Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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75 views

Can a virus be transmitted from a sweating person out to another person?

In the sport of Jiu-Jitsu, close contact with many partners is common. Many times these partners are sweating profusely (Yuk), which in turn drips on the other person sometimes into the eyes, nose, ...
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Concerning Rabies can an animal feeding on rabid bat transmit right away?

Playful kitten found biting and toying with a dead bat. Lets say the kitten nips and plays rough with a human right after biting and toying with the bat. Will a potential rabies virus transmit from ...
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1answer
167 views

Are viruses more common due to modernity?

Is there any evidence to say whether in the past viruses like the cold virus were less common? I wonder if high density living and globalisation mean that the cold virus mutates and spreads much more ...
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3answers
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Why don't we see new diseases more often? Or, ever?

It seems like every disease we ever hear about is something that's been around since ancient times, since thousands of years ago. Of course new diseases were catalogued over the course of the past ...
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1answer
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How did scientists discover HIV?

Imagining that we're now in 1983 (when HIV was discovered), there were no modern machines at that time to sequence massive genome extracted from blood. There was a strange disease and no one know what ...
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4answers
198 views

Is there a period after you have had a cold when you cannot get a cold again?

I always assumed colds ran on a 'no tagbacks' principle: once it's out of your system, it takes a while before you can get a cold again. Is there any truth to this, or can rhinoviruses hit you at any ...
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2answers
745 views

Why do viruses last longer on hard surfaces, like glass, than porous ones

All the papers I've read about survival of viruses outside of the host refer to longer survival times on hard surfaces without explaination. As a layman I would have thought that a virus (who's main ...
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2answers
171 views

Virus that can enter all cell types

As I understand, each virus type can enter a particular cell type. For example HIV can enter CD4 & CD8 cells, while HBV can enter liver cells, some other viruses can enter other cell types like ...
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2answers
241 views

Cheapest way to measure S. aureus and Rhinoviruses density at home

I would like to measure the surface density of Staphylococcus bacteria and Rhinoviruses (only those two, to be specific) within my home. What's the cheapest way? The textbook procedure is to: rub a ...
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4answers
879 views

Why did viruses evolve in the first place?

This question might seem kind of strange, but it's something I've been chewing on for ages, and I can't really think of a good answer. Viruses just seem to be floating around passively until they ...
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1answer
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How do wild animals get rabies?

I can see the chain of spreading disease: Humans usually get rabies from domestic animals, those usually get it from wild animals, wild animals in their turn get from the other wild animals and here I'...
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1answer
389 views

What is the origin of the name “λ phage”?

The lambda bacteriophage which infects E. coli was first discovered by Esther Lederberg in 1950. However, in the earliest paper on the lambda phage that I could find, I was unable to find the ...
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1answer
111 views

Interpretation of faint band for Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test

After having used the test for research it would appear as if it is very specific. What is one to make of bands that are there but faint? Or what if there are two bands and one is big and bold and the ...
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1answer
4k views

How do viroids propagate to other hosts?

As viroids are simply non-encapsidated non-coding RNA molecules, it is difficult to imagine a mechanism for their continual infection, other than horizontal transfer which doesn't seem to be the case. ...
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1answer
129 views

What is the Attributable Risk of birth defects in Zika infected pregnancies?

Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016 A recent CDC report shows that ...
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A Designer Virus

An article at Wikipedia describes color changes that viruses have produced in tulips (without any human intention). And another article (elsewhere on the web) describes viruses that were designed to ...
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1answer
2k views

How long does immunity to influenza last when contracting the disease vs vaccination

The long term efficacy of flu vaccines are well documented, however I cannot seem to find a good source showing how long immunity lasts when contracting the disease. I suspect it can't be much longer ...
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1answer
904 views

What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
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0answers
97 views

How does taking drugs speed up the development of drug resistant or viruses?

First, here is what I know: Some infectious illnesses, such as HIV or Hepatitis B, can be treated with the help of some drugs. The problem is that the virus sometimes undergoes mutations which grant ...
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63 views

What industry job am I qualified for with a PhD in virology? [closed]

I'm considering applying for a PhD studying innate resistance to HCV. I enjoy research but I would prefer to have a stable job, instead of moving from contract to contract and writing grants to ensure ...
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1answer
986 views

Can viruses survive Super saturated salt solution?

As we know there is less evidence of biological activity in Dead Sea ( Lake full of salt water). Also, our blood cells do not survive in too much salt water as they shrink and die. So I was thinking ...
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3answers
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Can the dead be brought back to life by viruses?

Zombies have been a part of popular culture for decades. The living dead rising up to take over the world is a terrifying concept, worthy of Hollywood blockbusters and television hits. Some of those ...
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0answers
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Can HBV pseudotyped oncolytic viruses be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma?

Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may ...
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1answer
310 views

How long does Lentivirus take to express in vivo mouse neurons?

Does anyone know how long it takes for a standard Lentivirus vector to express its genes (under a strong promoter such as CAG, CB7, etc.), after injection into the brain of a mouse? By hearsay I ...
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1answer
206 views

Is Zika suspected of causing birth defects only if contracted during pregnancy?

There seems to be growing evidence that a recently spreading strain of Zika virus is in fact linked to microencephaly and other birth defects in newborns (see here, here, and here for examples). I ...
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296 views

Question on Viruses [closed]

A recent study has provided evidence that two types of equine (horse) herpes viruses have an unusually broad host range. This fact supports which of the following statements? a. The lytic cylce ...
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3k views

Why is bacterial meningitis worse than viral meningitis?

My field is not biology related, but it is commonly said that bacterial meningitis is far more dangerous to the individual than the viral kind. It seems to be true even with antibiotic treatment. What ...
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Is there any way to cultivate viruses without cells? [closed]

I know what viruses are. They replicate only inside the living cells, and so on, and so on. I just interesting maybe there is some progress in this field. I don't know exactly, but I suppose before ...
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61 views

Mosquito vs Human: Swapping the roles

Is there a known mosquito-specific lethal (for some relevant species of mosquitos) virus that you could safely (for the humans) put into the blood of living humans? Is it technically possible to ...
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1answer
50 views

Olympic's epidemiological impact on Zika?

I've seen a lot of fear mongering, misinformation and overall general panic concerning the zika virus surrounding the Rio Olympics. However, little has been said about the actual epidemiological ...
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1answer
103 views

Viruses and Transformation

Would the lysogenic cycle for the reproduction of viruses be considered a form of naturally occurring transformation since DNA from the virus is being incorporated into the DNA of the host cell?
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1answer
211 views

What is the cause of the packaging capacity limit of recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors?

I am working with recombinant AAV and I am puzzled by the limit of their packaging capacity (around 5Kb ssDNA), that is really a huge drawback for gene delivery. I have tried to look more in deep ...
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Which viruses are fatal to E.Coli?

I am currently doing a bit of research into which viruses are specifically fatal to the E.Coli bacterium. Apart from the fact that this is merely interesting information for me, I would like to know ...
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2answers
304 views

Would we know about a virus that causes no symptoms?

I've heard that there are a number of viral illnesses that humans can get from animals, which cause no symptoms in the animals. If there was such a virus in humans, which was very widespread but ...
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4answers
2k views

Question about enveloped RNA virus viral genome

I am a newbie studying campbell biology. just a quick question about virus. When viral genome(RNA) expose itself in the host cell, why does the host cell not eliminate the genome since it apparently ...
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2answers
4k views

It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies?

I'm just curious as there was a bit controversy around this topic. It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies? As of 1989, the CDC reported that 5% of all U.S. AIDS patients ...
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2answers
137 views

Is it feasible to eradicate a virus without vaccines?

Although a vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains elusive, new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs can cure HCV effectively and conveniently. The latest DAA, Epclusa, can cure 95-99% of chronic ...
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1answer
111 views

Commensalism with Virus bacteria [duplicate]

Why people die of infection from microorganism, when germs can keep breeding for longer if they dont kill host? Would not millions of years of evolution make germs evolve to not to kill human but feed ...
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1answer
810 views

What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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1answer
111 views

What is the name of the property of viruses that can go dormant in the host for 30 years?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. My ...
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2answers
6k views

How long do viruses, such as Zika, stay in the body?

Can a virus stay in your body (after recovery) in a concentration that is sufficient to infect someone? Is it known how long the Zika virus persists in the body?
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Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
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Are there any examples of viruses that have powered motion or do they all rely on passive diffusion? [duplicate]

Swimming, or any locomotion will presumably require energy which will in turn require metabolism which viruses lack supposedly. Are they general able to direct their movement in any manner (e.g like ...
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0answers
114 views

Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
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Did the Zika virus mutate?

The Zika virus was already present and known to the world (mostly in Southeast Asia) before the current outbreak. Why has the virus caused such an extreme outbreak? Has it mutated from its ...
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1answer
190 views

What is the evolutionary purpose of shingles afflicting only one side of the body? [closed]

A question here asks for the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body. My question is about the evolutionary purpose of that 'affects only one side' behavior. Chicken ...
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1answer
40 views

Is there a reference for the composition of viral genomes?

First of all forgive me for the bad written question. I'm not a biologist. I'm neither a doctor nor a virologist. I am a physicist actually, and I have this question in mind since a long while. What ...