Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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Why do retroviruses go through a DNA stage to replicate their RNA genome?

Why do retroviruses (e.g.HIV) convert their RNA genome to DNA (using reverse transcriptase) and then transcribe it back into viral RNA (and translate that into viral proteins). Surely to replicate ...
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Rabies in spiders - is it possible? [closed]

What if we inject rabies virus into an insect body, like spider or a bee, will it contract rabies as humans, cats, dogs, racoons or bats do?
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Why minimum infective dose of a virus is not just 1 particle?

I've stumbled upon a term "minimum infective dose" (for example, of HIV), but don't exactly understand what is it? Why it is not always equal to 1 virus particle? I expect 1 lucky virus to be able to ...
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Can cancers caused due to viruses be contagious?

Generally, viruses are infectious in nature and there are several cancer-causing viruses that are known (i.e. oncovirus) My question is: Are these oncoviruses infectious in nature? If so, what is the ...
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How can I perform virus neutralization assay for influenza?

How can I perform a Virus Microneutralization assay for influenza virus using serum from mice vaccinated with this virus?
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How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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How does the measeles virus form? [closed]

I would like to understand how (if possible) the measles virus could start to infect a population that was theoretically isolated from any other population group. Put another way, can the measles ...
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1answer
377 views

Body's response to second dengue attack

I have read in wikipedia that the first dengue virus infection is cleared by the body very easily. The second infection, however, is dangerous. How does body fight second infection, or does it has any ...
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1answer
515 views

Bacteriophages and their role in genetic editing? [closed]

I know how plasmids and restriction enzymes work to change the dna of a bacteria cell, but I do not really understand how a bacteriophage works to edit the genome of a cell. Is it related to crispr ...
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Cat herpes and behavior

We have 2 cats, aptly named "Fatty" and "Tiny". "Fatty" is a 6 year old house cat that hasn't seen the outside world in years. "Tiny" is a cat we rescued about 45 days ago and she's roughly 2.5 ...
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What chemicals will kill P1 Phage but not E. coli?

I'm working with E. coli and P1 Phage. I'm wondering if there is some chemical agent that will kill or disable P1 but leave E. coli untouched? It is not enough to just prevent infection. It must ...
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How does hypochlorous acid inactivate viruses?

I was reading how bleach was used very widely as a disinfecting agent during the 2014 West Africa ebola outbreak and am interested in the mechanisms with which hypochlorous acid inactivates viruses. ...
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Which mRNAs enter P-bodies?

Processing bodies (P-bodies) are distinct foci within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell consisting of many enzymes involved in mRNA turnover (ref). They play a fundamental role in RNA silencing/...
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Concerning Rabies can an animal feeding on rabid bat transmit right away?

Playful kitten found biting and toying with a dead bat. Lets say the kitten nips and plays rough with a human right after biting and toying with the bat. Will a potential rabies virus transmit from ...
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1answer
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Are viruses more common due to modernity?

Is there any evidence to say whether in the past viruses like the cold virus were less common? I wonder if high density living and globalisation mean that the cold virus mutates and spreads much more ...
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How did scientists discover HIV?

Imagining that we're now in 1983 (when HIV was discovered), there were no modern machines at that time to sequence massive genome extracted from blood. There was a strange disease and no one know what ...
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Can a virus be transmitted from a sweating person out to another person?

In the sport of Jiu-Jitsu, close contact with many partners is common. Many times these partners are sweating profusely (Yuk), which in turn drips on the other person sometimes into the eyes, nose, ...
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Why did viruses evolve in the first place?

This question might seem kind of strange, but it's something I've been chewing on for ages, and I can't really think of a good answer. Viruses just seem to be floating around passively until they ...
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Virus that can enter all cell types

As I understand, each virus type can enter a particular cell type. For example HIV can enter CD4 & CD8 cells, while HBV can enter liver cells, some other viruses can enter other cell types like ...
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A Designer Virus

An article at Wikipedia describes color changes that viruses have produced in tulips (without any human intention). And another article (elsewhere on the web) describes viruses that were designed to ...
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How long does immunity to influenza last when contracting the disease vs vaccination

The long term efficacy of flu vaccines are well documented, however I cannot seem to find a good source showing how long immunity lasts when contracting the disease. I suspect it can't be much longer ...
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What is the Attributable Risk of birth defects in Zika infected pregnancies?

Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016 A recent CDC report shows that ...
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What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
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Can viruses survive Super saturated salt solution?

As we know there is less evidence of biological activity in Dead Sea ( Lake full of salt water). Also, our blood cells do not survive in too much salt water as they shrink and die. So I was thinking ...
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What industry job am I qualified for with a PhD in virology? [closed]

I'm considering applying for a PhD studying innate resistance to HCV. I enjoy research but I would prefer to have a stable job, instead of moving from contract to contract and writing grants to ensure ...
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2answers
302 views

Question on Viruses [closed]

A recent study has provided evidence that two types of equine (horse) herpes viruses have an unusually broad host range. This fact supports which of the following statements? a. The lytic cylce ...
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Can HBV pseudotyped oncolytic viruses be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma?

Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may ...
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Why is bacterial meningitis worse than viral meningitis?

My field is not biology related, but it is commonly said that bacterial meningitis is far more dangerous to the individual than the viral kind. It seems to be true even with antibiotic treatment. What ...
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Is there any way to cultivate viruses without cells? [closed]

I know what viruses are. They replicate only inside the living cells, and so on, and so on. I just interesting maybe there is some progress in this field. I don't know exactly, but I suppose before ...
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2answers
954 views

Why is the origin (patient zero) required to cure a virus?

I'm not sure if it's just a movies thing but I always notice that the original strain of a virus is required to cure a virus, why is this? is this even true?
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Mosquito vs Human: Swapping the roles

Is there a known mosquito-specific lethal (for some relevant species of mosquitos) virus that you could safely (for the humans) put into the blood of living humans? Is it technically possible to ...
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Viruses and Transformation

Would the lysogenic cycle for the reproduction of viruses be considered a form of naturally occurring transformation since DNA from the virus is being incorporated into the DNA of the host cell?
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How does taking drugs speed up the development of drug resistant or viruses?

First, here is what I know: Some infectious illnesses, such as HIV or Hepatitis B, can be treated with the help of some drugs. The problem is that the virus sometimes undergoes mutations which grant ...
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2answers
941 views

What would happen if two different viruses penetrated one cell?

I want to know what would happen if two different kinds of viruses took over one cell. Would nothing happen? Would the cell create both kinds of viruses? Would it make a fusion of the two viruses?
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Which viruses are fatal to E.Coli?

I am currently doing a bit of research into which viruses are specifically fatal to the E.Coli bacterium. Apart from the fact that this is merely interesting information for me, I would like to know ...
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Potential immunization against airborn viruses [closed]

I have had an idea based on the principals of a virus and their properties and how they enter the cell by tricking it into believing it is a protein etc. If we coated a copper particle (or another ...
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2answers
308 views

Would we know about a virus that causes no symptoms?

I've heard that there are a number of viral illnesses that humans can get from animals, which cause no symptoms in the animals. If there was such a virus in humans, which was very widespread but ...
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4answers
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Question about enveloped RNA virus viral genome

I am a newbie studying campbell biology. just a quick question about virus. When viral genome(RNA) expose itself in the host cell, why does the host cell not eliminate the genome since it apparently ...
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2answers
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Is it feasible to eradicate a virus without vaccines?

Although a vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains elusive, new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs can cure HCV effectively and conveniently. The latest DAA, Epclusa, can cure 95-99% of chronic ...
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1answer
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Commensalism with Virus bacteria [duplicate]

Why people die of infection from microorganism, when germs can keep breeding for longer if they dont kill host? Would not millions of years of evolution make germs evolve to not to kill human but feed ...
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Do DNA viruses have their own DNA dependant DNA polymerase?

There's an exception to the rule that all DNA viruses need to get to the nucleus in order to replicate. Poxviruses do not require to get into the nucleus because they can make protein from their very ...
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Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
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Can viruses pass through sweat pores?

I have read somewhere that viruses and other microbes can not penetrate skin but what about sweat pores? Can viruses pass through these pores?
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Are there any examples of viruses that have powered motion or do they all rely on passive diffusion? [duplicate]

Swimming, or any locomotion will presumably require energy which will in turn require metabolism which viruses lack supposedly. Are they general able to direct their movement in any manner (e.g like ...
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Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
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What is the evolutionary purpose of shingles afflicting only one side of the body? [closed]

A question here asks for the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body. My question is about the evolutionary purpose of that 'affects only one side' behavior. Chicken ...
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1answer
40 views

Is there a reference for the composition of viral genomes?

First of all forgive me for the bad written question. I'm not a biologist. I'm neither a doctor nor a virologist. I am a physicist actually, and I have this question in mind since a long while. What ...
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Why are there 2 copies of RNA in the HIV virion?

There are two copies of the RNA in the HIV virion. These are retroviruses. So, they can make cDNA from even just one copy using reverse transcriptase. What is the use of the other? Are both ...
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Can we develop a nucleos(t)ide analogue to cure rabies?

Nucleos(t)ide analogues have been successfully used to treat HIV, HBV and HCV. Since rabies virus is also a RNA virus that uses RdRp to replicate. If we develop an nucleos(t)ide against its RdRp, will ...