All Questions

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Function of amatoxins

There are a couple of papers and "lots" of anectodal evidence which imply that mushroom hunting does not have any adverse effects on the fungi, neither short nor long term. One of the ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Does bone resorption cause alkalosis?

The phosphate in hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH) is a strong base, PO4^3-, and the hydroxide is also a base, OH-. I was talking with a biologist the other day about if bone resorption (at a level that ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Why are Chromosome Territories important?

Chromosomes occupy discrete regions of the nucleus, referred to as 'Chromosome Territories'. This spatial organization is emerging as a crucial aspect of gene regulation and genome stability in health ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Arthropod identification request [duplicate]

I'm in Southern Germany and just captured this animal crawling along my wall at considerable speed, apparently hiding from the light. It looks like a entipede from afar (about two dozen legs), and ...
-2
votes
0answers
18 views

Do Zebras pick on other innocent Zebras like Homo Sapiens in a wide spread manner?

Homo sapiens can be really mean spirited and utmost cruel. Are less intelligent Zebras similar to humans too? I mean do they pick on other innocent Zebras and abuse them in all possible ways like ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

In primates, how are mitochondria passed to offspring?

In Humans, the mitochondria are passed, mainly, by the mother to the children. Is this the same for other primates? Does this also appear to other animals?
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Is there a metric for “evolutionary agility”?

By "evolutionary agility" I mean how fast an organism can adapt to changes in the environment. I’d imagine that a population with more offspring and a shorter time between generations would ...
-3
votes
0answers
22 views

Insulin in type 1 diabetes [closed]

I cannot seem to find an explanation for the following scenario. If your body cells require no glucose then what does injected insulin do, why would a type 1 diabetic have low blood sugar if the ...
-2
votes
0answers
13 views

What was the condition that made it so damaging when one student threw a dodgeball at another student? [closed]

According to https://globalnews.ca/news/5707201/boy-10-charged-assault-dodgeball/#:~:text=A%20state%20prosecutor%20in%20Michigan,to%20come%20to%20his%20defence.&text=The%20ball%20allegedly%20hit%...
0
votes
1answer
336 views

Can a second mass extinction by microbes happen?

Science Daily reports that the mass extinction at the end of Permian period happened by the Methanosarcina archaea wiping out 90% of species: Methane-producing microbes may be responsible for the ...
-3
votes
0answers
28 views

Did death evolve to prevent inbreeding [duplicate]

I want to know if death evolved to prevent inbreeding. Ie, if it prevents parents from mating with later offspring. That would explain a lot.
-1
votes
1answer
48 views

Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Which amino acids can be phosphorylated?

Definitely serine, tyrosine, and threonine. What about aspartate and glutamate? I thought the O- on the carboxylic acid side group could be phosphorylated but am getting mixed responses to this. Any ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Expressing bacteriophage in mammalian cells

Is it possible to express bacteriophage in mammalian cells by codon optimization? Any relevant literature? thanks in advance.
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Why do we have both on and off bipolar cells?

I have a question regarding the reason behind the 2 bipolar cells. So, from my understanding we have both on and off bipolar cells and from the numerous diagrams I have seen, I find that most show a ...
-2
votes
0answers
27 views

is it possible to create an mini earth [closed]

so i was thinking about this for a while now but i need a professional Biologist with this one, is it possible to create a mini earth about an half meter world containing all the resources that could ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Why does Cyan appear bluish rather than greenish, when the phototopic eye sensitivity is highest in green (and Cyan contains blue and green equally)?

Cyan contains blue and green equally. Phototopic eye sensitivity is highest in green. Why, then, does Cyan appear bluish to most of us, rather than greenish?
3
votes
1answer
35 views

Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
0
votes
2answers
74 views

Do identical twins have the same metabolism rate at birth?

Will monozygotic twins defecate at the same time if fed at the same time during the first weeks of life? They should have the same genetics (and epigenetics) since they are monozygotic and the same ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Has a beating cardiomyocyte organoid with 'chamber/s' been generated? if not, why?

Commonly artificial organs are generated though stem cell technology. E.g. IPSC-technology. Cardiomyocytes (Heart cells) spontaneously beat and have been used to create organoids. To further define ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

high sugar levels and infection [closed]

My cat was recently diagnosed as diabetic. She does have high sugar levels, but has been treated for infections since I rescued her 3 months ago. Could the high levels be the result of the infection ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Staphylococcus (antibacterial soaps and Traditional Lathering soaps)

I have been working on a biology research assignment regarding the claim: Antibacterial soaps are superior to traditional lathering soaps in minimizing the transmission of disease I have made a ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Repartition of tendon sheaths in humans

As a medical student I have been taught that tendon sheaths are found predominantly in the wrists, hands and ankles. However, I learned recently that tenosynovitis often affect the biceps brachii. It ...
1
vote
2answers
23 views

Action potential attenuation in unmyelinated axons vs demyelinated axons

I learnt that action potentials travel much faster along myelinated axons, and when these axons are demyelinated the action potentials travel much slower and sometimes die out. Why do action ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

How to construct a sgRNA library with multiple samples?

I was wondering if anyone has already experience with constructing sgRNA libraries. We are interested in doing a knock-out experiment (loss-of-function) with 5 different conditions. I have found this ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

When assessing a threat, does the amygdala compare the stimulus to memories of the amygdala or the hippocampus?

Two excerpts from the one article. My understanding of this excerpt is that the amygdala is using its own memories: The amygdala learns how to respond to various stimuli based on it’s reference to ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Can the eye determine which type of defocus is presented to it?

I have a question regarding myopic and hyperopic defocus. My question is, is the eye able to determine which type of defocus is presented to it and if so what mechanisms allow it to distinguish ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Why don't moles repair their DNA?

Cells have mechanism to repair damaged DNA. So why don't the cells in moles (the spots), repair themselves and the moles dissappear?
0
votes
0answers
21 views

which of the two is the best method for presenting specimens in museum style?

A while back I had to preserve pieces of shrubs and trees then present them in a museum-style, for a course module at university. A friend of mine opted in sticking them to a white A3 page with PVA ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Functions of the layers that make up Bruch's Membrane

I have a question regarding Bruch's Membrane. Within Bruch's Membrane there are the following layers: Outer Basal Lamina Outer Collagenous Zone Elastic Zone Inner Collagenous Zone Inner Basal Lamina ...
1
vote
2answers
37 views

What are all the possible developmental stages an insect can be in?

I'm making an app which allows the user to report insect observations. Many bugs may exist in different forms throughout their life time. For example, a butterfly will exist as an egg, a catterpillar, ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Does the coast of California support a larger population of marine mammals than Maine?

Visiting the Maine and California coasts, I've noticed that it is much more common to see marine mammals from the coast in California, including seals, dolphins, and whales. I've been hypothesizing ...
-2
votes
0answers
25 views

how do you argue the creation of bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome [closed]

I want answer related to synthetic biology and how it relates to genetic engineering
4
votes
0answers
38 views

Identification of a red arachnida (?) (picture and video)

I found this in a greenhouse in Norway. It is a few millimeters in size, I could fit 5-6 of them on my thumbnail. It looks a lot like this one from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Do we know what the earliest stages of integument like fur or feathers looked like?

From either fossil evidence or from developmental evidence, are there any models for what the earliest stages of the evolution of fur, feathers or similar structures like pycnofibres would have looked ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Why severely increased Ligand (eg Hormones) concentration downregulates the Receptor?

As an example continuous high blood level of GnRH in humans causes a suppression of LH and FSH. This is due to the fact that increased GnRH downregulates GnRH-Receptors . My question is how this is ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

What is the very hard sphere inside the eye of many common fish made of and how is it called?

Inside the eye of many common fish, like tuna, scad, snapper, actually probably all fish I have eaten, is a small sphere made of some very tough substance. This sphere is even hard to crush with teeth,...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Can severe vasoconstriction increase systolic blood pressure?

I know that, vasoconstriction results in increased total peripheral resistance which is responsible for the rise in diastolic blood pressure. Also, cardiac output is responsible for the systolic blood ...
17
votes
1answer
3k views

Why are the pulmonary vein and artery not like the rest of circulatory system?

I'm learning anatomy. What I learnt is that we have arteries that have oxygenated blood which appears red in color, and branch blood to arterioles to deliver blood to cells via capillaries from where ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Bed bug or booklouse?

I found this creature climbing on the lower part of a wall inside apartment. Can you distinguish if it's a bed bug nymph or a booklouse? Sorry the photo quality isn't great, because it's so small (2 ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Can elephants drink water by directly sucking it up from its nose?

For animals and humans, our noses are connected to the esophagus. When us humans go to the pool and do flips in the water, we often get water stuck in our noses, and drips into our esophaguses. What I ...
-2
votes
1answer
42 views

Can birds pass diseases to humans through contact surfaces?

My friend asked me the following question. She has a pigeon nesting on her window and the pigeon often touches the window, and my friend also sometimes touches the window (e.g. open and close it). The ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Topography of motor deficit and spasticity in UMNS

As a medical student, I have been told that upper motor neurone syndrome is a cause of motor deficit and spasticity. The motor deficit is said to be affecting predominantly the extensor apparatus at ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Structure of neurons well known?

I'm a newbie regarding biology, since I am studying math, but recently also interested in the brain and its structure. So I read things about neurons and their structure. I have a lot of questions ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Rigorous definition of the kinship coefficient and proof of a recursion thereof

I am reading Section 5.2, Kinship and Inbreeding Coefficients, of Kenneth Lange, Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Genetic Analysis. There the kinship coefficient $\Phi_{i,j}$ is defined for ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Myelinated vs Un-myelinated

If an axon is completely myelinated (doesn't even have Nodes of Ranvier), is it faster than an un-myelinated axon when conducting action potentials?
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Why is the Hill muscle model only applicable to isometric contractions?

From what I've read, Hill's muscle model provides a reasonable model of isometric contraction. However, there are other forms of contraction, such as concentric, eccentric, or isotonic contractions. ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Any kind of online “molecular modeling playground”?

I'm wondering if anyone has ever made a tool to try out new molecular modeling/simulation algorithms, where the tool itself handles the "boring" tasks of loading PDB files, building chains ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Strange planaria/leech like creatures found with California Blackworms

I've been trying to ID these things myself but to no avail. They came with a shipment of California Blackworms from Florida. I've heard so many ID's and apparently it's not uncommon to get these ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Transformation of coordinates found in PDB

According to the PDB guide there are some coordinate translation matrices found in PDB file: ...

15 30 50 per page