Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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If a HIV+ person gets COVID, will it result in more mutant virus? [closed]

High schooler here. What is the probability of the coronavirus evolving to gain traits of HIV/any other virus from a person suffering from both ailments? As COVID virus enters cells that are already ...
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26 votes
2 answers
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Why don't viruses reach broad concentration outdoors in a city like allergens?

Why don't airborne viruses reach concentrations that infect most people vulnerable outdoors in a city the way an allergen can cause inflammation to everyone sensitive to it. Both are (often) ...
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How does HIV assemble its capsid correctly?

HIV’s capsid is very unusual. The capsid is made of around 1200 identical CA proteins (p24). These CA proteins first assemble into either pentamers or hexamers, which assemble into a fullerene like ...
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Why during acute HBV infection, anti-HBsAg isn't detected in blood?

In general any acute viral infection would produce IgM against that viral antigen (let's say neutralization antibody). Surprisingly in hepatitis-B infection anti-HBsAg IgM is detected only during ...
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What is wrong with yall [migrated]

https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/107934/pc2-lab-build-cost I put in the comments why I wrote the words, which lbh, were meaningless, my question is very related to biology - specifically ...
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Is Zayed et al.’s revision of Orthornavirae robust?

Zayed et al. (April 7, 2022) in Science “Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA virome” report several major hitherto-unknown Ribovirial phyla: The two most ...
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Can you speed up human evolution using some type of growth hormones?

If you put a set of humans in an difficult to live in environment while rapidly aging them with some type of growth hormones until old enough to reproduce and follow the same process many times over ...
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Resource to obtain listings of tissues that different viruses infect

I am working on a project that involves analysis of viral DNA sequences. I'd like test hypotheses about issue specificity. Ideally I'd be able to get a table of virus/strain names with a column in it ...
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3 votes
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Zayed et al. (2022) "Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA virome"; expressed sequences or transcribed?

Phys.org's Ocean water samples yield treasure trove of RNA virus data summarizes Zayed et al. (April 7, 2022) in Science Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA ...
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Would viral diversity result in a change in the effectiveness of CRISPR systems in a population of bacteria, within a closed system?

I have here my hypothesis, does this make scientific sense? Assume this situation is occurring in a closed environment with only bacteria and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9, being an ...
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What is the effect of skin care on viruses?

After shedding as fomites, viruses like HPV begin to decay in dry and warm environments. Do skin care products extend the viability of such viruses by substituting natural hydration with artificial ...
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When and how did the Embecovirus acquire hemagglutinin esterase?

The Embecovirus is different from the rest of Betacoronavirus by possessing an additional protein, a hemagglutinin esterase (HE). There are known similarities between the HE's of different viruses (...
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2 votes
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How do viral envelopes contain molecules coded for by viral genes when they are derived from the host cell's plasma membrane?

I have been studying viruses from " Biology: A Global Approach " by Campbell, Urry, et al. Regarding viral envelopes in animal viruses, the textbook writes, " ..the viral envelope is ...
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Origin and evolution of viruses [duplicate]

I imagine that new viruses must be originating all the time, and not confined to merely being new variants of existing viruses. Is there evidence of on-going spontaneous generation of new viruses?
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Is there an equivalent to vertebrate endogenous retroviruses in invertebrates or microbes?

I know jawed vertebrates have a lot of junk DNA floating around coming from ancient retroviruses. Some of the DNA is important to mammalian evolution. The DNA also provides a useful means to study the ...
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Does Herpes Simplex Virus induce antibodies which last a lifetime?

Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is a virus which produces both lytic and latent infection. In the latter case it persists in a quiescent form in the neural ganglia for the lifetime of its host. My ...
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Infection induced immunity vs vaccine induced immunity

I'm of course concerned about COVID here, but my question is about viruses in general and mRNA vaccines. I'm reading reports including one by the government seeming to suggest that vaccine-induced ...
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Rethinking SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV deadliness after lessons learned from SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-1 case fatality rates were about 9% and MERS-CoV case fatality rates were over 30%. And now there is a newly discovered MERS-CoV relative, which some scientists have warned may be only one or ...
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Could hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) be used as a 'disinfectant' on hospital patients that are in contact with SARS-CoV-2?

Hydrogen peroxide kills harmful pathogens and various forms of bacteria by destroying their cell walls, through a process called oxidation. However, since SARS-CoV-2 is acellular; not composed of a ...
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2 votes
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Why does the body not develop immunity to rabies during the period of incubation?

Rabies typically has an incubation period of 20 to 60 days and most cases develop only after at least a month after the bite from the infected animal. Nevertheless, rabies is nearly always fatal and ...
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1 vote
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How does natural selection interacts with sustained mask use?

At leasts in some European countries, the number of respiratory (non-covid) infectious diseases on children this term is higher than last year and similar to pre-pandemic years in spite of social ...
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Does specific immunity affect the incubation period of viruses?

My interest was inspired by the observed variation in incubation times for different strains of Covid-19, however I ask the question in the broader sense as it seems hard to find an answer in general. ...
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1 answer
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Can viruses infect adipose cells? [closed]

Can viruses infect adipose cells or tissue?
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How do viruses/bacteria survive in extremely cold conditions?

So, recently, i watched a video, it was about a anthrax outbreak in Siberia. The cause, supposedly were reindeer carcasses, infected by anthrax. Due to the thawing ice they resurfaced, and that lead ...
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How would a virus “evolve” if someone is infected with both the omicron and delta variants at the same time?

If someone is infected with both variants (let’s say within a day or two), what are some of the likely outcomes with respect to the virus “evolution”? is it most likely that only 1 of the 2 variants ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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How does the first organism infected by a disease get infected?

How does a micro-organism causing some communicable disease infect the first organism it infected? I was reading about HIV, when I found that HIV has jumped from chimpanzees to human beings. But, how ...
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How does araC exhibit both positive and negative control?

I was of the understanding that negative gene regulation = active form of the repressor protein shuts off the operon and positive gene regulation = active form of the regulatory protein increases ...
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13 votes
1 answer
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Was the Harcourt COVID-19 isolate paper ever published?

One very interesting paper concerning COVID-19 was the paper describing the first isolation of the virus by Harcourt et al. However, this paper as far as I can tell was only published as a preprint in ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Could Sars-CoV-2 vaccines make the immune response less effective against new variants?

Some viral diseases (e.g. influenza and dengue fever) are thought to exhibit original antigenic sin. The immune system remembers viruses that it has been previously exposed to, allowing the body to ...
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Do mutations in a fundamental structure of a virus [Omicron Variant] make it more transmissible?

I am not a microbiologist, nor a virologist so I had a question - in the new Omicron virus variant, a large number of mutations were reported for the protein spike. From my naïve understanding, the ...
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Can a less fit strain of a virus impose over a fitter one? [closed]

According to this link, the Dominant Delta Variant may mutate itself into destruction. The Delta variant in Japan was highly transmissible and keeping other variants out. But as the mutations piled ...
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Can the SARS‑CoV‑2 virus mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated?

I am curious to know if the original SARS‑CoV‑2 virus, or any of its variants, can mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated. I am referring to those people who have received all the recommended ...
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1 answer
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What animal has the strongest immune system?

I'm wondering what animal has the strongest immune system. It can be defined as the most evolved immune system or the immune system that can eliminate or tolerate most number of (different) viruses/...
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34 votes
4 answers
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Why don't viruses cause wounds?

A simple mental model of a viral infection is that an infected cell emits a lot of virions and eventually dies. The emitted virions have a chance of infecting other cells. Nearby cells are at a higher ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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How many of each structural component of SARS-CoV-2 are there?

I'm interested in the composition of SARS-CoV-2, including how many copies of each protein are present in an assembled virus, as well as the overall mass and density. There are a few recent papers ...
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How do viruses attacking the outside of the body invade if the upper strata of the epithelial layer is metabolically inactive?

The top two layers of the epithelia, the layer of skin on the outside of the body, are the stratum corneum and the stratum lucidum. Both of these layers are metabolically inactive, in other words they ...
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0 votes
4 answers
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How do mRNA vaccines work with respect to presentation of the antigen?

As I understand it, mRNA vaccines operate by taking a gene for some distinctive feature of the target virus and arranging for the cells of the vaccine recipient to manufacture the proteins that make ...
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Virus culture in artificial/synthetic medium

I am looking for a publication/paper in a well a circulated magazine/journal/government study on growing virus culture in synthetic or artificial medium. I have found this link on SARS Cov 2 being ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Are the terms "provirus" and "prophage" interchangeable?

Regarding the difference between proviruses and prophages, Wikipedia states that "these terms should not be used interchangeably. Unlike prophages, proviruses do not excise themselves from the ...
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29 votes
1 answer
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Are fully vaccinated people more likely to not get infected at all with COVID-19?

I've found some papers which describe that the viral shedding does not decrease during infection (for fully vaccinated people). But the overall shedding time does decrease. Therefore it is possible to ...
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What is the likelihood of two or more simultaneous mutations at different genetic sites on the same virus?

I'm asking this in the context of vaccine/immune escape. Apparently if more than one component of the virus is targeted by antibodies, it is difficult for it to mutate simultaneously in two or more ...
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2 answers
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Do the genes for external viral epitopes mutate faster than for viral machinery (e.g. Proteases)?

To fight SARS-COV-2 we use vaccines which train our immune system against viral epitopes like the external S(pike) protein. Since these structures change a lot, would it not have been a better idea to ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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On the origin and evolution of vaccinia virus

I was browsing Wikipedia and learned that vaccinia virus, the basis of the smallpox (variola virus) vaccine, was originally thought to be derived from cowpox but was later discovered to be a separate ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Do viruses do anything other than multiply? [closed]

Viruses are "on the edge of life ". They infect the cells and use it for multiplication of themselves but other than that do they do anything else like "eat food" like an amoeba ...
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What is an attenuated virus? What is done to it?

UPDATE: So it looks like I've asked a complex and technical question. I'm going to take @tyersome's advice and study Khan Academy on immunology, and from there, formulate a better question if I still ...
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Viruses in human history

How much do we know about ancient viruses and the viral evolution throughout the human history? To my knowledge the HIV history has been rather well documented for about hundred years back (e.g., see ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Can viruses grow?

Hey there everybody ! I know that viruses show only one living feature - Reproduction. However they cannot reproduce by themselves so on this basis they cannot be classified as living organisms. They ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Why do some viruses get deadlier over time?

I was wondering what reasons are that make some viruses become more lethal over time. By "more lethal", I am not referring to acquiring more mutations which make the virus more infectious ...
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How would a "synthetic defective interfering SARS-CoV-2" work in practice? Wouldn't it require a large fraction of all cells to be infected?

The abstract of A synthetic defective interfering SARS-CoV-2 is as follows. Abstract Viruses thrive by exploiting the cells they infect, but in order to replicate and infect other cells they must ...
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Is unihibited exhalation beneficial for someone with a contagious respiratory disease?

If someone has a contagious respiratory disease (I'll refer to as CRD - eg. COVID, FLU, etc.) I'm wondering if the process of exhaling could be beneficial for them. My first thought is that exhaling ...
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