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6 views

Is any animal born adult-size?

Size growth after birth seems to be the norm in the animal kingdom (as well as among plants). This makes sense. It's evidently physically challenging for an animal to produce an offspring of its equal ...
1
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0answers
8 views

Why's it safe for dental professionals to scrape enamel with a Dental Pick?

The Dental Pick is metal, but enamel aren't. The former can be replaced, but the latter can't. So isn't it dangerous for dentists and hygienist to scale the enamel with Dental Picks? My grandma has ...
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0answers
4 views

Breeder's equation and equivalent expressions for narrow-sense heritability

I am trying to model the phenotype of a trait as $X = G + E$, where $G$ and $E$ are the genetic and environmental effects. (I'll ignore the distinction between broad-sense and narrow-sense ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

How is the exogenous DNA protected from degradation during bacterial transformation?

During transformation, a bacterium can take up DNA from its environment. A small fraction of bacterial species are known to be naturally competent, meaning that they can engage in this sort of ...
4
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2answers
7k views

Can food swallowed when a person is upside down reach the stomach?

If a person positions him/herself upside down and swallows food, will it reach the stomach against gravity? If so how?
1
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1answer
12 views

Selection marker working at low expression levels

I need to express a selection marker on a plasmid in human cells (e.g. HEK293) but because of the technical constraints of my experiments, I know that the expression level of any protein marker will ...
16
votes
2answers
5k views

What is this animal looking like an Axolotl?

My friend caught a strange looking animal and he's saying it is an axolotl. I keep telling him it's almost impossible, since they are almost extinct in their natural environment and he caught it in St-...
1
vote
2answers
543 views

How to get Population Genotype Frequency from 1000 genomes Perl API

Posted a similar question on Biostars but got no response. Not sure if I'm allowed to link to it? Basically I want to pull genotype frequency data for a population group (such as CEU) instead of ...
9
votes
1answer
126 views

What kind of fish is this white blue-stained fish?

This fish has been spotted at the Great Barrier Reef near Cairns (Queensland). I put a big effort to find it via Google but never could encounter anything similar. I have also made an attempt to find ...
0
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0answers
38 views

What type of bug is this [closed]

Found in apartment block in the two ground floor flats in Letchworth UK
0
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2answers
70 views

Can the word “Strain” be used to describe plants or is it used only for microorganisms?

I am trying to determine if I can use the word strain correctly as it is presented in the dictionary as "a variety of plant developed by breeding" or should strain be used only to refer to subtypes of ...
1
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0answers
25 views

What is the charge of (bacterial) ribosome?

Ribosomes are negatively charged and thus electrostaticaly repelled from DNA. However, I could not find a good reference that would allow me to estimate the magnitude of negative charge on a ribosome. ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

What software do I need to read-write cas9? and .dna files?

I am still a complete beginner to crispr and I am still trying to learn what it is and how to actually use it. I now realise that you have to order the crispr components after you have actually ...
0
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1answer
105 views

Does natural selection still increase biological complexity?

I recently read The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins, which I found very interesting. In one of the last chapters, he gives multiple possible explanations to the question "Why did natural selection ...
0
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1answer
58 views

Is the lac operon repressed in the presence of both glucose and lactose?

In the presence of both sugars (glucose and lactose) will there be repression of the lac operon completely? I know that more glucose means less cAMP --> less CAP --> less positive regulation, and ...
0
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0answers
13 views

No correlation between phylogenetic independent contrast

I am testing the correlation between two physiological parameters in plants. I am a bit stuck on the interpretation of the phylogenetic independent contrast (PIC). Without considering the PIC, I got a ...
3
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0answers
34 views

Relationship between immunologic response to specific gluten epitopes and clinical antibody testing

Celiac disease is understood to be an immune response to certain proteins which occur in a group of cereals; most commonly they are glutens (wheat), secalins (rye) and hordeins (barley). A clinical ...
0
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0answers
34 views

Do kids under a certain age not hear the warning beeps that smoke detectors make when they are running out of battery power?

I've always been very annoyed by those regular single beeps that smoke detectors start doing increasingly often as the batteries start to run out, to warn (and annoy) the user to replace the batteries....
23
votes
4answers
2k views

What evolutionary explanations are there for death?

I know death and cancer doesn't hurt humans' reproductive success. It's not helping either. Why do we die? Why dying humans (all of us) are common? What's the point of dying?
-5
votes
1answer
63 views

Could it be that the human genome contains the most non-coding structures of all species?

One can read that human DNA contains about 6 megabases. That's less than the number of bases than a rice plant genome contains. Now, I think that human DNA contains the most non-coding DNA of all ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Are there any known extremophiles capable of living in almost pure carbon dioxide?

Some bioengineering is investigated in high carbon dioxide environments. Are there any microbes like bacteria or Archaea capable of living and multiplying in such environments?
-1
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1answer
74 views
+50

Hollow stalks in celery

When cutting a section of a celery plant stalk it appeared hollow inside, i.e. the cortex was hollow and encircled by the cambium, the vascular bundles, some cortex and the epidermis layer, thus the ...
5
votes
5answers
6k views

What is the evolutionary rationale for palm sweating?

Sweaty palms seems to be a reaction to stress, anxiety, etc. For our forest-inhabiting primate ancestors sweaty palms could cause unwanted side-effects such as slipping off tree branches under ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Does the 'President' have 2 Billion Leaves?

The world's second-largest known tree, the President, in Sequoia National Park is 3200 years old and is said to have 2 billion leaves (Source: https://youtu.be/vNCH6uhB_Bs?t=59). Is this correct? And ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Identifying this winged ant with big hind legs

I found this walking across my floor not too long ago. I am not sure if it is actually an ant, I just chose the best words I could find for the title. It has wings, but does not seem to ever fly. It ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Ion-gated ion channels

Today I've heard for the first time of calcium-gated ion channels but find it hard to get an idea how they work, where they are located, and which role they play. I assume calcium-gated ion channels ...
0
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0answers
18 views

Expected $\mu$ and $\sigma^2$ for a phenotypic trait, given heritability h and known parental phenotypic measures?

Say a measurable phenotypic trait has mean $\mu =0$, variance $\sigma^2 = 1$, and heritability $h$, meaning that h*100% of the variation in the population is caused by genetic variation and (1-h)*100% ...
-3
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0answers
39 views

Why are humans so different to apes?

If we think of all the things that make us uniquely human: hairless walk upright language use of tools and weapons sweating cooking meat war swimming dancing singing It's seems like any one of these ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Can wood frogs who have frozen and thawed remember their past lives?

Wood frogs (Rana sylvaticus) can survive being frozen for up to 7 months at temperatures as low as -16 °C. Their breathing stops, their heart stops and all signs of life disappear. (Source) I have ...
0
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4answers
115 views

Why doesn't evolution converge on perfection? [duplicate]

I got to know about an organism called "Tardigrade(water bear)" which is an extremely hardy organism and can survive in most conditions. My question is that if the aim of life in general is to ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Are hormones antigenic?

I have been asked whether hormones are antigenic. I would have to think that the answer is no because they are used as various drugs such as FSH in infertility treatments without the need of ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

What are these near microscopic white bugs from my comb?

I saw a whole bunch of white bugs crawling on my comb in the medicine cabinet, they didn't photograph well but I did manage to get a bunch of them in mineral oil and eventually take some micrographs. ...
-2
votes
0answers
27 views

What is the fastest digestion we've ever observed, among all organisms?

Here, I mean "digestion" as "the food goes from being outside the eater, to being part of the eater--- the food has been assimilated into being a part its body / cellular structure / &c." I don'...
0
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0answers
14 views

Why use log odds and not probability to construct substitution matrices?

I'm studying "Understanding Bioinformatics" by Marketa Zvelebil. I came to know that substitution matrices (PAM, BLOSUM etc) use log odds and my immediate thought was why not use probabilities. ...
0
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0answers
38 views
+100

Differences between neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

According to the Wikipedia article on neuromodulation a neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron or broken down into a ...
0
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0answers
18 views

Using Diffusion Constant to calculate time taken to travel

Is there a way to use D , the diffusion constant to estimate the time taken to travel across a cell. E.g one of 100 micro metres. Or by the very random nature of brownian motion is this impossible?
0
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1answer
30 views

What is the difference between Molecular and Cellular tolerance?

Although I've read that there are three types of tolerance, molecular cellular and behavioural, I cannot seem to find any mechanism of cellular other than desensitization of receptors. If someone can ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Is this aquatic plant duckweed or something else?

This plant has been growing in my pond for quite a time now. It multiplies in large numbers rapidly. Some told me it is duckweed or is it something else?
3
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1answer
74 views

The emergence of Phengaris butterflies from ant nests

The butterflies of the Phengaris genus (also known as Maculinea) are known to be brood parasitic. During the fourth instar, the caterpillars leave their food plant and mimic ant larvae, causing the ...
-1
votes
1answer
29 views

Could Physarum polycephalum consume regular toenail fungus?

I just watched this video on physarum polycephalum, aka the "blob" and noticed how it consumes white fungus. Could it do the same maybe with human toenail fungus?
0
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1answer
86 views

Is molecular oxygen (O₂) consumed in any process (in humans) other than acting as an electron acceptor for the ETC?

I know that molecular oxygen (O2) serves as the electron acceptor in Complex IV of the electron transport chain, which maintains the proton gradient that produces ATP for, as far as I know, every cell ...
5
votes
2answers
19k views

How do we sweat immediately after drinking water on a hot day?

On hot summer days, when I drink water to quench my thirst, my body immediately responds by sweating in 5 to 10 seconds or maybe less. How does our body detect the presence of water in the stomach so ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Is the biomass decreasing?

Is the overall biomass decreasing over time, and if yes, has that trend started within the last say $200$ years (about when industrialization started)?
13
votes
3answers
4k views

Why did the urinary bladder evolve?

Sure it's convenient to decide when to urinate but not essential for survival or reproduction, as I understand. But just convenience is not a drive for evolution. Does the bladder serve any essential ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How does wall pressure oppose osmotic pressure?

This question is based on the equation: Diffusion Pressure Deficit= Osmotic Pressure - Wall pressure I know that wall pressure is directed towards the protoplasm. I need to make sure if osmotic ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

In vivo, does it take energy to move double bonds from cis to trans in long chain unsaturated fatty acids

In vivo, I understood that because all polyunsaturated fatty acids bonds are -cis they are crowded, kinking the molecule, and because of that, the oxidative enzymes cannot initially access them. They ...
0
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1answer
26 views

What is the difference between differentiation and phenotype switching?

I am trying to model bone remodeling process and I wonder what is the difference between phenotype switching and differentiation. I am relatively inexperienced in biology. Please explain me with ...
0
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2answers
133 views

What type of bug/insect is this?

I found this bug on the bedsheet and can’t figure out what it is. Can anyone help?
9
votes
1answer
914 views

Squirrel nest construction

I've often wondered how squirrels -- specifically, eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) make their nests. Specifically, I've been curious about how they "weave" everything together to make ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Freezing my dry encapsulated probiotics

Will my dry probiotics in capsules die if I freeze them for a long period of time?, even over a year. I'm talking about the regular capsules of probiotics that are purchased in little bottles to take ...

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