All Questions

0
votes
2answers
28 views

Is oxygen's paramagnetism biologically relevant?

It seems our most common everyday O2 molecule happens to be a paramagnetic one (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen). But, does this have a biological relevance as well?? (It seems to me the ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Can (or have) antiviral drugs created drug-resistant viruses?

Evolution/emergence of antibiotic-resistance in bacteria is a known effect of extensive use of pharmaceutical antibiotics. Pharmaceutical antivirals have come into extensive use in recent decades – e....
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Does spinal chord experience pain when hurt?

Brain does not experience pain as it does not have pain receptors. Does spinal chord experience pain when hurt?
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Why exclusive breast feeding for 6 months only?

Where does this norm of 6 comes from? Why not 4 or 5 or 7 or 8 or 9 or anything like that? Is it based on any review, research or religious texts or just cultural practice in certain communities?
1
vote
1answer
434 views

Is blood donation risky for patients with MGUS?

Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) is often considered a pre-cancerous condition. Blood donors with MGUS are typically advised to discontinue blood donation as their blood may be ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Insect ID, Ecuador

Picture was taken in the Ecuadorian Amazon in January 2019, during the day, elevation about 300 meters. The size was not recorded but might be no bigger than a housefly judging from the photo. It ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

What is the structure, function, and interaction of the 3 major types of proteins? [on hold]

What is the structure, function, and interaction of the 3 major types of proteins intergal,peripheral and lipid-anchord with the lipid bilayer?
4
votes
1answer
101 views

How can fresh cavities form at the margins of sliver amalgam fillings on teeth?

Silver amalgam fillings predominantly contain silver a known bactericidal agent and mercury which a known toxin and has bactericidal property. So how is it that the plaque bacteria survive near the ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

Using expression vector to express arsenite oxidase genes in E. coli

So I am trying to express a gene cluster that can oxidize arsenite into arsenite autotrophically. The arsenite oxidase gene cluster sequence is linked here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

How researchers are able to discover a new molecule?

There are some research papers that go like this "researches have found a new molecule/protein called "xyz" that play a role in "abc" process. In a more concrete example, in immunology: How CD ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Inequality factor for similarity sensitive diversity

In a research article, Lou Jost has introduced the concept of inequality factor. The paper is "The relation between evenness and diversity", published in 2010. Inequality factor allows an intuitive ...
5
votes
1answer
196 views
2
votes
0answers
21 views

Regulation of LBD33 genes Arabidopsis. If LBD 33 gene is up-regulated by auxin then why does expression decrease when increasing auxin concentration?

I have a question regarding the regulation of lateral boundary domain genes in Arabidopsis (specifically LBD33). I am an undergraduate student trying to understand the results of a lab where I measure ...
-1
votes
0answers
10 views

Doing Amgen Biotech Unit [on hold]

You need to catalog all the products you might see, including the different plasmid configurations. Review your work in Laboratories 2 and 3. What products might you expect to see in the K–, K+, A–, A+...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Why is a urea solution hypotonic relative to RBC?

If I place a RBC in 0.5M urea we see haemolysis. My textbook says that "the solution is hypotonic. Urea enters the RBC down it's concentration gradient. Water follows the movement of urea by osmosis. ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

Whether golgi body single membrane bound or double membrane bound?

Whether golgi body single membrane bound or double membrane bound cell organelle. Also the membrane or membranes bounding golgi body phospholipid bilayer?
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Which one is bigger prostate or seminal vesicles?

I can't understand this by looking at these photos, especially the last picture makes me more doubtful. Another question is, what is the biggest organ in the male reproductive system? (Note that the ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Did the Broadbill Swordfish population fully recovered?

Regarding the Broadbill Swordfish Xiphias gladius: I read Richard Ellis "Swordfish: A Biography of the Ocean Gladiator", Chicago University Press, 2013. The chapter about industrial-strength fishing ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

Heterochromatin v Euchromatin. Which is more abundant?

So I was just reading that whether heterochromatin or euchromatin is more abundant in a particular human cell depends on how active that cell is. But considering that most of the 25,000 or so genes in ...
0
votes
1answer
209 views

c4 cycle in photosynthesis occurs in monocots or dicots

the biosynthetic portion of the c4 cycle occurs in the bundle sheath cells and i have studies that bundle sheath cells are present only in dicots and not monocots. according to this, the c4 cycle ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Hardy Weinberg Clarification

So I am taking an introductory Biology Course and I was recently introduced to the idea of Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. I wanted to find out why exactly we calculate the frequencies of alleles in the ...
3
votes
1answer
26 views

Can a hydra get cancer?

Because hydras have immune systems, telomerase activity, and Piwi-piRNA like cancer cells I wonder if they can get cancer?
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Calculation of Nucleotides [on hold]

Following translation, the alpha polypeptide chain of haemoglobin, α-globin, undergoes modification. During this modification, the first amino acid is removed, leaving 141 amino acid residues. How ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

What happens to Bacteria at a low pH?

I am conducting an experiment on how different pH levels effect the growth of E.coli. After researching, it is predicted that the most acidic pH level (pH 2) will be most effective at killing (or at ...
4
votes
2answers
33 views

How do transgenic transformations cause off-target phenotypes?

I read that transgene insertions can cause off-target mutations that result in a phenotype being overly ascribed to the transgene, e.g. the increase of lifespan being ascribed to Sir2 overexpression (...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Is there a data base, tool or method I can use to find out which of my genes code for cytokine receptors?

I have a list of over 600 differentially expressed genes from my single cell RNA seq data analyses. I want to proceed to find out which of my genes code for cytokine receptors so that I can show on a ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

What's a reasonable time constant for a mathematical model of a neuron?

Background I've been studying various mathematical models of neurons. So far I've covered the classic Hodgkin-Huxley model (to describe the potential difference of a single neuron) and the integrate ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

How does Hayflick limit relate to cellular senescence

If the Hayflick limit says that there are a maximum of around 60 cell division before a cell becomes senescent, I assume this is because the cell looses length of telomere. But how can this be if, for ...
5
votes
1answer
38 views

Do animals with their eyes ~180 degrees apart have depth perception?

Lots of animals have their eyes more on the side of their head, like an octopus or a parrot. Are animals with eyes more on the side able to tell the depth of objects at different distances? It seems ...
-2
votes
0answers
24 views

Does someone know what kind of fish this is?

Fish its little about inch and half I would like to know what kind of fish is it and thanks in advance
12
votes
1answer
966 views

Identification of a purple flower

What is this purple flower? Picture taken from a garden in India.
3
votes
0answers
185 views

Could bone marrow transplants be used to prevent tissue rejection of trans-species organs?

So the immune system doesn't calibrate (for want of a better euphemism) to recognize it's own cells until fairly well along in fetal development & the major components of the immune system (...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Why is ATP used as a source of energy rather than glucose?

I'm struggling to pinpoint a misconception, but I don't think I understand why ATP is used as an energy molecule instead of glucose. I understand that glucose is respired, oxidised or combusted and ...
5
votes
1answer
28k views

After vasectomy, where does the sperm go?

After vasectomy, where does the sperm go? Vasectomy Procedure cuts only vas deferens, But Our Testes still produces sperm, if there is no output for sperm, where does it go?
-1
votes
0answers
11 views

What determines if a bacteria has an F-plasmid? Are F-plasmids the only plasmids shared between bacteria?

If I’m designing an expierment to study bacterial concergation (while adding a plasmid of my choice to the bacteria), how do I know the bacteria I’m using has an F-plasmid (or can transfer my ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

How can twins be born months apart? [on hold]

How can twins be born months apart? What is the science behind it?
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Why can't diamine oxidase be supplemented?

I've read from an academic article that diamine oxidase cannot be supplemented but it had no explanation as for why. I am curious as to why this? Food rich in histamine or red wine may cause ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

can you tell me what kind of animal this is?

I found this skull over 2 years ago and i have been unable to find another like it or even come across someone who knows what it is. i live in south mississippi and the animal it came from looked like ...
1
vote
0answers
8 views

'Terminal' and 'lateral' apical buds. Monopodial and sympodial branching

Macroscopically, it seems to me that the difference between 'lateral' apical buds and 'terminal' apical buds and monopodial and sympodial branching is often rather superficial, if not random. ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Is this bedbug or book louse?

Hello everyone. I have been seeing tiny critters like this one in bed and I started to worryif they are bed bugs. Although they seem different in appearance as well as the fact that they don't seem to ...
4
votes
2answers
44 views

Why is ATP synthase sometimes referred to as ATPase?

Quite a few times I have seen the term ‘ATPase’ used for what I would consider ATP synthase. For example, my text has: “The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is also catalysed by the enzyme ATPase.” I ...
13
votes
7answers
11k views

Difference between genetic engineering and synthetic biology

I've recently seen the term synthetic biology being used to describe research involving genetic modification of organisms. What is the difference between synthetic biology and genetic engineering? Is ...
-1
votes
0answers
29 views

cancer pedigree homework: risk of inheriting BRCA2 mutation [on hold]

The proband was diagnosed with ovarian cancer and was tested postive for BRCA2 mutation. I want to know what is the risk of her sister inheriting this mutation? How do you work that out? Since BRCA2 ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

For people who work in microbiology labs, what software do you use to manage your strains?

It's just a small microbiology lab that currently records everything on paper, and there's quite few mutants as well. Is Excel commonly used for this sort of thing? Or is there a better software to ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Design of a E. coli medium [on hold]

I'm trying to solve this problem, but I cannot seem to do figure it out. The problem is: You are supposed to design a medium for growth of E. coli with glucose as carbon source. The wanted final ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Requirements for soil sample transportation over long distance

I need to collected soil sample from agricultural area far away from my lab. It would required about a week for the sample to arrive to lab. I need the soil sample for genomic DNA isolation (...
-2
votes
0answers
27 views

Doping a Cheetah (2 part question) [on hold]

For this, we must assume that we are able to test the cheetah under laboratory conditions. 1) If we were to give a cheetah growth hormones and EPO, what kind of gains would we expect to see in terms ...
1
vote
0answers
95 views

Weinman AIF and High temporal resolution AIF difference

I'm dealing with MRI DCE maps. Actually I need to find such parameters as the transfer constant $K^{trans}$ and rate constant $k^{ep}$ according to the two-compartment model. Mathematically, this ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Immunity rejection and accept of organ [duplicate]

When blood is donated or received why WBC does not act or it does not rejection but it acts when transplant of organ occurs
2
votes
0answers
22 views

How much energy do small spiders expend when they are just waiting for their web to vibrate?

Roughly speaking, a small, complex electronic circuit or IC might sit in "sleep mode" using a current of roughly 1 uA (e.g. 1, 2), thereby using roughly 3E-06 Watts, and that converts to roundly 2.6E-...

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