Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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6
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3answers
931 views

Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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1answer
51 views

Where can I find hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data?

I am looking for hemagglutination inhibition assay data for type A influenza virus. I've checked in databases such as fludb.com, however it seems to only have genetic data. A lot of the time, ...
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2answers
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For how long would a flu-contaminated parcel be an effective disease vector?

A parcel has been delivered and contaminated by a person who has the flu. For how long would the parcel be an effective disease vector?
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2answers
100 views

Could a human become infected with rabies in such a way that even prior vaccination wouldn't stop the infection?

Given the highly persistent nature of rabies after entering the brain, I was wondering whether certain ways of exposure to this virus could be risky even for a previously vaccinated individual. I ...
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2answers
312 views

What does 'virus prototype strain' mean?

Does the term 'prototype virus strain' mean the first virus isolated and without mutations?
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2answers
47 views

Pox virus infection process

How does Pox virus duplicate it's genome? Does it bring DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase into the host cell?
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1answer
673 views

Is rabies virus infectious outside host?

Can rabies virus remain infectious on environment i.e on soil, grasses, leaves and water?
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0answers
25 views

Why do some viruses have only one serotype, but others have many?

Some viruses, like the virus that causes mumps, have only a single serotype, meaning that variants of the disease are immunologically identical. However, other viruses, like the influenza virus family,...
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2answers
178 views

Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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1answer
69 views

Is it theoretically possible to safely eliminate most viruses in the atmosphere, hence preemptively cure all the viral diseases? [closed]

Could we create a genetically modified virus or bacteria (with inability to mutate into something dangerous for animals) that would quickly spread all over the planet and selectively kill most of the ...
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2answers
85 views

If virus is an inanimate(non-living) structure, why it poses tendency/intelligence to spread itself to others?

A virus has no aim, no agency but just a chemical propagation(DNAs, RNAs). Still, it accounts for millions of deaths and horrible nature. Rabies, for example, is a very deadly disease with a fatality ...
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1answer
52 views

What characteristics do living organisms (like humans or plants) have that viruses don't? [duplicate]

I am not too sure if viruses are considered living organisms. I learned that living organism: -Change their size -Reproduce -Heal themselves -Need energy (by eating) -React to the environment -...
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1answer
71 views

Why don't retroviruses kill everything? Show math? [closed]

Each retrovirus produces thousands of copies. They would spread and kill every cell in the body in a few days. I would like to see the math behind how this doesn't happen.
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0answers
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Are there examples of non-pathogenic RNA viruses?

There do seem to be some non-pathogenic DNA viruses, for example Foamy virus. Non-pathogenic viruses would be great to use for gene therapy applications, except DNA viruses incorporate themselves into ...
2
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1answer
178 views

Why there is no vaccine against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?

I was informed by my teacher that this retrovirus changes its RNA, so there is not a drug which can recognize the RNA and somehow inactivates it. Are there any other reasons explaining why there isn't ...
3
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1answer
99 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
2
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1answer
388 views

What is the difference between a viral strain and a viral isolate?

Both are characterized, their genes are usually described and published, they are kept safe, they could be used as inoculum or to produce vaccine... Would it be correct to say a strain would be ...
93
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6answers
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Do beneficial viruses exist? If so, what examples are there?

Typically, people call viruses some kind of organic compounds that cannot reproduce autonomously and which lower the fitness of their hosts. Even the word "virus" means "venom" in Latin. But from the ...
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2answers
35 views

Why are there multiple sequences for the same segment for an individual “strain” of influenza?

I am looking at the genome of the influenza virus being used in the flu vaccine 2017-2018: A/Michigan/45/2015. When I look below at the individual segments, there are 4 sequences for each segment - ...
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2answers
138 views

Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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0answers
837 views

What is the difference between a virus and virion

What is the difference between a virus and virion. Correct me if i am wrong but i think that one can simply say that " virus outside a cell is called a virion" and that this stage is used to go from ...
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2answers
171 views

Do all retroviruses evolve into dna viruses? [closed]

Since even nonprocreative sex transfers genetic material it seems redundant for viruses to destroy the host. Retroviruses are sufficiently simple to fit into DNA. So why not just become DNA viruses?
2
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1answer
93 views

Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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1answer
138 views

Rabies transmission via barking

According to CDC, non-bite exposure includes scratches, abrasion, and contamination of the mucous membrane from a rabid animal's saliva. So, is it possible to catch rabies if a rapid animal barks ...
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2answers
25 views

Immunofluoresence and vaccines

Can you use indirect immounofluoresence to verify if a vaccine will work against a virus? Using the vaccine antibodies against the virus, plus a second antibody with fluorophore that will join the ...
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0answers
505 views

largest and smallest gram positive, gram negative and fungal pathogens

As I stumbled through this question: A 16-year-old female patient presented to her family physician with a complaint of an abnormal vaginal discharge and pruritus (itching). The patient ...
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1answer
1k views

Is “Virus” a part of Acaryote?

I am just a beginner of BIOLOGY as a Grade 7 student! But the information which I got from my textbook and Internet has got me confused as MY TEXTBOOK SAID:- Viruses are part of "Akaryote" And '...
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0answers
25 views

What is the difference between operator mutant and repressor mutant lambda viruses?

I wanted to know what the difference between the operator mutant and repressor mutant lambda bacteriophages is and how do they act on E. coli cells.
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0answers
29 views

How to estimate MOI for a complex cell type

I am currently confused about the estimation of multiplicity of infection (MOI), here is an example in a scientific article in figure 3b, they tested the virus, and get estimated MOI based on this: ...
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2answers
493 views

Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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0answers
37 views

Do we know that PrEP actually prevents infection, rather than masking it?

Pre-exposure prophylactic treatment (PrEP) for HIV is commonly said to reduce infection rates by more than 75%. Similar treatments for already-infected patient treatments do not cure HIV, but reduce ...
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2answers
1k views

Why Can't The Immune Systems of Uncontacted Tribes Handle Our Common Colds?

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...
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1answer
67 views

Which eradicated viruses still have remaining stockpiles? [closed]

Other than smallpox, I'm curious to know if there are any other stockpiles of eradicated or nearly eradicated viruses, and if so where are they located? Thank you.
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1answer
23 views

Virus immunity from animal to humans

There are number of virus which have animal as reservior and jump to human to cause disease. Why dont we use antibodies of animal to cure humans? Like rabies in bats.
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1answer
123 views

How many strains of influenza can occupy a person at one time? [closed]

Could a person's immune system be built eventually to be able to inject all the known strains with in to stay immune?
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2answers
225 views

Do viruses compete with each other or even infect each other? (Virus vs Virus)

I have read on a few websites that there can be competition between the viruses in a host for replication, nutrition etc. Do viruses fight against each other, i.e. are there viruses that infect or ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Catching a cold outside in winter? [duplicate]

We have all heard the typical “Put a jacket on youre going to catch a cold.” Usually stated by an older person typically a grandmother. Excuse the stereotype. Is there any evidence that colder weather ...
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1answer
160 views

What portion of America needs the Flu vaccine for herd immunity effects to become substantial?

I've been looking at the effectiveness of Flu vaccines, which are in my subjective opinion abysmal, and the concept of herd immunity. I see many articles which argue that we all need flu shots to ...
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1answer
42 views

Would it be correct to say that viruses are genotoxic? [closed]

I know it is an unconventional way to describe viruses, but would it still be technically correct?
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1answer
43 views

Can proteins from different viruses be gathered in one virus?

There is a biology project I must do with some of my classmates and we're facing a problem. We would like to choose proteins from different viruses that seem interesting to us (for example one protein ...
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1answer
73 views

Are there any bacteria, virus or mold that can withstand ozone?

Ozonation is often promoted as one of the most effective disinfection procedures. There are numerous reports on how ozone effectively kills bacteria and molds, and disarms viruses within seconds due ...
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1answer
84 views

Rabies virus mortality [duplicate]

Why rabies virus has nearly 100% fatality rate in human (see this virology blog; thanks to @iayork for the link) if not vaccinated early, even some people have survived Ebola, then why does rabies doe ...
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2answers
123 views

How are viruses isolated?

I read several different articles about virology, including the Wikipedia article on viruses and none of them explain how a virus is isolated. Some talk of injecting a virus into a chicken egg, but ...
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1answer
104 views

Do microorganisms contain water?

This may sound a bit strange question, but I am very new to biology. I would like to ask that do microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, amoebas, etc also contain water, as every living thing contains ...
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1answer
52 views

Legality of doing private or scholastic virology with human pathogens? [closed]

Is it ok for a student, say a graduate student in biochemistry, to do amateur virology using potential human pathogens? For example, lets say the student gets a cold and tries to isolate the virus ...
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1answer
118 views

Are amino acids of viruses L or D enantiomers?

I read a note saying that the amino acids of viruses are D enantiomers but I can't understand how that's possible since their human host can't even recognize that type.
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1answer
33 views

Using viruses to treat altered or misconfigured DNA

Consider how a Retrovirus can modify existing cell DNA to 'execute instructions' on its behalf. I wondered: Why can we not utilize lab-generated viruses to infect sick patients with a 'healthy' ...
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1answer
208 views

Transposons, Viruses and RNA interference

My textbook says that in RNAi, a complementary double stranded RNA sequence attaches to an mRNA and silences it using a protein machinery. I Googled and read about this so now I know what siRNA and ...
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1answer
83 views

Methods for phage separation

How can a mixture of unspecified phages be separated (into singular phage strains)? I.e, what are the main methods? My research shows it can be done using CsCl centrifugation and affinity ...
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0answers
118 views

Are exosomes useful as a transfection or delivery mechanism in gene editing?

The use of viruses as transfection or delivery agents for gene editing (CRISPR/cas9, etc) is well known. However, one problem with using viruses to deliver DNA into cells is the possibility of ...