of the innate immune system, can actively track bacteria and protozoa to devour and destroy them. In the same way, can macrophages devour free viruses, in ...
Vembha's user avatar
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Does RNA of virus have poly adenylate tail before or after entry into the host cell?

I understand that RNA needs to have 5' cap and poly(A) tail to be recognised by eukaryotic ribosomes for translation. Some viruses are RNA based(like influenza and HIV). Does the RNA of these ...
green onion's user avatar
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Setup of terrarium for an early life experiment

I'm building a terrarium in which an early life environment will be simulated. Over multiple years a few experiments with different starting molecules/atoms will be held in it. The selected materials ...
FoundABoxOnTheSideOfTheStreet's user avatar
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Resource to obtain listings of tissues that different viruses infect

I am working on a project that involves analysis of viral DNA sequences. I'd like test hypotheses about issue specificity. Ideally I'd be able to get a table of virus/strain names with a column in it ...
Dermot Harnett's user avatar
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Why does the body not develop immunity to rabies during the period of incubation?

Rabies typically has an incubation period of 20 to 60 days and most cases develop only after at least a month after the bite from the infected animal. Nevertheless, rabies is nearly always fatal and ...
Imprisoned Rhesus's user avatar
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Why do some vaccines lose their efficacy with time?

Why do some vaccines lose with time their efficacy? The two obvious examples that I have in mind are influenza and tetanus. The former case is clear, as influenza virus undergoes frequent gene ...
Roger V.'s user avatar
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Can human pathogens present on plants become plant pathogens?

Since human pathogens sometimes live on the surface of plant leaves(read here and and here), and there are plant-pathogen microbes also living on leaf surfaces, is it possible for plant virulence ...
laporp's user avatar
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Would symptoms differ from eating virus contaminated food versus breathing in virus?

Would symptoms differ from eating virus contaminated food versus breathing in virus? The COVID-19 causes respiratory symptoms and I guess that is because people are breathing in virus droplets in ...
Jossi's user avatar
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Could blood transfusions from COVID19 surviver be worth researching as a possible form of treatment

As a general viral immunology question (rather than seeking personal medical advice). Would a blood transfusion from a COVID19 surviver to a sufferer be worth researching as a possible form of ...
andrew pate's user avatar
2 votes
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86 views

design and assessment of qPCR primers for COVID19

I read the False Negative of qPCR test for COVID19 is high compare to CT scans. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020200642 I was curious if experts can comment on why and what makes it ...
user702846's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
163 views

IU Unit in Virology

In a paper recently I saw "Cell are infected with 50,000 IU of virus per 100ul well". I can not seem to find a defintion of this unit? Is it a functional unit or just a count? If someone is familiar ...
A. Radek Martinez's user avatar
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475 views

Are there examples of non-pathogenic RNA viruses?

There do seem to be some non-pathogenic DNA viruses, for example Foamy virus. Non-pathogenic viruses would be great to use for gene therapy applications, except DNA viruses incorporate themselves into ...
Mike Flynn's user avatar
2 votes
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101 views

Can HBV pseudotyped oncolytic viruses be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma?

Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may ...
Ballistics's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
133 views

Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
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Can viruses replicate in a cell that's already dead?

Suppose a virus randomly lands on a cell that's just lying around. This cell may have just recently died, or died a while ago. This cell may also be part of tissue of a dead organism.* Does the virus ...
Mango Princess's user avatar
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Do all +ssRNA viruses have similar structures and life cycles?

Take HCV for example. HCV doesn't package any enzymes in it's virions. When it infects a cell, it first translates its RNA genome. It's RdRp is synthesized with other non-structural proteins. Then its ...
Ballistics's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
319 views

HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
Kookaburra's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
128 views

How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
Ogustari's user avatar
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How are spacer sequences created in a prokaryotic genome?

The CRISPR/Cas defense mechanism uses spacer sequences between palindromic repeats to search for the sequence to cut by an endonuclease. But how are these spacers created? Let's take Bacteriophages, ...
Void's user avatar
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1 vote
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immune system - how does adaptive work without innate?

The way I understood immune system is that: phagocytes detect viruses and present it on their surface and become antigen presenting cells. Then, T-helper cells try to bind to these phagocytes that ...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Taxonomy of viruses

There is a distinction drawn in the ICTV code between "valid names" and "accepted names". Valid names are those that are published and comply with the rules outlined in the code, ...
alephreish's user avatar
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1 vote
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How can a viral infection (like shingles) recur in a healthy individual?

I don't quite understand how a viral infection, like chicken pox (Herpes Zoster), can recur in a healthy individual. If the body has created an immune response, how can the virus just spontaneously ...
Imprisoned Rhesus's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
56 views

Is Zayed et al.’s revision of Orthornavirae robust?

Zayed et al. (April 7, 2022) in Science “Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA virome” report several major hitherto-unknown Ribovirial phyla: The two most ...
alexchandel's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Would viral diversity result in a change in the effectiveness of CRISPR systems in a population of bacteria, within a closed system?

I have here my hypothesis, does this make scientific sense? Assume this situation is occurring in a closed environment with only bacteria and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9, being an ...
BeeLong's user avatar
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1 vote
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How does natural selection interacts with sustained mask use?

At leasts in some European countries, the number of respiratory (non-covid) infectious diseases on children this term is higher than last year and similar to pre-pandemic years in spite of social ...
Jon's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
101 views

How do viruses/bacteria survive in extremely cold conditions?

So, recently, i watched a video, it was about a anthrax outbreak in Siberia. The cause, supposedly were reindeer carcasses, infected by anthrax. Due to the thawing ice they resurfaced, and that lead ...
John's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
85 views

The effect of low pH on HIV virus

I've read a couple of articles that state that HIV is an enveloped Retrovirus that is so sensitive to the acidity of the environment and it cannot survive or will be inactivated at pH below 7. What ...
Ehsan Javanbakht's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

SARS-COV-2 detectability versus viability

This week (#47 of 2020) two meta-reviews were published in the Lancet. Ct values and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, a brief review published on 19 November in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, ...
thegreatwhatsit's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
12 views

instances of virus transmission-enhancing research approvals

In February 2019 this article by epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch and professor Tom Inglesby raised concern about secret virus research. Washington Post article link. In 2014, U.S. officials imposed a ...
H2ONaCl's user avatar
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