Questions tagged [virology]

Virology deals with the study of viruses, infectious entities that require the machinery of a host cell to replicate.

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1answer
63 views

Can we develop a nucleos(t)ide analogue to cure rabies?

Nucleos(t)ide analogues have been successfully used to treat HIV, HBV and HCV. Since rabies virus is also a RNA virus that uses RdRp to replicate. If we develop an nucleos(t)ide against its RdRp, will ...
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0answers
983 views

Can viruses replicate in a cell that's already dead?

Suppose a virus randomly lands on a cell that's just lying around. This cell may have just recently died, or died a while ago. This cell may also be part of tissue of a dead organism.* Does the virus ...
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How does sGP of Ebola virus help it to evade host humoral immunity?

During Ebola infection, the viruses secret a lot of sGP. What's its function? Since anti GP antibodies are effective at inhibiting Ebola infection, wouldn't sGP stimulate host immune system to produce ...
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1answer
446 views

What is the origin of the name “λ phage”?

The lambda bacteriophage which infects E. coli was first discovered by Esther Lederberg in 1950. However, in the earliest paper on the lambda phage that I could find, I was unable to find the ...
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Bacteriophage lysis in mammalian cells

I have read many articles on bacteriophages (like the lambda phage1) being used for transferring genes into mammalian cells, but none of them mention any sort of lysis of the cells even though in ...
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0answers
156 views

Are viruses technically organisms, or not? [duplicate]

Are viruses technically organisms or not? A quick Google search query for the term; are viruses organisms?, reveals various conflicting and somewhat inconclusive ...
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1answer
52 views

Olympic's epidemiological impact on Zika?

I've seen a lot of fear mongering, misinformation and overall general panic concerning the zika virus surrounding the Rio Olympics. However, little has been said about the actual epidemiological ...
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1answer
195 views

Can bacteria be reservoirs for animal viruses?

When people talk about reservoirs, they usually talk about bats, dogs, deer, etc. All animals. But can bacteria be reservoirs for animal viruses? Any examples? I know that bacterial viruses can at ...
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4answers
652 views

Computer Virus that infects DNA?

I have watched a talk by Mikko Hypponen (CEO of the security company F-Secure) called Silicon Plague. There, roughly at minute 51 of the talk, he mentions a computer code that is supposed to be able ...
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0answers
852 views

Can 3% hydrogen peroxide be used as effective disinfectant and antiseptic?

I was curious to see whether 3% hydrogen peroxide can be used as antimicrobial and virucidal product for daily use in home. There are several disinfecting products in the market claim that use of ...
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1answer
49 views

Viruses affecting transmission capability of mosquitoes

I've read about bacteria affecting the transmission capability of mosquitoes. For example: Wolbachia suppresses dengue transmission When mosquitoes were given antibiotics that decreased their gut ...
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3answers
2k views

Can pathogens enter the bloodstream if the epidermis has been scraped off?

Assume that the epidermis has been scraped off by a fall (not just scratched). Also assume that the dermis is completely untouched. Does this allow pathogens to enter the body more easily, or does the ...
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1answer
225 views

What is the cause of the packaging capacity limit of recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors?

I am working with recombinant AAV and I am puzzled by the limit of their packaging capacity (around 5Kb ssDNA), that is really a huge drawback for gene delivery. I have tried to look more in deep ...
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1answer
68 views

A New Antiviral Drug Strategy?

I am studying viruses and I have a question about antiviral drug strategies. Why haven't researchers tried finding small molecule drugs that will bind to receptors on the host cell, thereby preventing ...
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1answer
494 views

Why can't we find a broad spectrum antiviral drug to viruses like antibiotics to bacteria?

Antibiotics have a very broad spectrum because they attack the metabolism pathways many bacteria share. For example, penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis, which is vital for formation of cell ...
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1answer
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Can we infect with “bad” genes other organisms? [closed]

We know that some organism's DNA stay with human for life (Herpes) and we also can, i think, design such "gene" that can interact with human's DNA-polymerase very intensive. If we attached this gene ...
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1answer
110 views

What can saliva tell about ones health? [closed]

I was wondering if I d want to analyze something related to my current health based on my saliva. What could it be? I mean e.g. by putting a thermometer in your mouth you can know your body ...
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1answer
114 views

Since RNA viruses and retroviruses all have high mutation rates, why do only a few viruses have the virtue of variability?

We have been taught that it's difficult to make vaccines to influenza, HIV and HCV because they lack the proofreading mechanism, hence have high mutation rates. But most RNA viruses and retroviruses ...
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Do all +ssRNA viruses have similar structures and life cycles?

Take HCV for example. HCV doesn't package any enzymes in it's virions. When it infects a cell, it first translates its RNA genome. It's RdRp is synthesized with other non-structural proteins. Then its ...
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1answer
98 views

Does SIV cause AIDS in primates… If not why [closed]

does SIV cause AIDS in primates or have they developed resistance to the virus **
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4answers
653 views

Is it possible to make a contagious cure to a virus?

In a TV series I've been watching The Last Ship, - spoiler alert - a scientist develops a cure for himself for a virus, but actually continues to remain a carrier, and sort of weaponizes the virus ...
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2answers
553 views

How do I tell if the mosquitos in my New York City apartment can carry Zika?

The species that carries Zika, A. aegypti, is unlikely to be found in New York. However, the related species A. albopictus is prevalent and quite concerning. So this question is focusing on A. ...
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Are there well studied examples of ERAD-mediated membrane insertion, especially from viruses?

Membrane insertion of transmembrane proteins typically requires highly hydrophobic alpha helixes at the N-terminus, N-terminal signal peptides, tail anchors, or a combination of the three. Byun, H., ...
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0answers
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Barcode exchange between neighbouring cells

I am currently interested in equipping animal cells in a tissue with individual barcodes. These barcodes should get amplified in the cells (not to a cell degrading extent, of course), and also ...
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1answer
169 views

What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains

Cell penetrating peptides. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short amino acid sequences which are sufficient for crossing cell membranes and delivering themselves along with any ...
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1answer
96 views

Are there viruses that show definite enzymatic activity? [closed]

Perhaps due to outer coat protein individually or collectively.
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1answer
36 views

Standard cycles for virus detection [closed]

I would like to know if there is a Standard number of cycles for Virues and Bacterial PCR single and multiple targets
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794 views

Why do viruses last longer on hard surfaces, like glass, than porous ones

All the papers I've read about survival of viruses outside of the host refer to longer survival times on hard surfaces without explaination. As a layman I would have thought that a virus (who's main ...
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3answers
10k views

Is there any virus that contains both DNA and RNA in its genome?

It is known that viruses contain DNA or RNA- either one and not both. I came across a question: Which virus contains both DNA and RNA?
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1answer
320 views

Are non-lytic viruses reproducing themselves in the host cell?

Non lytic viruses can cause cancers like the HPV. But aren't they reproducing themselves as they don't ruptures the cell. Or are they just not reproduced in enough numbers so that the cell keeps ...
31
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2answers
3k views

Why doesn't blood remain on a mosquito's proboscis in quantities that could spread blood-borne diseases?

We know that HIV can't be transmitted by mosquitos, and nor can other highly virulent viruses that are transmitted through blood and bodily fluid exchanges, such as Ebola (thankfully!). Marcus Junius ...
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4answers
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Can viruses be toxic?

Bacteria can produce toxins like endotoxins and exotoxins. In diseases like cholera or tetanus they can harm infected people due to these toxins. Now, although viruses are much smaller and are ...
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212 views

Is Zika suspected of causing birth defects only if contracted during pregnancy?

There seems to be growing evidence that a recently spreading strain of Zika virus is in fact linked to microencephaly and other birth defects in newborns (see here, here, and here for examples). I ...
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1answer
63 views

What is the name of the property of viruses can activate a second time, with different symptoms?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. In ...
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1answer
865 views

What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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1answer
112 views

What is the name of the property of viruses that can go dormant in the host for 30 years?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. My ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is HIV so large compared to other viruses?

The HIV-1 virus is about 120-150 nm in size and has a genome only about 10,000 base pairs long. Other viruses are far more efficient, for example lambda phage has something like a tenth the volume ...
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1answer
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Can bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells be destroyed by resonance?

Radiotherapy has been used to treat cancer. Can the resonances by coordinated electromagnetic waves (and/or other forms of waves), of various frequencies, amplitudes and pulse rates, directed from ...
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1answer
650 views

Why does HPV Infect Squamous Epithelial Cells and Not Others?

I've seen this question about HPV and the reference therein. The link states "Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that presents tropism for epithelial cells, causing infections of the skin and ...
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1answer
144 views

What is the number of influenza strains occurring at a given time?

My question was initiated by reading on mock-up influenza vaccines. I understand that the manufacturer pre-prepares a certain vaccine and tries to get it tested and ready before it is actually needed, ...