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1answer
33 views

Is glutamate always involved in the deamination and amination of the other amino acids?

For example, are there pathways for the deamination of phenylalanine that simply produce ammonia or pathways for it to be synthesized from phenylpyruvate with ammonia being utilized to form the amine ...
-3
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1answer
49 views

Why have we evolved to snore yet find snoring so annoying?

Human's snore. I doubt this is a new occurence over the last millenia. I find it hard to believe that for the past million years, no human ancestor has been a snorrer. And yet, the sound of snoring ...
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0answers
28 views

Identify a white mold growing on a class project

I'm a high school senior working on a project for AP Environmental Science. This particular project(an "ecocolumn") involves growing plants(radishes to be specific) in a sealed plastic container, ...
1
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0answers
35 views

Do pale skinned people show other low light adaptations?

So, pale skin is, fundamentally, an adaptation to living in low light conditions. Pros: reduce energy spent on producing melanin, increase vitamin D production. Cons: more vulnerable to sunburns and ...
1
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0answers
12 views

Characteristics of a giant squid’s skin

Is the skin of a giant squid/colossal squid similar to the common squid? Does it possess chromatophores to change color? Or did it lose that ability because of the depth at which it resides or due to ...
1
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1answer
76 views

Why spin live fruit flies in centrifuge?

I was reading this article about the evolution of monarch butterflies’ resistance to cardiac glycosides: These Butterflies Evolved to Eat Poison. How Could That Have Happened? And this passage made ...
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0answers
10 views

What surface or sinus in the human body are not covered by epithelium [duplicate]

Ive heard that most surfaces of the human body are covered by epithelium but not all. I would like to know which surface is not covered by epithelium
1
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1answer
49 views

What is the evolutionary advantage of the Mane?

Horses, Donkeys, Antilopes and Bovines seem to have an evolutionary advantage in growing masses of hair on top (and sometimes below) the neck. Is that to hinder predators biting?
0
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0answers
16 views

Do cells of the same type fuse together with suturing?

I am reading this site: http://sciencenetlinks.com/student-teacher-sheets/cells-your-body/ "Cells that do the same job combine together to form body tissue, such as muscle, skin, or bone tissue." ...
1
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1answer
79 views

What is the genetic reason that this flower has petals of two different colors?

I have two different varieties of the flower, portulaca: one is bright pink, the other is pure white with pink specks at the centre. Recently a flower bloomed which had 50% of the former and 50% of ...
-1
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1answer
40 views

How do different genes on human genome express themselves?

It is said that human genomes contain somewhere between thirty to thirty-three thousand genomes, How many of these express themselves as an external or internal trait in human beings(for e.g. like eye-...
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0answers
10 views

When do the chordae tendenae stop developing?

I am guessing they stop during either fetal or adolescent development. Then gradually break down and age. No growth after adolescence.
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0answers
47 views

Why are women more tolerant to heat and cold than men? [on hold]

How did natural selection determine this? What's the evolutionary advantage?
2
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1answer
39 views

Insect Egg Case, and if so, What Insect?

Observed this object today (early October) in Sabino Canyon, on the north side of Tucson AZ, in a riparian area. It's attached to a mesquite tree (Prosopis spp). It's attached to one side of the ...
2
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2answers
43 views

Which proteins are most sensitive to electric fields?

Many Proteins have ionic charges that can attract each other (e.g. Formation of salt bridges) or repel each other. On the other Hand, Proteins are mostly immersed in water that screens most of the ...
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0answers
8 views

How much does Scolopendra gigantea weigh?

For somewhat understandable reasons, most references I've found related to "size" of Scolopendra gigantea, and centipedes in general, seem to focus on length. There are numerous sites, blogs, etc., ...
1
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2answers
105 views

Why do women process oxygen faster than men?

https://www.newsweek.com/women-are-better-athletes-men-study-about-gender-fitness-says-736047 is the source that I use. Is it reliable? What's the evolutionary advantage to women being naturally more ...
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0answers
16 views

Marigold Colors

Is it really true that Marigolds have three colors (Blue, Purple, and Rea) and that they are controlled by two genes? I saw this claim in one of my classes.
-1
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0answers
19 views

How do I know by looking at the cross-section of a petiole that it is a photosynthetic organ?

Chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis, right? Would I be looking for chloroplasts in the leaf section? But I'm looking at this cross-section here: http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-anatomy/petioles/...
1
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0answers
14 views

How does the descending branch of the loop of Henle equilibrate concentration?

I'm learning physiology and I have a hard time figuring out how the cortico-papillary gradient is created. Most explanations go as follow: 1) Sodium is pumped out the ascending branch into the ...
0
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1answer
24 views

What are “feeder cells”?

What exactly are "feeder cells"? A paper I'm reading says they harvested the cells and then plated them onto feeder cells. What is the purpose? Is in order to promote growth?
3
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2answers
60 views

Can undigested food proteins enter the bloodstream?

I know that food proteins in our digestive system are denaturated and broken down into amino acids or very small peptides that are then absorbed in the small intestine. If some proteins stay ...
0
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0answers
9 views

How I design gRNA for CRISPR cas3?

I am working on CRISPR cas3 project to knockout virulent genes for that I have to design guide RNA but there is no software available for cas3. how can I design guide RNA?
-1
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2answers
48 views

Why do our eyes not have interference from other sources of light?

When one looks forward at a glass of wine, one is seeing it via the reflection of light off of the glass. But if you have a person to your right, looking to the left side of you (still in front of ...
1
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1answer
54 views

Why do we define anaerobic respiration as not requiring oxygen, while utilization of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain both require oxygen?

We have an electron transport chain with the final e- acceptor as SO4 2-. We say this is an anaerobic process, or specifically a case of anaerobic respiration. Elsewhere, as with fermentation and ...
0
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1answer
43 views

How big can a colony/society get?

I hope this is the appropiate place for this question, asked from a math/physics perspective with little to no training in biology. Bacteria are very small and live in huge colonies, ants are bigger (...
1
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0answers
18 views

Can Chilopoda “vocalize” or produce sound for the express purpose of communication, as opposed to sound as a byproduct of other movements?

Is there any species of Chilopoda that can "vocalize" or or otherwise produce sound for the express purpose of communication, as opposed to sounds it might create as a byproduct of other movements ...
-1
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1answer
34 views

What is the name of this plant with a compound leaf of 8 leaflets?

this plant is present in my lawn and I don't know it's name. It is actually diseased and I'm trying to figure out what it is.
3
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1answer
54 views

Why are protein-coding regions rich in GC?

I have been searching for an answer for this question and have some possible solutions, but I am not sure. GC regions are more stable as there are 3 hydrogen bonds instead of 2 with AT, however I am ...
1
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1answer
25 views

What is the difference between sieve cells and sieve-tube elements?

I looked it up and I'm still confused. Apparently, sieve cells lack sieve plates? What does that really mean? It's difficult to find a good picture of either.
1
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0answers
19 views

Why the Cell differs the structure? [duplicate]

I learned that almost every cell in an organism has the same set of DNA which is the instruction set of making protein. The protein does some function in the cell. The question is why the cells, for ...
2
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1answer
46 views

The genetic code and the effect of point mutations on proteins

I was asked a question, "Considering degenerate and non ambiguous nature of genetic code, Why is that certain mutations don't disturb the protein synthesis leading to synthesis of functional proteins ...
0
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0answers
8 views

Can someone please recommend me a source where I can find reliable markers of gamma delta T cells?

can someone please recommend me a source where I can find markers for gamma delta T cells?
3
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1answer
54 views

The shape of mRNA

I was wondering about the shapes assumed by mRNA. I have read some sources quoting that it is linear (quora, so not very reliable) and also a source that says a hairpin shape is common (nature, so I ...
0
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1answer
36 views

What are the appendeges behind a crane fly's wings?

I noticed that crane flies have strange appendages behind their wings. The appendages look like a pair of antenna or a pair of vestigial wings. In the following picture I marked these appendages with ...
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0answers
12 views

Why aren't diatoms' shells used as a temperature proxy, but foraminifera shells are?

Changes in oceanic oxygen isotope ratios (O-18 to O-16) are reflected in the shells of ancient foraminifera. But I never hear of diatom shells being used, even though they were/are at least as ...
3
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0answers
30 views

Can someone identify the species of this frog/ toad?

Location: Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India I found it at night time near a lake It was quite small in size ( 5-6 cm Approx.) having dark brown spots all over its body and three prominent green ...
0
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2answers
100 views

Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young?

As I understand, when I am getting older DNA becomes more and more damaged in my body. Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young (38 years old or for my kids) in ...
1
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1answer
22 views

Can monoclonal antibodies be used to transport insulin

Quick question Monoclonal treatments in cancer require the drug attached to the antibody which then attaches itself to the neoantigen on a cancerous cell, would it be possible to transport insulin in ...
-1
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0answers
20 views

which cavity of body does not have epithelium? [duplicate]

which cavity of body does not have epithelium? I know that there are some cavities without epithelium but I don't know which cavities are like this
5
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1answer
97 views

A biological system to measure time

First of all I am a physicist, so I apologise for my non-existent understanding of basic biology. However, I have what I think is an interesting question and this seems like a good place to ask it... ...
0
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0answers
23 views

Why does brain invert the image formed on retina? [duplicate]

I have been studying about the human eye and it's working in school for some time. I came across something. I have been taught that the image formed on the retina of the eye by the lens is inverted ...
3
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1answer
147 views

Can primers for PCR be duplicated?

Complete beginner question here, don't laugh: If I have some primers that have been synthesized, and I am close to running out of them, is there any way to duplicate them / amplify them / synthesize ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Is it possible to grow a part of a plant independent of the rest?

Is it possible, using modern knowledge of biochemistry and synthetic biology, to grow a tomato without growing the rest of the tomato plant? As an academic exercise, with full knowledge of the fact ...
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0answers
32 views

Biochemistry, Biology Thought Questions

Many proteins that regulate cell growth can be turned on and off. Frequently these proteins will be active when a particular serine residue has a phosphate group attached to its hydroxyl group and in ...
-1
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0answers
11 views

What is dry matter disappearance? [closed]

I'm doing a lab and we did the in-sacco technique. we put straw in and 2nd cut hay. hay had the higher dry matter dis. but I dont know what it means to discuss it.
0
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0answers
14 views

What happens when the conductance of a sodium channel increases?

My intuition is that, since the concentration of sodium within a cell is higher than the extracellular concentration, when conductance increases, this corresponds to the channel being open and means ...
0
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0answers
17 views

How much DNA can differ among different humans today?

According to this article, Australian aborigines carry unknown DNA Australian Aboriginal people carry the DNA of an unknown human relative. This made me wonder, is it known how much DNA can differ ...
0
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0answers
7 views

Methods: Homologous recombination and retroviral infection

I'm looking for a textbook that explains these methodologies: Use of homologous recombination to insert a gen-cassette into another organism's gen. Use of retroviral transduction to deliver genes ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Coagulation of protiens of different products

Protein of egg coagulates on 60 degree but proteins of milk do not coagulate at high temperatures..why? What is the main reason behind all this?

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