All Questions

0
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0answers
2 views

Ultrasound Imaging - Reading an M-mode image

This is an M-mode ultrasound image of a carotid we took in lab-class. I know from my lab manual that M-mode reveals changes in the positions of structures along a particular A-scan line as a ...
0
votes
1answer
12 views

G3P, GP and GALP

Are these three molecules all the same thing? Also, where does TP fit into the picture? I was taught GP and G3P were the same thing, which gets reduced to TP Many thanks
0
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0answers
20 views

Muscle Question

A GP is neurologically assessing a patient. A stretch reflex is carried out in the biceps muscle group whilst the patient is relaxed and produces a modest reflex response. The GP then asks the patient ...
1
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0answers
26 views

Is being a molecularly different person after 'x' time just anecdotal?

I was discussing change in human biology over time and my two in-laws charged in saying, "we're molecularly different after x". I ignored what 'x' was at the time because they chimed in simultaneously ...
0
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0answers
7 views

What is the outer boundary of oligodendrocyte myelination?

The sensory and motor neurons comprising the spinal cord and brain stem have the interesting property that different structural components belonging to the same neuron can occupy both the PNS and CNS. ...
0
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0answers
14 views

PCR in different cell line

I developed a PCR cycle to amplify a 5.5 kb genomic DNA region in HEK cell line. When I tried to use the same protocol in A375 cell line I had no results but only smear. Can you help me? Thanks in ...
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

How to solve tgie [on hold]

How to find the solutiin.how can we find the non parental offsprings in the f2 generatiin in polygenic inheritence.
-1
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0answers
15 views

Why isn't dense irregular connective tissue in the book I'm reading?

I'm reading a book, Anatomy and Physiology from Barnes and the Noble Outline series, and it lists four types of connective tissue. They are mucous, fibrous, reticular and adipose. It devides fibrous ...
0
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0answers
5 views

Non-functional CYP3A5 genotype - two SNPs - one functional, other not

If someone has a non-functional rs41303343(T;T) SNP, yet that individual also possess the partially functional rs776746(A;G) SNP, is their CYP3A5 genotype functional or nonfunctional? In other words, ...
0
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0answers
13 views

Does the human body absorb any of the humidity in the environment when dehydrated?

I was walking in the rain and feeling thirsty, and I wondered if when the human body is dehydrated it does absorb any of the humidity in the environment by itself.
3
votes
1answer
262 views

What is the best argument for maximum parsimony method in phylogenetic tree construction?

Beside the fact that maximum parsimony is computationally cheap, what other good arguments are there for it? Is there any model behind this principle? Why would one expect this principle to provide ...
0
votes
2answers
20 views

After how many hours water drunk is expelled from the body?

If one drinks a liter of water at 7 am when (in what span) will that water be eliminated through uresis? Is that process influenced by any factors such as empty stomach, sleep or other?
0
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0answers
7 views

Which volume of distribution corresponds to bone marrow?

I know that as volumes of distribution increase they correspond to the blood, then the vascular rich group (heart, kidneys, liver, brain if BBB permeable), then muscle then adipose. But where does ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

How to do a nucleic acid or genome and amino acid search [on hold]

I have been looking to find a database where i can search for genome and amino acid search. Are there any open source databases available for the same.
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Why are babies rarely born with cancer?

Childhood cancer is fundamentally a disease of dysregulated development. Why does it rarely occur during the fetal period, a time of enormous growth and development?
0
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0answers
13 views

Why are viruses considered to be non-living? [duplicate]

Viruses are widely known as disease and illness-causing agents that can spread quickly through living organisms. They are considered to be non-living due to their unique characteristics.
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

Using high risk pregancy to advantage [on hold]

If a woman over 40 having a child with increased risk of the child having down syndrome decrease the chance of that child developing cancer later in life?
0
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0answers
18 views

Why does one have to be alive to donate stem cells? [on hold]

Even after The body dies ( meaning the heart has stopped pumping) some cells continue to generate weeks afterwards. So why is that you need to be alive to donate stem cells?
-2
votes
0answers
16 views

Can a human survive a sting from Androctonus Australis sting? [on hold]

So my question is their any treatment for Androctonus venom or do you just have to wait it out, or do you just die from it?
0
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0answers
9 views

What is the difference between numerical and phylogenetic taxonomy? [on hold]

I am a 15 year old boy,who started developing an interest towards biology recently. I am interested in these two schools of taxonomy. Thank you for all the answers!
0
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0answers
9 views

Is it possible to make an estimate of how many species extincted before humans?

This article Species Extinction Happening 1,000 Times Faster Because of Humans? makes an estimate of the rate of extinction now and 200,000 years ago. I know it's difficult but since there are ...
0
votes
2answers
16 views

Are SNPs always in linkage disequilibrium with other SNPs

Is it possible to have a SNP that is not found is be non-randomly associating with any other SNP?
-2
votes
1answer
34 views

How much does biomagnification affect human beings?

It is known that the effect of biological magnification increases with higher trophic levels. Since, we are at the top of the food chain, how much are we affected by it? Is there any proof of humans ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Coronary circulation

It is said that the coronary artery that gives the posterior descending artery(PDA) determines if the heart is right dominant(most cases) or left dominant. Is there any reason to this? Why PDA?
0
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0answers
16 views

How do I homogenise a small pellet of 10 to 50 cells within less than 50 µL?

I have a problem with declumping/ homogenising bacterial cells in small volumes (10 to 50 µL). I know that I can get all of my cells out of the tube, but they are still stuck together and won't form ...
-1
votes
0answers
47 views

How do people get golden blood type?

The RHnull phenotype is characterised by a complete lack of all Rh antigens (source). Because it is so rare, it is sometimes called "golden blood type". The authors of the linked paper state that: ...
-1
votes
0answers
6 views

What software is similar to STRAF, Structure and R Geneland for ethnography and forensic haploid Y data?

What software is similar to STRAF, Structure and R Geneland for ethnography and forensic haploid Y data? Does anybody know a better and more functional choice?
1
vote
1answer
26 views

When are neuropeptides loaded into vesicles?

It is well known that small neurotransmitters like monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, etc), acetylcholine, glutamate, etc are loaded into vesicles at the axon terminal. Stated differently, synaptic ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

How many nutrients do trees process daily?

Is this tree fact below that I have found on social media sites true? I don't know the source of the quote. It's pretty amazing. I'll be glad if someone can provide the source too! Natural Wonders ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

How are electrical properties differently applied to the soma of a neuron and the axon of a neuron? [on hold]

I have provided two pictures to help clarify my question: As you can see from the above two images, the values in the two tables are the exact same. Summarizing, the larger soma and larger myelinated ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Animal reproduction when resources are scarce

(This question is aimed at animals that take care of their young, e.g. dolphins.) As I understand it, most animals reproduce if possible. The only way they don't is because they run out of resources. ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Trophic levels and energy loss

Just a general question about trophic levels. Traditionally, it's thought as much as one order of magnitude of energy is lost as one moves from trophic level to trophic level. I am confused here since ...
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

In theory, how would genetic engineering of certain genes affect morphology/phenotype of individuals in adulthood? [on hold]

Say we get to the point where we then can identify all of the correct genes/combination of genes and etc. that are responsible for things like zygoma, maxilla, mandible, frontal bone, etc. shape (...
0
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0answers
33 views

Monkey Grip Procedure?

How the monkey grip procedure performed about the arms is able to cause a greater stretch reflex response in the leg for the same amount of sensory input when compare to a response without the monkey ...
-3
votes
0answers
23 views

To what extent is the angle of the mandible genetic vs. epigenetic?

Is there any scientific literature or studies that can confirm whether the angle of the mandible and/or gonial angle are more strongly influenced by genetics or epigenetics, AKA puberty/hormones/...
-3
votes
1answer
24 views

A speculative question about sensation

I know this is rather speculative and I am not a biologist, but I have womdered about this for a long time. I have always been able to pinpoint the central line of any part of my body exactly as if ...
-2
votes
0answers
8 views

Simple models of menstrual hormone levels

Are there any simple models available that can predict hormone levels (e.g., estrogen, progesterone) over the menstrual cycle? It would be nice if these were already implemented in Python, but any ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Pits, symplastic or apoplastic pathway?

After water has moved through the endodermis through the Casparian Strip, water continues to move down the water potential gradient into the xylem vessels through the pits, is movement through the ...
2
votes
1answer
12 views

Formula for Oxygen Consumption for Atlantic Salmon (Mathematical) - insecurities regarding variable

The oxygen is calculated in mg per kg per something, so what does $h^{-1}$ stand for? hours maybe? The formula given below is an estimation of oxygen consumption for Atlantic salmon \begin{...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Why is sex hurtful for some animals but pleasurable for others?

Sex seems to be pretty hurtful for feline for example. On the other hand sex is pleasurable for humans. Why is sex pleasurable for some and not for others? How do these things evolve?
1
vote
1answer
17 views

Where does the gluteus medius attach to the greater trochanter compared to the gluteus minimus attachment?

Where does the gluteus medius attach to the greater trochanter of the femur compared to the gluteus minimus attachment? Is it above, below, next to it, etc.? Ideally I'd like to know the distance as ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

DNA replication in $ E.coli $

$ E.coli $ has circular DNA which I guess implies one strand forms the outer circle and the other the inner one. So, is there a way to know if the replicated DNA forms the outer or inner circle? In ...
5
votes
1answer
49 views

Why do larger diameter myelinated axons have greater conduction velocities than small diameter myelinated axons?

A canonical statement I have frequently read is that "large diameter axons conduct action potentials at faster velocities than small diameter axons". After recently learning the effect of increased ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Are large cell bodies of neurons harder to depolarize than small cell bodies of neurons?

In order for the axon to initiate an action potential, we know that the axon initial segment must be brought to threshold. So my question is as follows: Say we have the minimum charge input, "X", ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Are deer ticks primarily active in bedding areas?

I know that with fleas, they tend to lay their eggs on the host and the eggs fall off into bedding areas, so the bedding areas are sort of the epicenter of a flea infestation. Is it the same with ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Distinguishing Dermis and Epidermis Layer

Hello, I have two histology slides of my skin equivalent samples that I received recently and was not sure if I was identifying my parts correctly. I just wanted to confirm that the most of my skin is ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

What is the difference in the electrical excitability between a “large diameter soma” and a “large diameter axon”

There are two stereotyped statements that I have seen during my coursework regarding electric properties of neurons: Large diameter axons propagate action potentials more quickly than small diameter ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Computational approaches for making hypotheses about the effects of genetic engineering? Experiment planning methods?

Let's assume that I am searching for gene editing candidates for curing human adiposis. Are there computational frameworks that can allow me to select the best candidate-genes for editing via some ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Is this an asian hornet

My mother found a hornet at home (in northern France) that is probably building a nest. Is that an asian hornet? If yes, how can I exterminate them?
-1
votes
0answers
7 views

Honeycomb looking eggs on tree

[I took this picture outback of my house in Plymouth Meeting PA . It’s on our tree and we don’t know what it is ] (https://i.stack.imgur.com/QyfZM.jpg)

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