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20 views

What is autophagy? [duplicate]

Recently Japanese scientist won Nobel Prize in Medicine for "Autophagy". Can someone explain what autophagy is? https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.livescience.com/amp/56349-japanese-scientist-wins-...
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16 views

Are human cells tetraploid during cell division?

If human cells are diploid, and DNA replicates before cell division, does it mean that our cells are tetrapolid for a short period of time (DNA replication - cell division). Photos of chromosomes are ...
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0answers
14 views

Which trait does the given Pedigree chart show?

I have a doubt in this pedigree chart , according to me it should be autosomal dominant. But the ans given is X linked recessive , in the case of X linked recessive one daughter should be carrier and ...
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0answers
26 views

Turning off the cerebral cortex

This is a bit of a short question. If we were to turn of the cerebral cortex, like zero activity for a little bit and then turn it back on to normal activity later, what would happen. Would the person ...
2
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1answer
57 views

Are any genes over a billion years old?

Are there any genes (for any organism) for which we can say with confidence that they are over a billion years old?
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1answer
44 views

Where does the number 67 in the nuclear protein/antigen Ki-67 come from? Why not 66 or 68?

I have read in in the original paper that in the year 1983 a research group in Kiel, Germany (that's where the Ki- in the name comes from) developed monoclonal mouse antibodies against Hodgkin ...
-1
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0answers
24 views

Can I take chitinase to get more nutrients from mushrooms?

I was looking at the nutrition of mushrooms. It turns out they're pretty low on nutrients, especially macronutrients, because they're mostly made of chitin. But if we can take lactase pills to help ...
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0answers
20 views

Is this a form of *LaetIporous sulfurous*? Tree is in north central Virginia

I found this while walking our dogs. Is this "chicken of the woods"?
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1answer
45 views

What is this hard shelled insect in my house?

I moved to a new city in west India last year and I've since, on several occasions, seen this insect on walls and it's usually climbing using its head. It has a greyish long shell and moves in a very ...
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0answers
11 views

Substrate concentration for chemostat using Monod equation

Could someone explain to how they manipulate this Monod-equation for a chemostat in steady state (above) to give a calculation for the substrate concentration (below) I don't see how they get the ...
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0answers
44 views

What would this artificial “super” mitochondrion hypothetically be able to do?

I was reading a science article and it mentioned in the future that scientist could engineer an artificial super mitochondrion. I know mitochondria generate energy and help with respiration and the ...
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4answers
118 views

Is there any organism that is born with all the nutrients and resources needed for their entire lifetime?

I understand that adult mayflies have no mouth, but they do take in oxygen through openings in their exoskeleton. Is there any organism that does not need to ingest any type of nutrition and does not ...
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0answers
14 views

PVP in buffer CTAB in DNA extraction

I wanna know if I can add pvp at the biginning of the buffer with the other solution or I have to used prior the extraction?
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0answers
21 views

Cleaning Masterclave

When i finish operation. My masterclave has smell, I think has media moulecular bind into the surface and microbial can live in. My labs don't have SOP to clean it. I promote use detergent but wonder ...
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0answers
4 views

Lecithin in Tryptone Azlectin Tween (TAT) media

When I made TAT in tank and separate in chamber, I found precipitation in some chamber, not at all. I asked my site manager and her tell me it's lecithin and normal. But, in my oppinion, I think ...
3
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1answer
79 views

what's the difference between traditional genetic engineering and and CRISPR?

While at school, I learnt about restriction enzymes and how you could insert foreign DNA into an organism. When I first heard about CRISPR I thought it was very similar except much more precise/...
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1answer
80 views

Is sexual desire stronger in men than women?

Usually in popular culture it's considered men sexual desire is stronger than women. This seems to be congruent with the availability of sexual related items for men and women, such as magazines, ...
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0answers
28 views

How would have RUBISCO evolved if photorespiration had occurred in early life?

It is said that when RUBISCO evolved, the atmosphere was high in carbon dioxide with very little oxygen. Because of this, photorespiration never occurred and there was no selection pressure against it....
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1answer
19 views

What are the coverings of femoral hernia?

It was my Viva question and I was really puzzled.I know what is femoral hernia and it route like the abdominal content moves down the femoral canal and further through the saphenous opening and all ...
-2
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0answers
17 views

Regarding scallop Theorem

The Scallop theorem states that to achieve propulsion at low Reynolds number in Newtonian fluids a swimmer must deform in a way that is not invariant under time-reversal ( from Wikipedia ) here I don'...
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0answers
46 views

Fluorescence assays to identify protein concentration without adding a large peptide sequence?

I'm trying to find a way of tagging a protein with something visually quantifiable to track protein concentration through potential purification steps and screen for the most efficient such steps. ...
-2
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0answers
17 views

How many layers of plants could a field support if we captured all the sunlight?

Consider a field of plants. The plants absorb some sunlight to grow. Putting another layer of plants on top of them would block out some of the light so there is obviously a limit to this without an ...
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0answers
21 views

Why is synthesis of tetanospasmin advantageous to C. tetani?

The tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin synthesised by some strains of C. tetani. It is the factor causing tetanus, but what is its role for the bacteria itself? I do not believe the main objective of C. ...
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0answers
38 views

How can molecular clocks be 'calibrated'?

I want to know, in general terms, how molecular clocks can be ‘calibrated', taking into account the possible approaches for estimating it over 10s or 1000s of years (or longer geological time periods)....
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0answers
21 views

How are onions planted? [migrated]

From what I've read there seem to be two ways to plant onions - either put part of an onion in the ground, or leave one in the ground for two years and then plant the seed from the resulting flower. ...
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1answer
34 views

Mechanism to limit the exponential growth of the number of ancestors that are n-generations away from an organism?

The context is organisms with sexual reproduction, with 2 parents per organism. Construct the family tree of one such organism, back into geologic time. Take a(n) as being the number of ancestors ...
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0answers
47 views

How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share?

How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share? There are articles online that indicate that humans share xxx% of DNA with Chimpanzees, bananas, and other assorted ...
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2answers
45 views

How far can a human see at night?

I am not talking about seeing in total darkness, which I understand is not possible. I am looking more about a question how far can a human see during starry night or with half moon/full moon. I tried ...
1
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1answer
86 views

Are all of my ancestors from 400 million years ago fish?

Say you have your family tree for the last 400 million years or so, back to the Devonian, the age of fishes. You take the set of ancestors that are about 400 million years old (which will be across ...
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0answers
12 views

What standard procedure taken to measure eye far point and near point?

I've read from various link that to measure power/dioptre of eye glasses lens, we need to put far point into equation for nearsightedness and near point for farsightedness. The problem is I cant ...
3
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1answer
62 views

Why do we need to amplify DNA sequences?

I am learning about biotechnology. I have no education in biology or chemistry and am simply interested in the subject of biotechnology. I am wondering why we need to have multiple copies of a piece ...
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0answers
45 views

Why is there no solid evidence (histological, fMRI) that the vestibular hair cells of the inner ear contribute to 53% of the respiratory drive?

There are these papers which strongly imply that the inner ear hair cells, and not the medulla, is primarily the driving factor in the CO2 drive reflex https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130842 ...
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16 views

same osmotic pressure of different solution

For example, There is a sugar solution with concentration $A_{1}$, how to determine the concentration of a NaCl solution which produce same osmotic pressure as the previous sugar solution toward ...
-2
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0answers
21 views

Genetic equilibrium in case of two phenotypes and three alleles with inbreeding and fitness taken in account

Suppose there is an organism with diploid genome. Gen $A$ is represented with three possible alleles $A_1$, $A_2$ and $A_3$. Dominance is complete and the dominance hierarchy of alleles is following: $...
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1answer
37 views

Nature versus nurture regarding aggression in specific dog breeds

A week ago I was bitten in my face by a dog that originally came from an asylum. That dog is half Rottweiler. Some people claim that the history of the dog is probably different from what the asylum ...
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1answer
66 views

Sleep deprivation relation to growth rate and mental health in adolescence

Do sleep deprivation and its timing affect growth rate and mental health in adolescents? If so how much sleep is enough for teenagers?
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0answers
15 views

Can damage from stress hormones/distress be reversed?

Emotional distress is said and scientifically even validated that it could contribute to earlier aging, even aside from chronological age. Stresses also can have millions of pathways in which they can ...
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1answer
31 views

Is every flower on a plant unique?

I've noticed on my dahlia plants that sometimes there's a flower which looks completely different then the rest . Either color or structural. I dig these bulbs up each fall and keep inside to replant....
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0answers
19 views

DNAse in bacterial transformation experiment

In recipient cells of a bacterial transformation experiment, what is the purpose of DNAse? Would we expect nothing on the plate and would this be considered a negative control?
-1
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1answer
35 views

Why males are more prone to cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks than females?

I often see more people of males undergoing treatment for heart disease. It is often said that female reproductive hormone (oestrogen) has some cardio-protective action by preventing constriction of ...
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0answers
18 views

Assessing in soil biodiversity of arid area of US

I am considering assessing the microbial biodiversity (using metagenomics) in the soil of an arid area of Utah (Hanksville) that has dinosaur and other fossil remains. 1) Could it be argued that ...
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0answers
14 views

Can a person be infected with Polio even after vaccination in childhood?

We know that a person develops antibodies by active immunisation after the administration of vaccines (either in dead form / live attenuated form). Is there any chance of developing the same disease ...
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0answers
23 views

What is a partial regulator?

Source: MY textbook-NCERT 12th Biology-Ch: Organisms and Population (Pg 7 of pdf/Pg 223 of the book) Is this graph for Partial regulators correct? Isn't it that animals tend to be regulators first ...
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0answers
19 views

Biodiversity research that requires supplemental oxygen/life support

I am curious to obtain a list of example scenarios where biodiversity work (including microbial biodiversity) must be done in settings in which scientists need supplemental oxygen and/or life-support ...
3
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4answers
96 views

Why does protein folding not depend on the order in which it is synthesized?

I read an article recently, written by researcher from Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, which stated that: Similarly, success in de novo protein design bears on the question I ...
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1answer
27 views

How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer?

How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer? I know that a mutation in DNA can cause the triplet code on the mRNA to change so different amini acids are made and a different order means a ...
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1answer
36 views

What happens if an enzyme stops working in the body?

For example, if the enzymes in the digestive system stop working will the digestion still occur as enzymes are only catalysts for the reactions. Thank You
-2
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1answer
33 views

Could the octopus be evidence of the evolutionary inevitability of intelligence?

There is a claim that because the octopus is so different from other life forms on Earth and is so intelligent (supposedly appearing relatively rapidly) that it must have an alien origin. While the ...
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0answers
21 views

Why do plants do Photosynthesis and then Aerobic Respiration? [duplicate]

Plants do Photosynthesis in order to convert sunlight energy into chemical energy. They first store energy in ATP + NADPH and then use those two compounds in order to create Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ...
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0answers
7 views

What determines the influx of calcium ions in the voltage-gated ion channels?

Calcium channels play a crucial role in neuronal signaling by helping the synaptic vesicles to fuse through the synaptic active zone and release their neurotransmitters. My question is, at a given ...

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