Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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0answers
35 views

Do we know that PrEP actually prevents infection, rather than masking it?

Pre-exposure prophylactic treatment (PrEP) for HIV is commonly said to reduce infection rates by more than 75%. Similar treatments for already-infected patient treatments do not cure HIV, but reduce ...
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2answers
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What decides whether a lysogenic cycle or a lytic cycle will take place? [closed]

A virus can either participate in a lysogenic cycle or a lytic cycle. What decides that?
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1answer
3k views

Do DNA viruses have their own DNA dependant DNA polymerase?

There's an exception to the rule that all DNA viruses need to get to the nucleus in order to replicate. Poxviruses do not require to get into the nucleus because they can make protein from their very ...
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2answers
878 views

Why is the origin (patient zero) required to cure a virus?

I'm not sure if it's just a movies thing but I always notice that the original strain of a virus is required to cure a virus, why is this? is this even true?
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Which eradicated viruses still have remaining stockpiles? [closed]

Other than smallpox, I'm curious to know if there are any other stockpiles of eradicated or nearly eradicated viruses, and if so where are they located? Thank you.
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How many strains of influenza can occupy a person at one time? [closed]

Could a person's immune system be built eventually to be able to inject all the known strains with in to stay immune?
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1answer
21 views

Virus immunity from animal to humans

There are number of virus which have animal as reservior and jump to human to cause disease. Why dont we use antibodies of animal to cure humans? Like rabies in bats.
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1answer
55 views

Catching a cold outside in winter? [duplicate]

We have all heard the typical “Put a jacket on youre going to catch a cold.” Usually stated by an older person typically a grandmother. Excuse the stereotype. Is there any evidence that colder weather ...
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1answer
154 views

What portion of America needs the Flu vaccine for herd immunity effects to become substantial?

I've been looking at the effectiveness of Flu vaccines, which are in my subjective opinion abysmal, and the concept of herd immunity. I see many articles which argue that we all need flu shots to ...
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Would it be correct to say that viruses are genotoxic? [closed]

I know it is an unconventional way to describe viruses, but would it still be technically correct?
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Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
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1answer
41 views

Can proteins from different viruses be gathered in one virus?

There is a biology project I must do with some of my classmates and we're facing a problem. We would like to choose proteins from different viruses that seem interesting to us (for example one protein ...
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1answer
52 views

How can I perform virus neutralization assay for influenza?

How can I perform a Virus Microneutralization assay for influenza virus using serum from mice vaccinated with this virus?
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1answer
68 views

Are there any bacteria, virus or mold that can withstand ozone?

Ozonation is often promoted as one of the most effective disinfection procedures. There are numerous reports on how ozone effectively kills bacteria and molds, and disarms viruses within seconds due ...
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What would happen if you combined the world's deadliest diseases & viruses?

What would happen if you took the deadliest diseases/viruses in the world and combined them in a single medium (a solution of water or a test subject)? Would the strongest virus defeat the rest or ...
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1answer
83 views

Rabies virus mortality [duplicate]

Why rabies virus has nearly 100% fatality rate in human (see this virology blog; thanks to @iayork for the link) if not vaccinated early, even some people have survived Ebola, then why does rabies doe ...
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1answer
84 views

Do microorganisms contain water?

This may sound a bit strange question, but I am very new to biology. I would like to ask that do microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, amoebas, etc also contain water, as every living thing contains ...
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2answers
994 views

Why is HIV so large compared to other viruses?

The HIV-1 virus is about 120-150 nm in size and has a genome only about 10,000 base pairs long. Other viruses are far more efficient, for example lambda phage has something like a tenth the volume ...
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1answer
88 views

How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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1answer
50 views

Legality of doing private or scholastic virology with human pathogens? [closed]

Is it ok for a student, say a graduate student in biochemistry, to do amateur virology using potential human pathogens? For example, lets say the student gets a cold and tries to isolate the virus ...
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1answer
117 views

Are amino acids of viruses L or D enantiomers?

I read a note saying that the amino acids of viruses are D enantiomers but I can't understand how that's possible since their human host can't even recognize that type.
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1answer
33 views

Using viruses to treat altered or misconfigured DNA

Consider how a Retrovirus can modify existing cell DNA to 'execute instructions' on its behalf. I wondered: Why can we not utilize lab-generated viruses to infect sick patients with a 'healthy' ...
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1answer
191 views

Transposons, Viruses and RNA interference

My textbook says that in RNAi, a complementary double stranded RNA sequence attaches to an mRNA and silences it using a protein machinery. I Googled and read about this so now I know what siRNA and ...
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2answers
2k views

Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA?

Why does methylation not occur in viral DNA? Can viral DNA undergo the process of methylation? If not then why does this process does not occur in viruses?
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1answer
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Methods for phage separation

How can a mixture of unspecified phages be separated (into singular phage strains)? I.e, what are the main methods? My research shows it can be done using CsCl centrifugation and affinity ...
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5answers
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Is there an 'anti-virus'?

A virus spreads around and usually attaches itself to the host, multiplies & causes diseases. But is there something like an anti-virus? A single celled entity that does the opposite: spreads ...
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Are exosomes useful as a transfection or delivery mechanism in gene editing?

The use of viruses as transfection or delivery agents for gene editing (CRISPR/cas9, etc) is well known. However, one problem with using viruses to deliver DNA into cells is the possibility of ...
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3answers
998 views

Why do retroviruses go through a DNA stage to replicate their RNA genome?

Why do retroviruses (e.g.HIV) convert their RNA genome to DNA (using reverse transcriptase) and then transcribe it back into viral RNA (and translate that into viral proteins). Surely to replicate ...
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Can we detect rabies during its incubation period?

Although some diseases are almost fatal and have a near 100% mortality, their incubation period can be very long. For example, rabies' incubation period can be days to years. I wonder when the ...
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1answer
558 views

Rabies in spiders - is it possible? [closed]

What if we inject rabies virus into an insect body, like spider or a bee, will it contract rabies as humans, cats, dogs, racoons or bats do?
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1answer
850 views

Why minimum infective dose of a virus is not just 1 particle?

I've stumbled upon a term "minimum infective dose" (for example, of HIV), but don't exactly understand what is it? Why it is not always equal to 1 virus particle? I expect 1 lucky virus to be able to ...
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Potential immunization against airborn viruses [closed]

I have had an idea based on the principals of a virus and their properties and how they enter the cell by tricking it into believing it is a protein etc. If we coated a copper particle (or another ...
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2answers
2k views

Are viruses self-propelled?

So obviously, viruses are nonliving. But when my teacher was teaching viruses in the video (we're doing "flip" learning this semester), the way he described it, it seemed like the viruses responded to ...
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1answer
53 views

How does the measeles virus form? [closed]

I would like to understand how (if possible) the measles virus could start to infect a population that was theoretically isolated from any other population group. Put another way, can the measles ...
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1answer
345 views

Body's response to second dengue attack

I have read in wikipedia that the first dengue virus infection is cleared by the body very easily. The second infection, however, is dangerous. How does body fight second infection, or does it has any ...
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Can viruses be toxic?

Bacteria can produce toxins like endotoxins and exotoxins. In diseases like cholera or tetanus they can harm infected people due to these toxins. Now, although viruses are much smaller and are ...
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Can we attack viruses by attaching proteins and such to their shells?

Haven't looked into this to very long, but an initial search didn't return anything. HIV uses certain co-receptors to enter our cells. Could we flood the blood stream with specially designed ...
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1answer
246 views

Viruses selected by evolution

First let me apologize in advance for I know almost nothing about biology. I had a conversation today with a family member who is a bio-computer-scientist and he talked to me about what his colleagues ...
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1answer
500 views

Bacteriophages and their role in genetic editing? [closed]

I know how plasmids and restriction enzymes work to change the dna of a bacteria cell, but I do not really understand how a bacteriophage works to edit the genome of a cell. Is it related to crispr ...
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2answers
693 views

Why is herpes virus neurotropic?

A neurotropic virus is a virus which capable of infecting nerve cells. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has low neuroinvasivesess and high neurovirulence. HSV is transmitted in vesicle fluid, saliva and ...
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Cat herpes and behavior

We have 2 cats, aptly named "Fatty" and "Tiny". "Fatty" is a 6 year old house cat that hasn't seen the outside world in years. "Tiny" is a cat we rescued about 45 days ago and she's roughly 2.5 ...
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1answer
204 views

Which mRNAs enter P-bodies?

Processing bodies (P-bodies) are distinct foci within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell consisting of many enzymes involved in mRNA turnover (ref). They play a fundamental role in RNA silencing/...
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What chemicals will kill P1 Phage but not E. coli?

I'm working with E. coli and P1 Phage. I'm wondering if there is some chemical agent that will kill or disable P1 but leave E. coli untouched? It is not enough to just prevent infection. It must ...
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2answers
887 views

How does hypochlorous acid inactivate viruses?

I was reading how bleach was used very widely as a disinfecting agent during the 2014 West Africa ebola outbreak and am interested in the mechanisms with which hypochlorous acid inactivates viruses. ...
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2answers
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Can a virus be transmitted from a sweating person out to another person?

In the sport of Jiu-Jitsu, close contact with many partners is common. Many times these partners are sweating profusely (Yuk), which in turn drips on the other person sometimes into the eyes, nose, ...
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Concerning Rabies can an animal feeding on rabid bat transmit right away?

Playful kitten found biting and toying with a dead bat. Lets say the kitten nips and plays rough with a human right after biting and toying with the bat. Will a potential rabies virus transmit from ...
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1answer
166 views

Are viruses more common due to modernity?

Is there any evidence to say whether in the past viruses like the cold virus were less common? I wonder if high density living and globalisation mean that the cold virus mutates and spreads much more ...
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3answers
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Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...